Young Key Populations 2015

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Young Key Populations Last updated: May 2015

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Data availability and data issues

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3 95% “The analysis carried out by the Commission shows that over 95% of all new HIV infections among young people occur among most-at-risk adolescents.” Report of the Commission on AIDS in Asia. Redefining AIDS in Asia: Crafting an Effective Response (2008), p. 146.

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What do we need to know to prioritize populations for the AIDS response? 4 HIV-related risk in populations Sexual risk: levels and frequency of unprotected vaginal and anal sex Injection risk: sharing of needles HIV and STI prevalence of sub-populations Sizes of higher risk and vulnerable sub-populations Geographic location of risk populations

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Main data collection components of HIV/STI surveillance systems Size estimates of key populations Reported HIV and AIDS cases HSS - HIV sentinel surveillance (facility-based) BSS/IBBS - Bio-behavioral surveys in key populations (or general population) STI Surveillance Additional strategic information sources: Mapping of sub-populations Special surveys Program M&E, other…

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The ethical considerations needed to include minors in studies that ask questions that relate to their sexual behavior, use of drugs and other risk behaviors What is different about surveying young key populations(YKPs)?

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Ethical review and approval: Weigh community benefit Ethics approval granted for a person of any age to participate Surveillance deemed as non-research activity by the Ethics Committee Surveillance does not require Ethics Committee Review Parental consent requirements: Parent/ guardian consent required Parent/ guardian consent waivered Consent from Dept. of Education or school principal sufficient Special adjustments for minors: Protection of respondents built into design and questionnaires Sensitive sexuality questions removed for very young students Strategies to ensure consent secured without coercion Referral to appropriate services. Only 9 out of 47 studies reviewed described ethical procedures specific for minors: Afghanistan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Maldives, Pakistan, PNG, Thailand, Vanuatu Ethical procedures for surveyed young populations

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Data need for young key populations To understand how HIV affects young key populations… Surveys have to include enough of young key populations to yield meaningful results Reports of surveys have to include the age disaggregated data and results

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9 Data availability of FSW in HIV sentinel surveillance surveys conducted between 2009 and 2013 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on National HIV Sentinel Surveys and www.aidsinfoonline.org We need age disaggregated data to understand the epidemic among young key populations…and do we have it?

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10 Apart from the data reported in global AIDS reporting, availability of age disaggregated behavioural data for FSW is limited Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on Behavioral Surveillance Surveys; Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveys; and www.aidsinfoonline.org Data availability of FSW in behavioral surveys conducted between 2009 and 2013

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11 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on HIV Sentinel Surveys; Bio-Behavioural Surveys; www.aidsinfoonline.org Age disaggregated HIV prevalence and behavioural data for young MSM is scarce, especially from survey reports Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar , Nepal, PNG, Philippines , Rep. of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam Afghanistan, Cambodia, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, PNG, Philippines, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar , Nepal, PNG, Philippines , Thailand, Viet Nam

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Only one in 3 countries that conducted HIV sentinel surveillance surveys among PWID reported age disaggregated data in survey reports 12 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on National HIV Sentinel Surveys; Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting; and www.aidsinfoonline.org Data availability of PWID in HIV sentinel surveillance surveys conducted between 2009 and 2013

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Less than one fifth of countries that conducted behavioural surveys among PWID reported age disaggregated data in survey reports 13 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on Behavioral Surveillance Surveys; Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveys; Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting; and www.aidsinfoonline.org Philippines Data availability of PWID in behavioral surveys conducted between 2009 and 2013

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20 of 31 country HIV surveillance systems include key populations – two third or less have a reasonable proportion of young key populations represented 14 Review of HIV prevalence data (2008-2014) available from surveillance in 20 countries* Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on National HIV Sentinel Surveillance Surveys, HIV Prevalence Surveys and Global AIDS Response Progress Reports

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The same is true for behavioral surveillance 15 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on National Behavioral Surveillance Reports and Global AIDS Response Progress Reports

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Age of inclusion of YKPs in surveys of key populations, based on available data from survey reports 16 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on National HIV Sentinel Surveillance, HIV Prevalence Surveys and Behavioral Surveys; Global AIDS Response Progress Reports 2012 to 2014; UNGASS Progress Reports (2010). HIV prevalence surveys 9-14yrs : Maldives (FSW 13, MSM 10); Pakistan (MSW 13); PNG (FSW 14, MSW 9) 15+yrs : Cambodia (FSW 15, MSM 18); Lao (MSM, TG 15); Maldives (PWID 17); Myanmar (FSW, MSM, PWID 15); Nepal (FSW, MSM, PWID 16); Pakistan (FSW, Hijra 15); Viet Nam (FSW, MSM, PWID 16) 18+yrs : Afghanistan (FSW,MSM, PWID 18); India (FSW, MSM, TG, PWID 18); Pakistan (PWID 18); Malaysia (MSM,PWID 18) Behavioral surveys 9-14yrs : Maldives (FSW 13, MSM 10); Pakistan (MSW 13); PNG (FSW 14, MSW 9 ) 15+yrs : Bangladesh (FSW, MSW, MSM, TG, PWID 15); Lao (FSW, MSM, TG 15); Maldives (PWID 17); Myanmar (FSW, PWID 15); Nepal (FSW, MSM, PWID 16); Pakistan (FSW, Hijra 15); Sri Lanka (FSW, MSM 16, PWID 17); Timor Leste (FSW, MSM 16) 18+yrs : Afghanistan (FSW, MSM,PWID 18); Cambodia (FEW, MSM 18);India (FSW, MSM, TG, PWID 18); Pakistan (PWID 18); Malaysia (MSM,PWID 18)

