Issues and Research: Present and Future

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Slide 1

Learning Theorists and Research Chapter 16 Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Objectives Explain the difference between the teacher-directed approach and constructivism Summarize research findings on CAI Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Learning Theories and Technology Integration Teacher-Directed Approach Derived from behavioral theories such as B.F. Skinner, and Edward Thorndike Tightly structured environment, teacher led activities More formal, focusing on established standards Teacher manipulates classroom, student is the receptacle Drill and practice and tutorials Emphasizes traditional teaching and assessment: lecture, tests, worksheets Stresses individual work What would this look like? When would this method be most effective? Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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B.F. Skinner Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Pros Software based on this approach has individual pacing Offers drill & practice and tutorials Software provides remediation Teacher time freed up for other tasks Teacher-Directed Approach Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Cons Software can be inflexible Fails to use other technologies Problem solving Multimedia Telecommunications Teacher-Directed Approach Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Learning Theories and Technology Integration Constructivism Evolved from the work of developmental theorists such as, Jean Piaget, Seymour Papert, Howard Gardner Learner has control of the learning, hands on, context based Emphasizes exploration or discovery, immersion Internal motivation to learn Group work as opposed to individual work Simulation software such as Sims or Myst V based on this approach Teach complex concepts such as cost, production, supply and demand Problem solving in artificial worlds What would this look like in a classroom? Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Seymour Papert Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Howard Gardner Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Learning Theories and Technology Integration Table 16.2 Teacher-Directed Versus Constructivist Instructional Models Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Teacher-Directed v. Constructivism Is one better than the other?

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In Groups… Work in groups of four to develop a basic lesson for your given topic. What would your lesson look like if you used a Constructivist approach; a Teacher Directed Approach? What would the assessment look like for both? How would you integrate technology? Briefly present your ideas

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Research Findings Point to CAI producing equal or greater achievement But there is still a lack of consensus on the value and effectiveness of CAI Need for additional research exists Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Research Findings— Gender Differences Males seem to have a more positive attitude than females toward computers Violent computer games may appeal to males Math/science link Media depicts more men using computers Women may be associated with a secretarial role Some teachers encourage boys more than girls What about other technology? Facebook, Ipods, cell phones, etc Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Research Findings— Science Simulations Many studies show positive effects of science simulations on learning Simulations can substitute for laboratory Less dangerous Less time-consuming Less expensive What are some examples of this? Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Research Findings— Word Processing Studies are inconclusive Difficult to quantify writing Do computers/technology make writing easier for you? Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Research Findings CAI has a positive effect for Students with learning disabilities May make things easier Improving attitudes CAI has an inconclusive effect for Motivation If you’re comfortable and have easy access School achievement Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Research Findings— Distance Learning No significant difference for distance learning over traditional classroom Distance learners have a better attitude Access is easier Does it improve learning? Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Some Research Generalizations The computer is useful for science simulations Use of a computer helps individualize instruction Students find using a computer motivating A positive attitude toward computers does not result in increased achievement There is no significant difference in achievement between distance learning and a traditional classroom Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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Some Research Generalizations Distance learners have a better attitude Word processing motivates children to write There is no difference in writing quality between word processor and pencil/paper Boys work more frequently with a computer than girls Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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In Summary Learning theories shed light on how we should use computers in education. Teachers use computer-assisted instruction research to improve their teaching skills. Sharp, Computer Education for Teachers, 6th Edition ©2009 John Wiley & Sons

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