Fusió Freda, Tesla, Onda Scalar, Camp de Torsió, «Energia Lliure» = Tota les Ciència Escombraries?(Resum català) / Cold Fusion, Tesla, Zeropoint Energy Utilization.. = All Junk Science?


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Fusió Freda, Tesla, Onda Scalar, Camp de Torsió, «Energia Lliure» = tota les ciència escombraries? Cold fusion, Tesla, Zeropoint Energy Utilization.. = PSEUDO SCIENCE? Ben Rusuisiak New nature paradigm TECH analysis VANCOUVER, BC, CANADA, Updated Dec15, 2016 www.linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm (Resum català) El nou paradigma en la tecnologia de l'energia amb un impacte geo- socioeconòmica Analysis of new energy paradigm: including controversial & questionable claims

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2 resum d'una pàgina resta de presentació és en anglès LENR-fusió freda ja està en virtual acceptació per la ciència convencional : L'energia produïda pel " combustible " bàsicament lliure i equip + despeses d'operació ,També l'èxit de l'assaig de fusió en calent convencional d'energia il·limitada en 2013 No hi ha ciència dominant oficial avalat dispositiu LENR comercialitzat a partir de gener de 2016, però 1MW generador d'electricitat "ECAT" es ven al mercat industrial sota certs acords Això també pot causar el corrent principal revisió completa de la ciència / mitjans van ignorar micro escala inventor ús privat "energia lliure" tecnologia: 1 L'extracció d'energia d' ambient en forma d'electricitat, 2- Força electromotriu de motor(Back EMF), 3- Producció ràpida de gas HHO - poden ser també utilitzats per augmentar la producció d'energia d'hidrocarburs, mentre que reduir dràsticament les seves emissions, 4 -Electromagnètica o impuls plasma / creació del vòrtex en l'aigua / gas confinat, 5- Aire comprimit, i COP> 1 intercanviador de calor converteix en energia mecànica, 6- Emulsió d'aigua molt més enllà de la incorporació de 20% d'aigua, 7- La recol·lecció força d'aire sota l'aigua surant + gravetat, 8- Escalfador de cavitació hidrodinàmica, 9- Betz límit d'eficiència molt superior a la turbina hidràulica / eòlica, 10- Cèl·lula solar d'una sola unió amb l'eficiència més enllà de Shockley- Queisser límit etc. Ells semblen córrer per la mecànica, a més d'anar acompanyat d'efectes secundaris de la física actual no pot explicar, infraestructura de baix cost, i convertible en una altra "física no estàndard" tecnologia que pot reemplaçar amb eficàcia majoria de cura mèdica, remediació de residus nuclears, i alguns processos de miner-industrial- agrícoles - if en cas complet examen científic es va realitzar com seguiment L'augment dels documents i testimonis en diversos tipus diferents de "obert-final" "pseudociència" Investigació i Desenvolupament en algun govern / agències aeroespacial / militar / intel·ligència impliquen encoberta contractistes privats protegits per la seguretat nacional, per totalment separat de "carreró sense sortida", "ciència de consum públic” Encara que tant el gas - oli - carbó en base de processos industrials i d'energia alternativa poden romandre per la innovació, la mateixa comercialització d'energia lliure és inevitable i que corre el risc de ruptura social, Per tant hi ha una necessitat de diàleg per discutir si tota la tecnologia / informació relacionada que es llançarà oficialment i aprovat

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ABSTRACT: LENR-Cold Fusion effect itself has been virtually accepted by mainstream science: Energy produced with basically free “fuel” + equipment & operation cost. Although unadmitted by creative interpretations, thermodynamic over-unity or Persistent Current/motion is officially observed in quantum level nano circuit, beyond Shockley-Queisser limit efficiency solar cell, non-linear optic/laser/spintronics, time crystal, & magnetocaloric effects. Academic taboo with extracting photon or electron fluctuation in vacuum, Maxwell's demon, affirming quantum ratchet, Casimir force harvesting micro electronic device, & violation of 2nd law are finally discussed at mainstream journals. No publicly endorsed LENR device exists, but 1MW electricity generator "Ecat" has been claimed to be sold with pre-conditions. Low cost resonance/magnet based major emission reducers with 10%+ extra efficiency, solid state thermo Electric/thermo PhotoVoltaics heat-to-energy systems, & highly efficient Waste-To-Fuel/Energy systems with Catalytic, SuperCritical water, Cold or Steam Plasma mechanics are starting to make inroads quietly. Above changes might foreshadow first full science review of recurring inventors' hyper energy efficiency claims & small commercialized installations: e.g. 1-Extracting nano oscillation/radiant energy as industrial electricity, 2-Harvesting DC reverse voltage power instead of using force to cancel it(Back EMF), 3-Resonance catalyzed HHO/Oxy-hydrogen gas, also as mileage booster, 4-Electromagnetic or cold plasma standing wave creation of light/water/inert