Geography and Geometry July 2010

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Slide 1

1 Geography and Geometry Welcome. The surface of the earth does not seem to have a regular pattern or symmetry, but this presentation shows that a geometric principle applies to the shape and topography of landmasses.  The first few slides show the continents. In all cases the highest point on the continent aligns with the cardinal extremes of continental landmasses, i.e. the furthest coastal point to the north, south, east or west. Contents: Slides 1-9 The Continents Slides 10-19 The highest mountains on islands. Slides 21-30 The Orkney Islands Slides 31-42 Topographic geometry Australia and New Zealand. Conclusion. To navigate through this slide show move the cursor to the bottom of the screen.

Slide 2

2 The arrow on the white line indicates the highest point in Antarctica, The Vinson Massif. The mountain is on a line drawn between the southern peninsula of Australia and the northern tip of the Antarctic peninsula. The following slides show that the same principle applies to the highest points on all the continents. In each case the highest mountain on the continent is aligned with two continental cardinal extremes.

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3 The highest point in South America, Mount Aconcagua, is aligned between the northern and southern peninsulas of South America.

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4 The highest point in North America, Mt McKinley (out of view on this slide), is aligned with the northern and southern peninsulas of Africa.

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5 The highest point in Africa, Kilimanjaro, is aligned with the western and eastern peninsulas of South America.

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6 The highest mountain in Australia, Mount Kosciusko, is aligned with the eastern and southern peninsulas of Australia (and also with the northern peninsula of Tasmania).

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7 The highest point in Asia, Mount Everest, is aligned between the southern tip of India and the eastern peninsula of Asia.

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8 The previous slide showed a line extended from the southern tip of India over Mt Everest to the eastern peninsula of Asia, the end of that line is shown in white on this slide. The yellow line, joining the tip of the eastern peninsula of Asia with the western peninsula of America also passes over Mount Everest.

Slide 9

9 Are these alignments of the earth’s highest points with continental extremes a chance event, or are they a regular feature of landmass topography? In exploring this question the fifty highest mountains located on islands around the world have been studied. The same alignment principle was found with 49 out of 50 of these islands.    In 34% of cases, there is an alignment between the highest point on the island and two coastal cardinal extremes of that island. In 64% of cases, there is an alignment between the highest point on the island and one cardinal extreme of the local island and one cardinal extreme of a neighbouring island. The first few of these mountains are numbered in height order on the following slides.

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10 Puncak Jaya (1) is the highest mountain on any island in the world, indicated by the red triangle. One arrow indicates the eastern peninsula of New Guinea, the other arrow indicates the western peninsula of the adjacent island. The three are in alignment.

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11 Mt Kinabula (3) is aligned between the most northerly and southerly peninsulas of Borneo.

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12 The mountain Yu Shan (4) is aligned between the western limit of Taiwan and the southern peninsula of an adjacent island.

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13 Gunung Kerinci (5) is aligned between the northern and southern peninsulas of Sumatera.

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14 Mount Erebus (6) is aligned between the eastern and western limits of Ross island.

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15 The few examples presented so far illustrate a phenomenon that applies to landmasses large and small around the globe. Illustrations showing all fifty of the highest mountains on islands around the world is found on another slideshow on this website called ‘More Earth Geometry’. The following three slides are novel examples of an island’s highest mountain aligning with cardinal extremes.

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16 Newfoundland’s highest mountain is aligned between the northern and western extremes of the island.

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17 New Zealand’s highest point is Mount Cook. The mountain is aligned between the southern limit of South Island New Zealand and the northern peninsula of North Island.

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18 North Island’s highest point is Mount Ruapehu. The mountain is aligned between the eastern extreme of North Island New Zealand and the northern peninsula of South Island New Zealand.

Slide 19

19 To claim that the topography of the entire surface of the earth is organised geometrically may sound ‘wacky’ or ‘New Age’. However the continents of the world and their highest points conform to a geometric principle that has been consistently found to apply to the fifty highest mountains on islands around the world. If this is truly a global phenomenon then it should also be found among small island clusters. The Orkney Islands off the coast of Scotland provide a good test case because this cluster of islands have been mapped by the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain on a 1:50000 scale. These maps are generally accurate to a metre or two on the ground. The following slides are not the best in quality, but they demonstrate the same principle applies. The highest point on an island is found aligned with cardinal extreme points.

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20 Orkney (1) The island’s high point (arrowed) is aligned between the northern and southern extreme of the island.

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21 Orkney (2). The highest point on Fara is aligned to the northern extreme of the island and the southern extreme of an adjacent island.

