Waste Water Management

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mindmatrix (5 years ago)

This is the first time in 44 years that I hv came across the complete info on water waste management crisis bothering India...Kudos to chintandaiya for an excellent presentation..i can only say teach us more..

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With a population of over one crore twenty eight lakhs eighty three thousand six hundred forty five people, as per the census conducted in 2001, the city of Mumbai generates around Two hundred and eighty nine crore eighty eight lakhs twenty thousand one hundred twenty five liters (or 2898 mld) of waste water everyday!

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Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Parameter to measure the amount of oxygen that will be consumed by microorganisms during the biological decomposition of organic matter. It is generally measured in mg/l. The BOD test Originated in the United Kingdom due to pollution in the Thames River. Legend has it that the 5-day BOD test was developed in England. Sewage was dumped in a river and it took five days for it to reach the ocean, hence the five-day incubation requirement in the BOD method. It is rumoured that a ferry tipped over and that many of the people who fell in the river got sick or died. This was not due to drowning, but due to the effects of the pollution in the river. The Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal recommended and adopted the BOD5 test in 1908. The duration of the test is normally 5 days. The Average temperature is = 20 degrees C. 300 ml are usually used. Dark Incubation is needed to restrict the growth of algae. The final measurement is usually expressed as O2 mg/l. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Measure of the oxygen-consuming capacity of inorganic and organic matter present in water or wastewater. It is expressed as the amount of oxygen consumed by a chemical oxidant in a specific test. It does not differentiate between stable and unstable organic matter.

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Speak about the IPAMC SSP initiative, in the second paragraph. Speak about the paper on Bacterium buildup paper in the third paragraph.

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It is a respite to know that only part of the waste water is polluting the rivers, I cant imagine a scenario worse than this.

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According to CPCB, there are roughly 269 STPs in the country, of which 211 are in metropolitan and Class I cities of different states.

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According to CPCB, there are roughly 269 STPs in the country, of which 211 are in metropolitan and Class I cities of different states.

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We just cannot rely on governments or civic bodies to treat our waste and return us clean water.

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Short for Decentralized Waste-Water Treatment Systems is a term coined by Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association. In India this system is promoted by Center of Scientific Research, Tamil Nadu.

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Short for Decentralized Waste-Water Treatment Systems is a term coined by Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association. In India this system is promoted by Center of Scientific Research, Tamil Nadu.

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Waste Water Management -An overview - Chintan Daiya

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Waste Water Management -An overview With a population of over 1,28,83,645 pax#, the city of Mumbai generates around 289,88,20,125 liters of waste water everyday! India is literally drowning in its sewage, the cities generated 33,212 mld of sewage in 2006… … the country has an installed capacity to treat only 6,190 mld.* Delhi charges Rs 2.20 for supplying 1,000 litres of water, while it costs almost Rs 40 to treat sewage and Rs 8 to supply the water. # - 2001 Census, * - Central Pollution Control Board Survey

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Waste Water Management -An overview Colors of Domestic Waste Water

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Waste Water Management -An overview Levels of Domestic Waste Water Source- Asian Institute of Technology COD or Chemical Oxygen Demand is the total measurement of all chemicals in the water that can be oxidized. BOD- Biochemical Oxygen Demand  is supposed to measure the amount of food (or organic carbons) that bacteria can oxidize. COD is usually measured and the test is simple and easy to perform with the right equipment and can be done in 2 hours. BOD usually takes 5 days. A COD test measures all organic carbon with the exception of certain aromatics (benzene, toluene, phenol, etc.) which are not completely oxidized in the reaction. COD is a chemically chelated/thermal oxidation reaction, and therefore, other reduced substances such as sulphides, sulphites, and ferrous iron will also be oxidized and reported as COD. NH3-N will NOT be oxidized as COD.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Waste Water Problems in India More than two billion people in the world do not have access to “adequate” sanitation facilities. Speaking of Mumbai alone, 77,30,187, people do not have adequate sanitation facilities. Yes, these are people who live in slums and generate around 173,92,92,075 liters of waste water. Disposal of this untreated domestic waste water, is a herculean task. Improper disposal of this usually leads to water-borne disease. Hence, it is not very surprising that the rivers of India are some of the most polluted as compared to western countries.

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Waste Water Management -An overview

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Waste Water Management -An overview Waste Water Problems in India India Lacks Infrastructure In 2006, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) estimated that Indian cities generated 33,212 million litres per day (mld) of sewage. But the installed capacity in the country can only treat 6,190 mld of sewage or 18.6 per cent. Hence, India does not have the capacity to treat over 80 per cent of the waste that is generated. Even this treatment capacity is confined to the bigger and more powerful towns of the nation.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Waste Water Problems in India Unavailability of Correct Data One problem, which cripples all planning efforts, is that no one really knows how much sewage is generated. It is well known that 80 per cent of all water consumed by a city is released as wastewater. So it should be easy to calculate how much waste a city generates, by simply looking at its water consumption. Unfortunately, that does not work in our case. The government estimates 70% to 80% of sewage generation of the total water supplied. For example, the Brihan Mumbai Mahanagar Palika only provides 90 lpcd for domestic purposes, we are forced to produce further requirement, which probably has no control.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Waste Water Problems in India A Case Study According to the Delhi Jal Board (DJB), the city generated 2,947.80 mld sewage in 2005. This was based on the quantum of water DJB supplied. But when CPCB measured waste flowing into Yamuna through the drains, it found the discharge was 3,684 mld (700 mld higher). Furthermore, what is forgotten, is the waste water generated from illegal colonies, slums and hutments which are an inevitable part of Indian cities.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Waste Water Problems in India Deteriorating Infrastructure The problem is further complicated, when we realize that the installed treatment facilities like Septic Tanks and STPs do not actually end up treating the waste water. In an independent survey conducted by IAPMC for the SSP along with Brihan Mumbai Mahanagar Palika (BMC), it was found that majority of septic tanks used were either not working well or just functioning as sewage collection tanks or cesspools.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Waste Water Problems in India