gas in cavity, 5-Compressed air & COP>1 heat exchanger converted to mechanical power, 6-Catalyzed emulsion fuel with far beyond 50% H2O, 7-Hydrocarbon increased by std photocatalyzed O2 Nanobubble water & fuel emulsion, when infused with CO2 in room temp/pressure. +variations, 8-Combining underwater air floating force & down gravity, 9-Propellantless drive, 10-Hydrodynamic cavitation heater, 11-Betz limit excess hydro/wind turbine, 12-Pyromagnetic self running heat producing trash decomposer, etc. They often seem to run on mechanics & accompanied by common side effects current official physics cannot explain(explained by Torsion physics or pre-Heaviside Maxwell equations), low cost, & are convertible to superior new techs that can replace majority of propulsion, weather, medical, nuclear remediation, time dilation, psychology, algorithm, & key mining-industrial-farming processes -IF fully peer reviewed in science. Recent paradigm shift might warrant disruptive official investigations on questionable but increasing documents/testimonial claims on above alternative physics based “open-end pseudo science” R&Ds by groups working across Gov’t/Aerospace/Military/Intel agencies & private contractors, hidden under secrecy law, to which above organizations’ executives often have no access i.e "unacknowledged" projects. They seem to be totally freed from “dead-end public consumption science" & education that are restricted by “science law”: e.g. At one nation, according to official data, 1000+ inventions in Enviro-Energy-Propulsion-Medical field, including patented, are classified by "national security" label, & applied to its allies. But as indicated at beginning, there are collectively clear signs that a majority of establishment is attempting to gradually release unlimited “Open System” technologies & to reduce tech debunking. Overall, mainstream commercialization of unlimited energy production is inevitable & it risks social disruption, hence public discussion on how all related tech/geopolitical info to be officially released & endorsed can be valuable. linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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4 p06 Science accepted high efficiency generators & free energy harvesters p64 Solar, Wind, & Hydro power efficiency beyond official science limit 、 . p83 Still under-utilized vast Biomass, Waste-to-Energy, & Hydrocarbons p122 Ten categories of inventors' seeming “over-unity” claims p152 Commercialization attempts p161 Law of Thermodynamics interpretations, “Dissident” scientists p164 Scalar “wave”, Standing wave resonance, Torsion field.. p198 Terahertz & Far Infrared waves, “No light” Photo Catalysis, ORMUS.. p224 LENR/Cold Fusion update, Losers & Gainers by its success p239 Reduced suppressions, energy paradigm smooth transition models p249 Radical ramifications if inventor tech becomes mainstream p302 ZPE related outrageous claims & controversial tech lobby accusations p370 Debatable Free Energy Summary & Recommendations .._...、 .. .... .. That Are Still Considered as Far-Fetched Contents

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Qualification of information 5 This presentation primarily focuses on less known but latest science consensus forming technologies on strict effect basis, while a bulk of highest efficiency low cost techs & a majority of "outrageous" or controversial claims category contradict predominant view, especially of Wikipedia & Western media/NGOs. Hence attendants/readers are recommended to re-assess the data individually. Regarding Controversial But Future Critical Technologies Discussed: ■ Term “Free energy” or “Over-unity” in this presentation is defined as seeming as if: -1 Drawing of more energy than exerted to generate -2 Continuous motion without energy input -3 Using free material generally not considered as fuel、 ■ Inventors-scientists-witnesses: their claims might involve higher likelihood of: -4 Fabrication, reliability exaggeration, or statistical error chance of observed effect -5 Significant quality gap between inventions, yet - -6 At least above collective majority seems to consistently produces claimed effects Currently more detailed reference list is being produced & will be published separately: The research is updated based on reviewing academic papers & journals, books, speeches, presentations, patents, lab/commercialized product testimonies/complaints, publications & public records of NGOs/media/research institutes/think tanks/military/space & gov't agencies/industry associations. Most effects quoted have accumulative-consistent evidence from unrelated era & source, but mechanics listed are hypothetical. Commercialized company/products are shown in Boldface Navy. Due to space constraints, referenced individual names are given with max 3 letters of first name with entire last name(except some non-Western names), & company names are listed in a way that is findable by internet search.

