WHAT IS HISTORY

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GUIDE TO SUCCESS IN THE HISTORY EXTENSION COURSE

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FOCII These are key themes that will be focused on in your source! WHAT ARE THE PURPOSES OF HISTORY HOW HAS HISTORY BEEN RECORDED AND CONSTRUCTED OVER TIME WHO ARE THE HISTORIANS WHY HAVE APPROACHES TO HISTORY CHANGED OVER TIME WHAT ARE THE HISTORICAL DEBATES IN THE CASE STUDY

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HISTORIAN KNOWLEDGE MUST BE AT YOUR FINGERTIPS! FURTHER PAGES WILL PROVIDE INSIGHT INTO: Herodotus THUCYDIDES CHRISTOPHER HILL LEOPOLD VON RANKE GEOFFREY ELTON

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HERODOTUS 5TH Century Historian: Thus was influenced by 5th century society He wrote about the Persian Wars- WHY? a ‘victory’ for the Greeks- exalted patriotism- highlights CONTEXT! He claims his purpose was to preserve the memory of the past- the 192 who died at the Battle of Marathon and buried on Mount Soros His ‘Romantic’ style – elaborated style of writing was based on accounts of Homer His prime evidence was from oral accounts- perhaps a problem in reliability? Shows his methodology It has been criticised that he invented some information to fill in the gaps in his account One could call him... ATHENOCENTRIC... Adds a partial perspective to his work as a result

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Wealthy Aristocratic Class- would this have influenced his style of writing and content? He wrote 8 books and he aimed for objectivity – did he achieve this objectivity? His writing was meant to be spoken – entertainment purposes DIDACTIC PURPOSE? WAS HE WARNING US? His methodology consisted of rigorous checking of sources in order to avoid a partial perspectives... Would this be possible even through such methods? Great use of speeches – example: Pericles funeral oration He had a diagnostic view of history – “Learning from the past” THUCYDIDES

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CHRISTOPHER HILL He wrote in the 17th century- was a left wing historian He wrote about the English Revolution in the 1640’s AIMED TO PRESENT THE PAST FROM A MARXIST PERSPECTIVE He went to Oxford – would this have influenced his ‘professionalism?’ POSSIBLE CONTEXTUAL AND BACKGROUND INFLUENCES Wall St Crash of 1929 – economic depression Weimar Republic – teetering on brink - HITLER Rejects Methodist family background Hopes for prolonged peace threatened – Japan ignored League of Nations- INVADED MANCHURIA METHODS Annalist style- more about referencing events- rather than offering opinion He revises his views His views change as a result of context seen in the longevity of his writing At the beginning of his work he apologises for his bitter opening – bitter about rise of fascism

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LEOPOLD VON RANKE “not rankine enough” Evans Rankine = absolute He was a German Historian : known as the “father of modern objective history” in the 19th century Wrote about popes, reformations, history of England His history was constructed from archives in VIENNA, FLORENCE AND ROME DOCUMENTED BY THE UPPER CLASS – FOR UPPER CLASS Apparently turned writing of history into ‘professional occupation” Terms to use to perhaps describe: Nationalistic, Conservative? Revulsion for French Revolution- he fed the rejection of enlightenment thinking

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Methods or Contradictions

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Elton wrote in a period distinguished by “a return to the domestic ideology” where “women returned to their true roles as wives and mothers” These values were common in the 1950’s CONSERVATISM ERA- therefore influenced his writing A BIT ON ELTON?

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Addressing the Focii WHO ARE THE HISTORIANS? WE ARE THE HISTORIANS: CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY Memory- all of us have the capacity to express it Museums- we preserve our past in museums TRADITIONAL PROFESSIONAL HISTORIANS Record achievements of people and states invariably Wig view- a focus on the best moments INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH Science DNA Testing Amos Nur and Reid Bryson : used scientific methodologies to determine the reasons behind MYCENAE’S COLLAPSE FILMMAKERS AND ARTISTS They provide different interpretations- they distort, evaluate etc

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Addressing the Focii WHAT ARE THE PURPOSES OF HISTORY? ENCULTURATION = Learning the requirements of one’s culture