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Waste Water Management -An overview Waste Water Problems in India Deteriorating Infrastructure Usually STPs, are located where land is available. As a result, sewage has to be transported long distances from the source of generation and collection to the treatment site through conveyance systems. In short, electricity is used to run pumps for this. Also most cities lack a functional drainage system to convey the waste. It is equally important to note that longer the distances, more the cost of conveyance — building drains and using electricity for its pumping. Furthermore, because of the length of the pipeline, the cost of repair and refurbishment is massive.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Waste Water Problems in India The Waste Arithmetic Sewage Generated: 33,212 mld Capacity to treat: 6,190 mld Actually treatable: 4,469 mld (72%). \ 28,743 mld is not treated. Annual cost of treatment of 6,190 mld sewage =Rs 135.56 to 677.80 crore. Capital costs to build STPs to treat 27,022 mld sewage @ Rs 28 lakh per mld = Rs 7,566 crore. Thus, centralized treatment is not a viable solution, It has to be decentralized for us in India

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Waste Water Management -An overview Some Treatment Options Septic Tanks The most commonly used waste water treatment for low-cost housing applications since most septic tanks can cater to a population of upto 300 people. Often confused with Cesspools, works on a principle of anaerobic micro-organismic digestion.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Some Treatment Options Septic Tanks + Age-old, established technology Underground, so invisible Pathogen removal is usually good No power supply required - Treatment is only primary Must be de-sludged on a fixed interval, depending on the design. Process is entirely anaerobic and hence may emanate a foul odor.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Some Treatment Options DEWATS DEWATS is based on different natural treatment techniques put together in different combinations according to need.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Some Treatment Options DEWATS Primary treatment is used for the screening and sedimentation process, in which the liquid part is separated from the solid matter. A septic is used for this phase. In Secondary treatment, biological and natural chemical processes are used to digest and remove most of the organic matter. A device called an anaerobic baffled tank reactor is used for this phase. Tertiary treatment A horizontal planted gravel filter acts through the combined effect of the filter material and plants growing on the filter media. Usage of sand as the main filter materials was replaced by pebbles and granite stones. The wastewater is resupplied with oxygen while passing through the planted gravel filter. The effluent is odour free.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Some Treatment Options DEWATS + High Treatment Efficiency. Customizable as per treatment requirement. Beautiful Landscaping Possible. No Waster-water above ground. No nuisance of odor. - High space requirement, 30 sqm per cum of daily flow. Costly if desired gravel not available. Intensive maintenance and supervision during first two years.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Some Treatment Options Membrane Bio-reactor Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is designed to produce high quality treated water from wastewater. It is available in standard and customised modules to treat domestic sewage and industrial effluent. The characteristic of the MBR process is the use of revolutionary submerged membranes in the biological process water tank.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Some Treatment Options Membrane Bio-reactor + Low energy consumption (< 0.30 kWH/m3) Compact System. No chemical requirements. Single packaged automated unit, minimal civil work and pretreatment. Consistent treated water quality. - Expensive Membrane modules need replacement every 5-10 yrs. Membrane fouling, may need immediate replacement. May require special handling, treatment, and disposal.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Some Treatment Options Fluidized Aerobic Bio-reactor The fluidised aerobic bioreactor (FAB) is based on the concept of suspended growth as well as attached growth processes. The media has a specific gravity less than that of water. Hydraulic currents set by aeration facilitate fluidisation of the media.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Some Treatment Options Fluidized Aerobic Bio-reactor + No moving parts. Wide treatment range, can be added in modules. Elimination of skilled monitoring. Totally closed system, for small capacities. No sludge recycling required. - Height restrictions, the minimum height required is about 5 mtrs. May increase civil and structural work if installation planned in basement. May require consistent inflow of sewage or waste water.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Some Treatment Options Submerged Aerobic Fixed Film The submerged aerobic fixed film process (SAFF) also known as tricking filters comprises of specially designed synthetic media that facilitate attached fixed film growth of the microorganisms. The aerobic environment in the SAFF reactor is achieved by using fine bubble diffused aeration, which also serves to maintain liquid in a completely mixed regime. Biological growth on the media surface of trickling filters converts dissolved organic waste material into by products like carbon dioxide, nitrates, water and biological solids which are later removed by clarification.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Some Treatment Options Submerged Aerobic Fixed Film + Low initial capital cost. Needs a smaller settling tank, due to higher settling rate of sludge. Lowered energy consumption. - Requires skilled monitoring. Choking of media. May require consistent inflow of sewage or waste water.

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Waste Water Management -An overview Conclusion Treat your waste water treatment system like a baby… References: A Waste Water Recycling Manual – Centre for Science and Environment http://www.wikipedia.com Asian Institue of Technology - http://www.ait.ac.th/ Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India – www.censusindia.net Brihan Mumbai MahanagarPalika Delhi Jal Board Plumbing Made Easy for Common Man IPAMC, SSP Initiative

Summary: Waste Water Management. Black water, grey water recycling. Sewage Treatment, etc.

Tags: sewage grey water black waste management

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