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6 quest for “free energy”: 1 CLAIMS STARTED well before 1800S Main academia/media in mid-late 1800s forecasted commercialized free energy by early 1900s(Anthony+), 1- Free Ground Earth Battery regularly demonstrated self charging or inducing electricity capacity in low moisture, also power generation efficiently of two-points-voltage gap depends on location(Snow, Lockwood, Wilkins, Dieckmann, Strong, Bain, Edard, Haworth, Bear, Mellon,Hicks, Cerpaux, Garratt, Lamont +); invention rush for telegraph use, Along with strong claims of pre-dated telephony & wireless(Meucci, Stubblefield, Tesla+), 2- Very low cost Vaccumized Air/Compressed Air engine/residential-industrial system, Trompe/Water Pumps also widely used in France etc(Rix, Mekarski, Hardie, Hoadley, C Hodges+) Non earth battery free energy claims mixed: General lack of information to tell degree of actual physical effects from fabrication, some can be valid, Involved mainstream scientists till early 1900s, yet no widely known commercialization Science legal 1&2 disappeared from schooling/research while other types of free energy & repeated side effects in combination didn’t fit with “science package” then & now; gradually became irrelevant/pseudo science, which matched major business-financial lobby interest then linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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7 quest for “free energy”: 2 towards Modern era Same mechanics & side effects were repeated by unrelated inventors, but linear progress was often limited to recent Western academia(LENR, Cavitation), Also Russia-Soviet had some development(Cavitation, Torsion, Ion heater, Ultrasonic, EM pulse) at official level. Boiled down to 10 or so base mechanics(p122-150) with similar tendency: a➢ Often energy is ”triggered in” by rapid change in pressure-voltage-spin, pulse, plasma-magnetic field, cavitation, transmutation, anomalous electron movement causing/caused by standing wave resonance, or antioxidant prone "field effect", link to quantum coherence b➢ Manifest as anomalous cooling/heat, water hammer, vibration coupling, electrical breakdown, spike, surge, implosion, spontaneous corona discharge, ball lightning, vortex, harmonics, similar to Electron Avalanche, Field Emission effect, treated as short circuit etc c➢ Seemingly influenced by cosmo-geophysical factors, avoided by extra energy use d➢ "Static Electricity" is more like high voltage, can flow, & useable for industrial electricity e➢ Mainstream insistence on defending clear flaws in Electromagnetic Induction law i.e. not closed system?; some "free energy"(p122-150) efficiency fluctuates, by time-location, altitude, orientation etc; similar to ground-earth battery, In rare cases emotion seems to affect(O Carr, J Keely, Ra Ring, Th Ludwig, Dan Davidson,Vogel, Seelhofer, R Schild+) Occasional rift:1- Mainstream Western scientist vs 2- Inventor, sidelined & Non-Western scientist(Russia, China+), Some mainstream scholars in West as exception(Austria, Italy+) linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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8 science-accepted “free energy” microcurrent harvesting FREE ENERGY TYPES; increasingly actively commercialized (indicated by navy color letters), ■ MICRO CURRENT ENERGY HARVESTERS(technically dated turbine based smart water meter water flow harvester[also gas meter], or across the board full mainstream use wind & solar type micro current generator is not covered in this presentation(eg indoor use calculator). Generally negligible as industrial power. Most of them are commercialized after yr 2000. Used for switches, sensors, meters(structural integrity, industrial, logistics, transportation, equipment), IoT(Internet of Things), remote monitoring segment use etc: Perpetually Powered Systems. Often auto Wireless Transmission function is built in as one of key benefits. This is currently one of most rapid progress energy generation efficiency & use in commercialization along with industrial use solid state electrical generator from heat, electronics manufacturing, solar power, & energy saving waste water/desalination process.