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Addressing the Focii HOW HAS HISTORY BEEN CONSTRUCTED AND RECORDED OVER TIME? WRITTEN VISUAL REPRESENTATIONS ORAL Professional historians – Look at Herodotus, Thucydides, Rankean approach and link to their purpose * Ancient Times [commemorative memorials, wall paintings such as those from valley of kings, cave drawings, dreamtime stories] *Art-religion [representations of Christ 76 different gospels of crucification] * Movies- historical documentaries *Homeric stories *Dreamtime *History has always begun orally

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WHY HAVE THE APPROACHES TO HISTORY CHANGED OVER TIME IMPACT OF EDUCATION – WESTERN SOCIETY CHALLENGING OF THE STATUS QUO EMERGED WITH NATIONAL HISTORIES METHODS OF HISTORIANS CONTEXT INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES SHIFT OF POWER STRUCTURED WITHIN SOCIETY CODIFICATION CREATES DEGREE OF TRUTH AND CERTAINTY

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WRITING YOUR RESPONSE!!!!!!!

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BEFORE YOU EVEN LOOK AT THE SOURCE KNOW THAT YOUR GOING TO MAKE YOUR RESPONSE DIFFERENT AND MAKE IT COUNT!!!

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STEP 1 LOOK FOR KEY ISSUES start off by referring to the source

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STEP 2 PUT IN YOUR OWN VIEW OR WHAT IT MEANS TO YOU BEFORE ANYTHING

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STEP 3 Support your own argument with historians or examples: strengths and limitations

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STEP 4 EVALUATE YOUR OWN PERSPECTIVE AGAIN AND COMPARE THIS TO THE SOURCE

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P X A M E L E S AND Q U O T E S

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“Experimental History Won’t change The battle of the Hastings” STEPHEN MUECKE

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CATHERINE HEENAN “Ask a divorced couple To describe their marriage And each one will Paint a radically different Picture”

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EVANS “How can they say there is No such thing as the objective Truth – doesn’t that Statement itself purport To be an objective truth”

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“Before you study the History, study the Historian, before You study the historian Study his social environment” E.H CARR

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INGA CLENDINNAN “History in the grand Narrative sense will always Belong to the victors. They Will control the historical Record and their point of view Will be embedded in Nationalist stories”

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INGA CLENDINNAN We are deduced into thinking We are looking at the other When all we are doing is Holding up a flattering Mirror to ourselves

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KEVIN RUDD’S APOLOGY His apology to the stolen generation “Parliament has come together to right a great wrong” “Reconciliation is an expression of a core value of our nation” Perhaps this was determined by context – Society’s push to acknowledge – would this have occurred has society not changed its views?

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Preserving memory- Herodotus preserved the 192 who died at marathon

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PLINY THE YOUNGER - Issue of accuracy or influence Of context? HE WROTE 25 YEARS AFTER THE EVENT

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PRESERVING MEMORY Alcove at the Jewish Memorial in Sydney DRAMATIC AND POWERFUL MEMORIAL TO THOSE WHO PERISHED IN GAS CHAMBERS “LOVING TRIBUTE TO THOSE WHO PERISHED AND LEFT NO TRACE”

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LENI RIEFENSTAHL WHEN HISTORY DOES NOT UPHOLD OUR CONVICTIONS ABOUT THE PAST WE MAKE UP A DIFFERENT VIEW OF THE HISTORY THAT CONFORMS TO OUR VIEW

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PRESERVING MEMORY THE VOLUNTEERS IN THE JEWISH MUSEUM ARE HOLOCAUST SURVIVORS

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INFLUENCE OF CONTEXT Museological institutions Such as the museum in Naples – The house of Faun- Alexander mosaic displayed On wall rather than floor Demonstrating our inability To view the past divorced From our present context

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DISTORTIONS IN FILMS The movie “Hero of Dardanelles” Which was supposed to highlight the Gallipoli campaign- was a scratchy film, Turkish guns, deadly rain HOWEVER It was in fact filmed in TAMARAMA BAY IN 1915 – RECREATION OF THE SCENARIO – YET LEADS US TO BELIEVE ITS ACCURATE

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