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22 Orkney (3). The highest point on the Hoy is aligned between the western extreme of the island and the eastern extreme of the adjacent island.

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23 Orkney (4). The highest points on both islands are aligned between the southern extreme of their island and the southern extreme of an adjacent island.

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24 Orkney (5). The northern and southern extremes of these islands align with the highest points on the islands as shown by the white arrows. All the alignments shown in this series appear accurate to within one hundred metres on the ground.

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25 Orkney (6). The highest point on Gairsay is aligned between the eastern and western extremes of the island. The highest point on Wyre is aligned between the southern extreme of the island and the northern extreme of an adjacent island.

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26 Shapinsay, Orkney (7). The highest point is aligned between northern and southern extremes of the island and again between two secondary northerly and southerly extremes (as indicated).

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27 Orkney (8). Very similar to the previous example, on Rousay Island the highest point is aligned between the northern and southern extremes and again between secondary northerly and southerly extremes.

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28 Orkney (9). Rousay and Shapinsay Islands shown together illustrate the geometric principle. (Two lines are the same length.)

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29 Orkney (10). A copy of the previous slide showing the alignments of high points to cardinal extremes on the smaller islands between Rousay and Shapinsay.

Slide 30

30 There are 70 islands and skerries in the Orkney group. I cannot find any of the highest points on these islands that are not aligned with cardinal extreme points in the manner shown on the preceding slides. I was initially tempted to believe that these alignments occurred because of the number of points available, but this is not the case. By simulating a shift of the earth’s cardinal points, by say 35 or 45 degrees, the cardinal extremes of the islands are changed and when this is done the alignment principle seldom works. The fact that the alignments occur with the cardinal extreme points of landmasses suggests that along with folding, faulting, volcanic activity, erosion etc. there is an additional force at work dictating how landscapes are shaped. The previous four slides from the Orkney Islands indicate a duplication of geometry on two separate islands. The following slides illustrate a similar order that is found on a continental scale.

Slide 31

31 These two slides shown earlier illustrate the alignment of Australia’s and New Zealand’s highest mountains with cardinal extremes of the landmasses. The next slide finds a relationship between the two.

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Slide 33

33 The diagonals for the oblong figure shown on the previous slide are drawn here. These lines are identical in length. They are drawn between, a) Australia’s eastern extreme and New Zealand’s southern extreme, b) Australia’s southern extreme and New Zealand’s northern extreme. In each case the lines terminate on the peninsula on the landmasses’ cardinal extremity.

Slide 34

34 An earlier slide showed that Australia’s highest point is on a line joining the eastern and southern extremes of Australia. This line forms the baseline for an isosceles triangle with the highest mountain in central Australia (Mt Ziel) at the apex.

Slide 35

35 These three lines are the same length. At the apex in Puncak Jaya, the highest island point in the world (and the highest point on the earth’s surface shown here). The lines terminate on Puncak Jaya and at four extremes of the Australian mainland.

Slide 36

36 The eastern and western extremes of Australia are equidistant from Puncak Jaya.

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37 In fact there are two peninsulas on Australia’s western extreme. The two points are equidistant from Australia’s eastern extreme.

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38 The two lines of equal length joining Australia’s eastern and western extremes. These lines form the base lines for two isosceles triangles shown on the next slide.

Slide 39

39 The two peninsulas on Australia’s western extreme act as corners for two isosceles triangles. The two apexes of these triangles rest on Puncak Jaya and Mt Fuji.

Slide 40

40 Australia’s highest point and its northerly extreme point are equidistant from the western extreme point.

Slide 41

41 Finally, linking this geometry back to the world of monument building, the highest mountain on Cuba, on Hispaniola and on Puerto Rico are on a straight line (a great circle) that extends to the eastern extreme of the Yucatan Peninsula. The pyramids at Uxmal and Chichen Itza align with the same peninsula point, arrowed in red.

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42 Summary This slideshow was created in an attempt to illustrate that geometry plays a fundamental role in the shaping of the planet earth as we see it today. Whether this geometry is a present day phenomena or whether it persists with the changes of topography over history is not established. The geometry appears to have a fractal nature, working on all scales, from continental landmasses to small island clusters. The idea that the Earth is subject to a design is not a popular modern one however historically speaking it was a common understanding. Two other slideshows on this website ‘Geography and Monuments’ and ‘More Earth Geometry’ show how ancient monuments are located in relation to this geometry; in fact this geometry was recognised by studying the locations of these monuments. END

Summary: Geography and Geometry July 2010

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