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9 science-accepted “free energy” 2 microcurrent harvesting II -->>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; increasing actively commercialized exceptions, ■ Micro Current Energy Harvesters: 、Focus in this application is to have sufficient power generation for the device and not necessarily high efficiency. Devices only produce very small power but there are relevancies & relations to other much larger macro scale "energy harvesting" mechanics covered in presentation. Some mechanics with relatively easy industrial electrical generation potential in this segment are marked as # Often use of metamaterials(engineered structure to increase wave-vibration resonance amplifying for harvesting etc), even MEMS(MicroElectroMechanical System) now works in very low freq. of under 30hz with S shaped cantilever etc(Huicong Liu +), or increase wide band reception compared to resonance devices with only small number of limited frequencies are harvested. Often ROI comes at first time replacement of battery or fizzled wire for sensors especially in remote or difficult to reach locations. -->>continued:

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10 -->>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; increasing actively commercialized exceptions, ■ Micro Current Energy Harvesters: Often ROI comes at first time replacement of battery or fizzled wire for sensors especially in remote or difficult to reach locations. Many devices combine multiple mechanics to maintain required electrical supply level. Free energy harvesting micro devices are generally not frequently reported in newspapers or energy saving publications due to micro electrical nature, but products are available for very wide range of sensoring/actuating applications. Some cases there is no differentiator to long lasting battery system(eg self charging tire sensor for non-commercial vehicle). Many companies sell "Evaluation Kit" to test out. Following 1-14 main methods are listed as general representative energy scavenging methods. ■1# Low temperature dif.(1-20°C) Thermoelectric device(industrial type generator version at p50-53): easily made as garage project with high performance Seebeck effect parts(A Makosinski+) & commercialized for consumer market prior to current industrial use micropower in 1990s and withdrawn(Citizen Eco-Drive Thermo, Seiko Thermic), more recent consumable types(Fujitsu, Yamaha had test products, Vodaphone: PowerPocket+), Latest consumer watch market debut (Matrix Industries+). Can be woven into fabric(KAIST South Korea+)(Gr Moriarty+), mass produceable by easy printing(AIST Japan+). science-accepted “free energy” 3 Low temp micro ThermoElectric linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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11 science-accepted “free energy” 4 thermoelectric, Piezoelectric —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Harvesters: ■1 ThermoElectric:、 Relatively significant penetration for mainstream industrial monitoring use last several yrs(Micropelt, EnOcean, Laired Technologies, Marlow Industries, Perpetua Power Source+), fair number of bio sensor focus companies(MC10 inc+), thin micro device for wearables(Thermogen Technologies+), but super high density harvester by combo with solar in wristwatch format is shelved?(EnergyBionics Carbon: Ebersold+). Low cost printed super thin material that is capable of micro current to industrial size electricity conversion from heat(Otego GmbH+). Overall this sector is filled with many players existing in West. ■2# Piezoelectricity(material directly produces electricity when deformed, most widely commercialized in microcurrent generator types), Often use Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) or Zinc Oxide (ZnO), PZT: Lead zirconate titanate. Following elements are often relevant to majority of microcurrent generation by ambient scavenging(other than piezo methods) ●Usually takes cantilever of bimorph or unimorph(one electricity producing piezo layer) generator with magnetic tip to interact with fixed two magnets of above & below. To maximize resonance tuning of wide range or many frequencies(to amplify energy harvesting), multimorph/multilayer or cantilever array located side by side row is arranged.

