language learning and language teaching


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MATERIAL TEST Method Appearance Teacher-friendly Extras Realistic Interesting Affordable Level Skills

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Behaviourism and Cognitivism

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BEHAVIOURISM Behaviorism is a worldview that assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli. The learner starts off as a clean slate (i.e. tabula rasa) and behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement. Both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement increase the probability that the antecedent behavior will happen again. In contrast, punishment (both positive and negative) decreases the likelihood that the antecedent behavior will happen again. Positive indicates the application of a stimulus; Negative indicates the withholding of a stimulus. Learning is therefore defined as a change in behavior in the learner. Lots of (early) behaviorist work was done with animals (e.g. Pavlov’s dogs) and generalized to humans.

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Cognitivism The cognitivist revolution replaced behaviorism in 1960s as the dominant paradigm. Cognitivism focuses on the inner mental activities – opening the “black box” of the human mind is valuable and necessary for understanding how people learn. Mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving need to be explored. Knowledge can be seen as schema or symbolic mental constructions. Learning is defined as change in a learner’s schemata.

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Cognitivism A response to behaviorism, people are not “programmed animals” that merely respond to environmental stimuli; people are rational beings that require active participation in order to learn, and whose actions are a consequence of thinking. Changes in behavior are observed, but only as an indication of what is occurring in the learner’s head. Cognitivism uses the metaphor of the mind as computer: information comes in, is being processed, and leads to certain outcomes.

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Cognitivism The learner is viewed as an information processor (like a computer). I n f o r m a t i o n  P r o c e s s i n g  T h e o r y

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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BEHAVIOURISM COGNITIVISM Behaviour vs. brain& nervous system Activities of an organism which can be observed vs. mental processes underlying behaviours. Conditioning Reaction to the behaviourist theory.

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Acquisition and Learning

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ACQUISITION AND LEARNING Recently a distinction between acquiring a language and a learning a language,most notably by American writer Krashen.He characterises the former as subconcıous process which results in the knowledge of a language whereas the latter,learning is a conscious process which results only in ‘knowing about’the language.Acquiring a language is more successful and longer lasting than learning.

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Foreign Language Learning

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COMMUNICATION Communication is at the heart of second language study,whether the communication takes place face-to-face, in writing,or across centuries through the reading of literature. Students engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange opinions. Students understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics. Students present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers on a variety of topics.

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CULTURES Through the study of other languages, students gain a knowledge and understanding of the cultures that use that language and, in fact, cannot truly master the language until they have also mastered the cultural contexts in which the languageoccurs. Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the culture studied. Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of the culture studied.

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CONNECTIONS Learning languages provides connections to additional bodies of knowledge that may be unavailable to the monolingual English speaker. Students reinforce and further their knowledge of other disciplines through the foreign language. Students acquire information and recognize the distinctive viewpoints that are only available through the foreign language and its cultures.

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COMPARISONS Through comparisons and contrasts with the language being studied, students develop insight into the nature of language and the concept of culture and realize that there are multiple ways of viewing the world. Students demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied and their own. Students demonstrate understanding of the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their own.

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COMMUNITIES Together, these elements enable the student of languages to participate in multilingual communities at home and around the world in a variety of contexts and in culturally appropriate ways. Students use the language both within and ,beyond the school setting. Students show evidence of becoming lifelong learners by using the language for personal enjoyment and enrichment.

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What is a good lesson? Learners are active& attentive all the time. Learners enjoy the lesson. They are motivated. Lesson goes according to the plan. The class seem to be learning the material well. The language is used communicatively throughout.

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The classrom atmosphere is co-operative, respectful. There is an established code of conduct. There is a rich variety of activities to address different learning styles and kinds of intelligences. Learner autonomy is encouraged. Teacher functions as the facilitator of learning not as a dictator.

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Input and Output

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Classroom activities: Those that give the students language input. Those which encourage them to produce output. input: language items separately stored away -Use of language. -Effective communication. -Purpose

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Output: 1. practice: activities: use of new language: encourage communication. 2. Communication output: appropriate language: communicative efficiency. No output: no use of language Classroom activity: language input& language output.

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Roughly- and Finely-Tuned Input

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ROUGHLY-TUNED INPUT Roughly input means that where the students have to deal with language that is at a higher level than they are capable of producing Input of this type can come from a number of sources.The teacher talking to the class is giving them input ;any reading passage has the same functıon as does a listening exercise on tape.Reading and listening texts that are roughly-tuned do not only train the students to read and listen.They also provide exactly the kind of input that have been suggested.

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Finely-tuned input According to Harmer, finely-tuned input is “language which has been very precisely selected to be at exactly the students’ level” and “can be taken to mean that language which we select for conscious learning and teaching.” Student pay more attention to relationships among form,meaning , and use for a specic grammar rule.

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Finely-tuned input Is matched to learners’ current comprehension level and connected to what they already know Focuses on conscious learning of a specific point: the pronunciation of a word, the contrast in the uses of two verb tenses, new vocabulary, useful social formulas Is controlled by the instructor or textbook author Is used in the presentation stage of a lesson

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Practice Output Conscious learning Repetition Practice of language items Activities Use of language Different context Real life& genuine communication

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Input _Practice output _ communication output. In teaching programme: no linear relationship between practice and communication output. Way of encouraging students to use language. Recently learnt and less recently learnt combined.

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Communication Output Communication output refers to activities in which students use language as a vehicle of communication,and where the students’ main purpose is to complete some kind of communicatıon task.In most communicatives activities,the students will be using any and/or all the language that they know:they will force to retrive the English that they have in their language store,and they will gradually develop strategies for communication.

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Evaluation Types of materials evaluation: Pre-use evaluation In- use evaluation Post- use evaluation

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Purposes of materials evaluation Adopt new coursebooks Evaluate the coursebooks already in use Comparative evaluation Teacher’s development in material choice.

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Evaluating for potention and evaluating for suitability Potention: evaluating coursebooks in general without any particular classes or learners in mind. Suitability: matching the coursebook against specific requirement such as objectives, background of the learners. Difference: What would this course be good for? Would it be good for my class?

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CONCLUSIONS We have seen that behaviorist philosophy saw the acquisition of language as the resut of conditioning: cognitivism,on the other hand saw language learning as the ability to be creative on the basis of acquired rules. We studied the more recent methodological implications of approaches that stree the need for acqusition (rather than consious learning) and communicative activities in the classroom.Thus acquisition is more effective than consious learning. We concluded that while student need a lot of input which is roughly- tuned input, and while there must be emphasis on communicative activities which improve the students’ ability to coomunicate,there is also place for controlled presentation of finely-tuned input and semi-controlled language practice.

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HINTS FOR LESSON MANAGEMENT Prepare more than you need. Note in advance. Keep a watch or clock easily visible. If you are doing group work,give instructions and make sure these are understood. If you have papers to distribute,do not try to give every paper yourself to every student.

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HINTS FOR LESSON MANAGEMENT Do not leave the giving of the homework to the last minute. Use the tasks that demand more effort and concentration at the beginning of the class. If you have something quiet and reflective,use it first then move onto the active one Don’t use sharp transitions from one activity to another Finish the lesson with joke.

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Summary: presentation of bahar, ayşegül und derya.

Tags: language learning methodology