Media Theories and Application lessson 1-5 2

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Slide 1

Media theories LO: To apply theories on the representations of youth, cultural identities and society to Harry Brown

Slide 2

Gramsci (1971) Cultural Hegemony: This is the idea that one social class (usually the middle class) is able to dominate a society by making their way of life and values appear normal, natural, and common sense. As a result other social classes accept these values as the normal way of life.

Slide 3

Cultural Hegemony The media uses cultural hegemony to fix the social classes. What is a social class? What social classes do we have in Britain? The working classes are somewhat trapped in an illusion that they will benefit from society staying the same. Media aim to distract individuals and promote the ideals of the ruling class.

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Cultural Hegemony in Society How are the working class normally depicted in the mainstream media? Can you think of any programs or news articles you may have seen recently that show a particular view of the working class? How do the representations shown in these programs/articles shape societies view? How do these views shape the values we have as a society?

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Cultural Hegemony cont… Gramsci sees hegemony as a site of constant struggle as societies are constantly debating what is and isn’t acceptable. You can relate this to this to more positive representations of working class youth which challenge the perception of working class as thugs. What positive representations of youth did you find in your research? How might these shape societies views and values?

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Cultural Hegemony (Gramsci 1971) and Harry Brown Cultural Hegemony: one social class dominate a society by making their values appear normal Other social classes accept these values as the normal Media to promote the ideas of the ruling class. How can we apply this theory to Harry Brown? Think about: Todorov’s theory of equilibrium, disequilibrium and equilibrium. What else can we call equilibrium? What/who threatens this equilibrium? How does this fix social class outside of the film?

Slide 7

Cohen (1972) Societies appear to be subject, every now and then, to periods of moral panic A condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests Its nature is presented in a stylized and stereotypical fashion by the mass media The effect of a moral panic is to reassert hegemony by allowing a society to make clear what values it does not accept.

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Moral Panics (Cohen 1972) Cohen first discussed this with regards to mods and rockers Who are Mods and Rockers? Why did they cause a Moral Panic?

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Moral Panics Today These days there are still moral panics with regards to youth. For example the idea of “chavs” and “hoodies” may be considered a moral panic. How would this theory explain this?

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Moral Panics (Cohen 1972) and Harry Brown Moral Panic: A person or group of persons become defined as a threat to societal values Presented in a stylized and stereotypical fashion Reasserts hegemony by allowing society to define what values it does not accept. How can we apply this to Harry Brown? Think about: Who is creating the ‘Moral Panic’? Is the panic justified? Is the panic resolved? How? Which specific scene could you use to illustrate ‘Moral Panic’ in Harry Brown?

Slide 11

Write up! Write up 2 paragraphs applying these 2 theories to Harry Brown. Use specific examples from the film to make your points. Moral Panic: A person or group of persons become defined as a threat to societal values Presented in a stylized and stereotypical fashion Reasserts hegemony by allowing society to define what values it does not accept. Cultural Hegemony: One social class dominate a society by making their values appear normal Other social classes accept these values as the normal Media to promote the ideas of the ruling class.

Slide 12

Media theories Part 2 LO: To apply theories on the representations of youth, cultural identities and society to Harry Brown

Slide 13

RECAP Explain the idea of a Cultural Hegemony. Whose theory is this? Whose theory is “Moral Panics”? What does this theory state?

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Giroux (1997) Giroux argues that in media representations youth becomes an ‘empty category’ Media representations of young people are constructed by adults. Because of this they reflect adults concerns, anxieties, and needs.

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Empty Category Imagine this figure is a British Youth A stereotypical image is created of this youth by the mainstream media (Adults) The ‘empty’ figure becomes filled with this representation. This is what society sees rather than the reality

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Empty Category As a result of this media representations of young people do not necessarily reflect the reality of youth identity. Can you think of any examples of this?

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Empty Category (Giroux 1997) and Harry Brown Youth becomes an ‘empty category’ Representations constructed by adults. Reflect adults concerns, anxieties, and needs. Representations do not necessarily reflect the reality of youth identity. How can we apply this theory to Harry Brown? Think about: Who constructed the text? Who it is aimed at? Does the text reflect adult anxieties or serve the purposes of adult society? (reinforcing hegemonic values).

Slide 18

Acland (1995) Media representations of delinquent youths actually reinforce hegemony. They do this by constructing an idea of ‘normal’ adult and youth behaviour, and contrasting it with deviant youth behaviour which is shown to be unacceptable. What examples of this can you think of?   VS

Slide 19

Deviant Youth Media representations of young people out of control allows the state to have more control of them (e.g. media reports about delinquent youths led to ASBOs). ‘Ideology of protection’ – the idea that young people need constant surveillance and monitoring. This happens because youth is the time when young people learn about social roles and values, and allows the state to make sure they conform to hegemonic values.

Slide 20

Deviant Youth (Acland 1995) and Harry Brown Representations of delinquent youths reinforce hegemony. ‘Normal’ adult and youth behaviour, contrasted with deviant youth behaviour Representations of young people out of control allows the state to have more control Ideology of Protection: young people need constant surveillance and monitoring. State ensures that they conform to hegemonic values. Apply this theory to Harry Brown. Think about: The extent to which the text shows young people as in need of control. Does the text show young people as behaving in an unacceptable way? If so does this identify what behaviour society thinks is acceptable? (i.e. hegemonic) How does the text show class youths to be deviant thus reinforcing middle class hegemony.

Slide 21

Write up! Write up 2 paragraphs applying these 2 theories to Harry Brown. Use specific examples from the film to make your points. Deviant Youth: Representations of delinquent youths reinforce hegemony. ‘Normal’ adult and youth behaviour, contrasted with deviant youth behaviour   Representations of young people out of control allows the state to have more control Ideology of Protection: young people need constant surveillance and monitoring. State ensures that they conform to hegemonic values. Empty Category: Youth becomes an ‘empty category’ Representations constructed by adults. Reflect adults concerns, anxieties, and needs. Representations do not necessarily reflect the reality of youth identity.

Slide 22

Applying Media Theories to Attack The Block LO: To apply theories on the representations of youth, cultural identities and society to Eden Lake

Slide 23

Recap What is ‘Empty Category’ theory? Who is the theorist? What theory did Gramsci write about? What does he say? Explain “Deviant Youth” theory. Whose theory is this? What is the last theory we have looked at? Whose theory is it?

Slide 24

24 Attack The Block How would you apply the 4 theories we have looked at to this poster?

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Attack the Block How would you apply the same 4 theories to this trailer?

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Attack The Block Write a paragraph for each of the theories we have studied applying them to a specific scene of your choice from Attack the Block.

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Essay Question: How are young people represented in contemporary media? LO: To write a plan for this essay using the texts we have studied.

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Essay Question Introduction: State argument (link to theory) Identify texts Paragraph 1: Main text Examples Link to theory How are young people represented in contemporary media? Paragraph 2: Main Text Examples Link to theory Conclusion: Summary of key points in P1 + P2 Summary of overall argument

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