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12 science-accepted “free energy” 5 Piezoelectric ii Micro & macro —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters: ■2 Piezoelectricity: ●But for non-linear frequency harvesting(non-repetitive vibration) focus, resonance might be avoided: Stochastic Bi-stable or Multi stable, cantilever with magnetic tip to interact with one magnet at fixed position that is same "height" as extension of cantilever. Also might use buckled beam with with both ends clamped with middle. Parametric resonance(not set to narrow frequency resonance emphasis but incorporating non-linear movements: non periodic one time only unique arbitrary motion is ok) type non linear inductance-capacitance of piezo vibration: eg Velocity Damped Resonant Generator(VDRG) by EM damping, Coulomb Damped Resonant Generators(CDRGs) by electrostatic damping. Can be combined with other methods such as electromagnetic induction. linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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13 science-accepted “free energy” 6 Piezoelectric iii commercial e.g. —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters: ■2 Piezoelectricity: ◆ Generally wide range of vibration is harvested as energy(ReVibe Energy, Mide Volture, Arveni fr+), ◆Battery combo emphasis (Linear Technology+), ◆Switch focus(Algra Group+), ◆ Automobile distance warning(Ceratec Engineering Corporation+), ◆Automatic parking space broadcaster (ParkHere GmbH), ◆High power density(MicroGen Systems MSM, AdaptivEnergy RLP, 8power+), ◆Footsteps use for surveillance device (Pavegen+), ◆AAA battery self charging battery or 10sec shaking 3mins lighting LED flashlight was taken out of market quickly(ブラザー工業) ◆Large industrial power is possible: 200kw+/km production at busy hwy became possible with multi-stacked structure(Edery-Azulay/Innowattech), Polyvinylidene Fluoride(PVDF) based flexible Piezoelectric - FerroElectric(electrically polarized material) polymer woven fabric + photovoltaic coating(El Siores /FibrLec). ◆Others: Wearables(Flexous BV - Kinergizer+), Tire sensor for transport or mining trucks (Transense, SilentSensors+), Spray paint on surface to make it a generator (www.munekata.jp/eh/), linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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14 science-accepted “free energy” 7 Piezoelectric iv variations —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters: ■2 Piezoelectricity: Others: Wearables(Flexous BV - Kinergizer+), Tire sensor for transport or mining trucks (Transense, SilentSensors+), Spray paint on surface to make it a generator (www.munekata.jp/eh/), PVDF based /pyroelectric/thermoelectric & Piezoelectric functioning soft thin polymer film (Kureha Kagaku), Self charging by human motion Small flashlight(株式会社スライブ– 圧電素子+) Pacemaker sensor from heartbeat(KAIST, smart-MEMPHIS Silex [enhanced harvesting by MEMS PZT: Lead zirconate titanate]+), People movement surveillance by step-in mattress tracking(東リ イーテリア), SOME OF OTHER PIEZO, PIEZO LIKE MECHANICS, or SYNERGIZED COMBO: i -ElectroStrictive Polymer(change shape or lengthen under electric field or vice versa, significant degree of actuation occurs by electricity applied & used for artificial muscle) for much increased efficiency(Mcknight & Mcginnis+) even if electric field needs to be generated for power harvesting, likely already in military use for much higher macro level power generation. 、 ii-Simiar to above "i" but very soft super stretchable Dielectric Elastomer is low cost material and useable for wave/hydro energy(Softgen Univ Auckland+): 1w per human step range. 0.1mm thick elastic rubber paper like "power generating rubber" with 2 to 10 times higher than conventional piezo material(Ricoh), 、 linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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15 science-accepted “free energy” 8 PiezoElectric v, EM induction —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters: ■2 Piezoelectricity: OTHER PIEZO, PIEZO LIKE MECHANICS or combo: 、 iii-Radio Frequency harvesting by piezo system with cantilever system(Mahmoud Al Ahmad+), iv-Far more minute level vibration sensitive Nanostructure or NanoWire/NEMS (NanoElectroMechanical Systems) can be much more efficient than conventional piezoelectric (KAIST: Keon Jae Lee+), v-Other mechanical combination are explored and deemed to have advantages: Shape Memory Alloy(SMA, by temperature change)(p62,63), Magnetic Shape Memory Alloy(MSMA)(AdaptaMat Oy: MSMA without piezo combo), ■3 ElectroMagnetic Induction from vibration or motion: magnet oscillates on cantilever/spring with coil wrapping it around to generate electricity from ambient sound or vibration(Perpetuum, Adamant jp, Star Micronics, MicroStrain +), using oscillating move/EM field of outside of device using rotating or vertical motion(Joulefusion+), Focus on low end 5hz frequency recovery for spotting personnel & harvesting energy in office/factory(Mono-wireless+): eg walking sound on carpet. Random directional motion into rotational energy to drive generator, similar to gyro mechanics(Witt Energy+): this