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Proportion of surveyed FSW, MSM and PWID who are under 25 years of age where data is available 17 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on 1) Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveys; 2) HIV Sentinel Surveillance Surveys; 3) Behavioral Surveillance Survey reports

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A large proportion of surveyed sex workers are under 25 years of age Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on 1) Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveys; 2) HIV Sentinel Surveillance Surveys; 3) Behavioral Surveillance Survey reports

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Available information on Size Estimates of young key populations is extremely limited! 19

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HIV prevalence and epidemiology

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610,000 young people (15-24) are living with HIV in 2013, 13% of adults (15+) living with HIV in Asia and the Pacific 21 320,000 young female (15-24) 370,000 young male (15-24) Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on UNAIDS estimates 2013

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Estimated HIV prevalence among young people (15-24), 2013 22 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on www.aidsinfoonline.org

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Young sex workers are getting infected with HIV! 23 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on www.aidsinfoonline.org HIV prevalence among sex workers by age group, countries where the data is available from 2010- 2013

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Young MSM are getting infected with HIV! 24 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on www.aidsinfoonline.org HIV prevalence among MSM by age group, countries where the data is available from 2009- 2013

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Young PWID are getting infected with HIV! 25 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on www.aidsinfoonline.org HIV prevalence among PWID by age group, countries where the data is available from 2010- 2013

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Risk behaviours

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Proportion of young people (15-24) who had sex before the age of 15, countries where data is available, 2006-2011 27 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on www.aidsinfoonline.org

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People do start risk behaviors when they are young … 28 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on National Behavioral Surveillance Reports ; Global AIDS Response Progress Reports- Country Reports (2012) ; UNGASS Progress Reports (2010).

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Condom use at last sex among sex workers by age group, countries where the data is available, 2007-2013 29 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on www.aidsinfoonline.org

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Condom use among young MSM is generally lower than their older counterparts 30 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on www.aidsinfoonline.org Condom use at last anal sex among MSM by age group, countries where the data is available, 2007-2013

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Low level of condom use among PWID including young PWID! 31 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on www.aidsinfoonline.org Condom use at last sex among PWID by age group, countries where the data is available, 2007-2013

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Young PWID’s safe injection practice compared to that of older counterparts 32 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on www.aidsinfoonline.org Proportion of PWID reported using sterile injection equipment at last injection by age group, countries where data is available, 2007-2013

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Vulnerability and HIV knowledge

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34 Proportion of sex workers with comprehensive HIV knowledge, by age group, countries where data is available, 2007-2009 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on UNGASS Country Progress Reports 2006,2008 and 2010

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Proportion of MSM with comprehensive HIV knowledge, by age group, countries where data is available, 2007-2013 35 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on 1.UNAIDS Report on The Global AIDS Epidemic, 2010; 2. UNGASS Country Progress Reports ; 3. Integrated Biological and Behavioural Survey Reports

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36 Proportion of PWID with comprehensive HIV knowledge, by age group, countries where data is available, 2007-2009 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on 1. UNGASS Country Progress Reports 2006,2008 and 2010; and 2. UNAIDS. (2010). Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic

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National response

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Laws and regulations that allow adolescents to seek services without parental/spousal consent, countries where data is available 38 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child, and Adolescent Health (WHO) at http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/countries/indicators/dashboards/en/ (accessed Feb 4, 2015)

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Compared to their older counterparts, 39 less young key populations are being reached by prevention programmes less young key populations have access to HIV testing services and approximately 3 in 4 young key populations do not know their HIV status

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Lower prevention coverage among young sex workers under 25 years, 2007-2013 40 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on www.aidsinfoonline.org * FSW only ** FSW and MSW *** FSW and TG SW ++ MSW and TG SW +++ FSW, MSW and TG SW

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Proportion of MSM reached by prevention programmes, by age group, 2008-2013 41 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on www.aidsinfoonline.org

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Less than 1/3 of young sex workers know their HIV status 42 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on www.aidsinfoonline.org Malaysia and Indonesia data is not included in regional median calculation since the denominators of reported proportion for HIV testing coverage do not reflect total surveyed sex workers and these denominators represent only those who answered HIV testing related questions

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3 in 4 young MSM surveyed in the region do not know their HIV status…. 43 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on www.aidsinfoonline.org Malaysia and Indonesia data is not included in regional median calculation since the denominators of reported proportion for HIV testing coverage do not reflect total surveyed MSM and these denominators represent only those who answered HIV testing related questions

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Only 1 in 5 young PWID in the region know their HIV status 44 Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on www.aidsinfoonline.org Indonesia data is not included in regional median calculation since the denominator of reported proportion for HIV testing coverage do not reflect total surveyed PWID and the denominator represent only those who answered HIV testing related questions

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45 THANK YOU slides compiled by www.aidsdatahub.org Data shown in this slide set are comprehensive to the extent they are available from country reports. Please inform us if you know of sources where more recent data can be used. Please acknowledge www.aidsdatahub.org if slides are lifted directly from this site

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