company aims for industrial size generator. Human motion based battery charger for phones(AMPY Live Charged), 、 linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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16 science-accepted “free energy” 9 RF rectenna —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters: 、 ■4# Ambient & purpose-broadcasted RF wave frequency Harvester & Rectenna: Harvests electromagntic wave usually Radio Frequency range & convert to DC electricity(This section deals up to 10Ghz. As for 10-30,000Ghz range Rectenna[Terahertz & Far InfraRed], see p58 •i for industrial sized electricity generation). Some can only Harvest from purpose intended directed broadcaster-receiver set, as well as inadvertent 10m range 3rd party strong signal(Cymbet EnerChip, ZF Switches & Sensors, Nowi Energy+). 、 But actually far away ambient radio wave(from WiFi, wireless phone, power line, lightning or RF range electric motor noise etc) harvester did exist from yr2000s(RCA Airpower, withdrawn twice after media debunking, probably consumer directed marketing exaggerated their reaction as happens often for disruptive energy tech), and now available again(Drayson Freevolt, PowerCast Corp, Nikola Labs+), Much more robust battery charger for dual mode low frequency EM field & high frequency WiFi wave(DennisSiegel.de). 、 Resonance based amplified industrial level electricity harvesting is approved by Philippine' gov't(Ism Aviso) but western media level pseudoscience. Multiple invention "free energy" engineers often includes this method(Moray, Tesla+). Note higher freq Thz/FIR level industrial power harvesting is officially science approved(p50). linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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17 science-accepted “free energy” 10 ambient em wave harvesting —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Harvesters: ■4 RF wave Harvester: There are wide range of RF scavenging methods available but technology is really simple especially for non micro sized system(eg see below Crystal radio): Generally lab recovery efficiency to electricity as of 2016 is at least 70%+ and some are reaching unity level: "Full absorption" idea or 90+% recovery already at single Ghz range frequency and continues up to Thz/FIR(Almoneef & Ramahi, Emr Karakaya, Fur Dincer+),(but media level pseudoscientization of this claim occurs). Crystal radio set up(one popular type is antenna coil and inductive tuning coil[no antenna is also possible], speaker is usable without outside power) has wide band harvesting capability & many home made large device can have much higher than micro device harvesting capability. Some focus to increase power by Ultra-broadband EM induction or Piezo-Electromagnetic or multiple vibration mode EM induction, etc(EnerBee+) HIGH VOLTAGE POWER LINE scavenging: Near field high power line's EM field flux directly or, Additionally generating vibration with interaction of device magnet with EM field to harvest extra energy from piezoelectric effect(Hosseinimehr & Tabesh+) etc, for self powered electric current transmission monitoring purpose: mostly Wireless Powerline Sensor(Sentient Energy IBOLT, USi Power Donut+), low power 3amp working(Aclara Tollgrade LightHouse), or advanced monitoring(INCON GridSense Line IQ, Lindsey Transmission Line Monitor+): This application is full mainstream use in some regions/industry power monitoring segments while almost none in others. -->cont: linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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18 science-accepted “free energy” 11 high voltage line, earth mag f. —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Harvesters: ■4 RF wave Harvester: HIGH VOLTAGE POWER LINE scavenging:、 Underwater submerged power line harvesting(Dyden Corporation+): this company also makes usually minute current limited ElectroStatic Induction harvester boosting with resonance use for 6-12V max 6W workable constant harvesting(from 500kv, 6.5m away AC line). House level voltage line monitoring(Panoramic Power+). Harvesting from high power line is also easiest method as capacitive coupling as well as RF crystal radio reception method, some seem to illegally "steal or burrow power" from semi far field(10-50m) away with home made device. Same induction can be made from near radio station transmitter,、 Also this induction of fluxing/changing magnetic field enables Power Factor Correction device can reduce not only Apparent Power billed industrial electricity, but even Actual Power billed residential electricity cost(p182), but latter effect is still pseudoscience in Western mainstream. YET, basically same mechanics based super high efficiency induction power harvester from Florescent light inverter, to operate surveillance camera & video transmission both is quietly commercialized in Japan for last 10yrs(Nippon Denki - NEC), -->>cont: linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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19 science-accepted “free energy” 12 Earth mag field, large pwr —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Harvesters: ■4 RF wave Harvester: Geo Magnetic Field: EARTH MAGNETIC FIELD(Geo Magnetic field:GMF) or RELATED AMBIENT LOW FREQUENCY RESONANCE(7-50hz) use as base mechanics: can be very large dimension(1-1000m long) Electrodynamic Tether can generate significant industrial electricity by fast moving conductive long wire against earth magnetic field(Tether Unlimited+), But this mainstream explanation might not be main reason for its workability: less to do with GMF but generally more to do with voltage gradient in troposphere, & solar wind-cosmic ray is fluctuating GMF & existence of highly charged air particles with extreme temperatures at thermosphere(where tether is mostly used)? Tire equipped coil generates micropower as car is driven & tire rotates(Infineon Technologies AG). One manufacturer commercialized self charging LED flashlight claiming by GMF interaction but seemingly over promising fast chargeability to cause low ratio customer satisfaction(ADGEX ELFE): harvesting method is not explained clearly, and static GMF advertising might be more of a gimmick, and bulk might come from tapping RF waves or even ambient vibration. -->>cont: linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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20 science-accepted “free energy” 13 Earth mag field, micro pwr —>>cont: FREE ENERGY; ■ Micro Harvesters: ■4 RF wave Rectenna: Geo Mag Field(GMF): GMF energy harvester type of products are well within easy commercialization by using mainstream science approved or tacitly non-debunked GMF energy harvesting mechanics in multiplication. Some such examples are given in following a-f: a-Medical sensor energy harvester(Ferro Solutions Inc: Jiankang Huang, O'Handley et al), b-Amplification of general ambient electric field time variance harvesting: Alternating conductive and dielectric layer film coupled by capacitor of resonance RLC circuit (Resistor-Inductor-Capacitor)(Tao & Owhadi): similar mechanics as "Orgone energy" layering(p283,284)、 c-Even conservative mainstream science group admits solely GMF based static electrical generation is possible by use of electro-conducting cylindrical shell of manganese zinc ferite(Chyba & Hand+), d- Schumann freq level resonance focus amplifying, using Casimir oscillation amplification type capability: Quantum Oscillator(see next page "f"), e-Actually most of self charging Flashlight type device energy scavenging can come from non earth resonance: high power line(50-60hz etc), or radio wave(0.5-30mhz)/wifi(2-4ghz) induction etc, or completely different harvesting methods can be combined. -->>cont: linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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21 science-accepted “free energy” 14 casimir force & nano oscillat. —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters: ■4 RF wave Harvester: EARTH MAGNETIC FIELD/GeoMagnetic field(GMF): f-1 This might be deemed as side information but minute oscillations like even Casimir force(vacuum fluctuation, Zeropoint energy relation) is measurerable by microcantilever(Mohideen+),、 Successful Casimir force driven device since 2001 is completely ignored even by scientific media(Fed Capasso: Lucent Technologies/Bell Lab+): basically Casimir force is consistently harvestable as energy by MEMS/NEMS(NanoElectroMechanical Systems)(Dum Caruntu+), While Casimir and van der Waals forces are agreed to be main reason for stiction failure of MEMS cantilever(Mic Serry+), Needs proper consideration for its major role in nano-generator design(Raf Ardito+): e.g. when membranes work in vacuum without capillary forces (Jian-Ning Ding+). But Casimir force itself is reversible by using NEMS(D Lopez[ANL]+) etc(neg refractive index material), & even can cause nano levitation(Ulf Leonhardt, Fed Capasso+). -->>cont: linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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22 science-accepted “free energy” 15 casimir force & pwr harvesting —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters: ■4 RF wave Harvester: GeoMagnetic field(GMF):、 f-2 Progressive end of mainstream academics get patent on MEMS or nano polymer used Casimir force extraction KWh level electrical generator with some mainstream funding(Jovion Corp: Moddel & Haisch). Similarly, Casimir cavity's energy gap bet inside & outside should be able to be used for energy extraction as well as gravity control?(Calloni & Di Fiore et al+)、 f-3 "Nano" Oscillation based Brownian Ratchet or Ambient Thermal noise harvesting are all workable: Minority conservative end of mainstream academic stance or media level science asserts still such nano level oscillation is impossible to harvest as ratchet rotation even if oscillation exists(R Feynman+), but it is actually extracted as energy by rectification(Astumian+). Now experimental results on various quantum fluctuation is finally accepted in academic papers as 'true"(p251) linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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23 science-accepted “free energy” 16 magnetostrictive/electrostatic —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters: ■5# MagnetoStrictive Material(MsM) creates magnetic field when changes its shape, hence causes time varied magnetic field with vibration, & this is picked up as electricity by coil around it(Ferro Solutions Inc, Moritex Corporation, Shonan-metaltec), Epoxy covered high impact useable generator(Tohoku Steel+), Batteryless wireless mouse by thermoelectric harvesting combo(Seiko Instruments+) Galfenol based(alloy of iron and gallium) or Terfenol's latest version is order of magnitude more efficient vibration energy harvester(20-30% range as a result) than conventional piezoelectric material & material lasts much longer due to no degradation or becoming brittle due to piezo vibration(Tos Ueno+). Similar Ferrofluid based energy harvester is also deemed highly effective: while effectively absorbing vibration, ■6 Electrostatic Induction from vibration: Generally power is produced by conversion of oscillation to changed positioning or distance between electrodes: varying capacitance. Some involve electret(dielectric material with semi permanent electron polarization state). Can be very low cost with no magnets or piezo material(Omron - THHINK Wireless Technologies - Konishiyasu+), Walking motion sensor by unique rotating generator by use of electret(Hokuriku Electric Industry) -->>cont:

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24 science-accepted“free energy” 17 triboelectric teng - intro —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Microcurrent Energy Harvesters: ■7# TriboElectric NanoGenerator (TENG): TriboElectricity/Contact Electrification is utilized as newly announced tech in 2011(Zhong Lin Wang). Harvest energy effectively in wide bandwidth from both minute contact electrification & electrostatic induction, Invention increased usable efficiencies from less than 1% to max 50-60+% in few yrs from both regular & irregular motions, with near future industrial power application: Unique mechanics: for example, leading devices often have multiple power generation modes: i-two different material based electrodes surface-touching & detaching, ii-sliding, iii-direct skin contact, rain drop or air flow etc on device surface(single electrode mode), iv- "Free standing layer": Pair of symmetric electrodes is located below a dielectric layer, and the size of the electrodes and the gap distance between them are of same order as size of the moving layer, & when this layer approaches or distances electricity flows between electrodes. -->>cont:

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25 science-accepted “free energy” 18 tribo teng ii commercialization —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Micro Harvesters: ■7 TriboElectric (TENG): Initially there was a major technical challenge: power could not be used as is for micro device since power is generated as AC(alternative current) and intermittent, hence required a battery/capacitor. But due to TENG's high voltage with low amp(i.e. high impedance), there was problem to connect effectively with capacitor(low impedance, hence lose most of power without storing). This impedance mismatch problem was solved by two capacitor system to run micro device from non linear motions like intermittent human tapping, also deployed with other tribo mechanics: Hybridizing with EM induction or piezo polymer etc(纳米新能源有限公司+), 30x30cm walk-on people traffic pad that costs $20, generates up to 10W by each step(Touchlight Innovations: Swa Pujari), Shifting business focus into tribo from piezo type product line(北京微能高芯科技有限公司 +), Wide range of tribo mechanics & functions has been successful at least experimentally: Water inside pencil size TENG for human motion type non-linear stimulation(Dong Sung Kim et al), Enclosed vibration harvester functionable under water or in snow, Cylindrical rotating types, Transparent version to generate power from rain drops to complement solar cell to maintain electricity generatin during rain day & night(Li Zheng et al). Some organizations focus on trying out new applications in commercialized environment including low maintenance air filter(Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy & Nanosystems: Zhong Lin Wang - 王中林). -->>cont: linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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26 science-accepted “free energy” 19 tribo teng iii varied mechanics —>>cont: FREE ENERGY; ■ Micro Harvesters: ■7 TriboElectric (TENG): Triboelectric–Pyroelectric–Piezoelectric hybrid cell nano generator(Yunlong Zi+), TENG is low cost & also suitable to harvests air-water flow/wave(Yuanjie Su+), Wind recovery Flutter-Driven Triboelectric Generator(Jihyun Bae[SAIT:Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology]+). Preventing metal corrosion while generate energy at water-metal contact area(Xiaoyi Li+)(see p28-30 on how ionic movement within still water within device generates power instead of kinetic motion) or as human clothing (Sang-Woo Kim+) etc LIGHTNING POWER HARVESTING(though this is macro scale and TENG unrelated): Not only thunderstorm but snow/sand storm should be also linked to triboelectricity effect(RJ Latham, EY Tkachenko+): Triple layered structure to increase recovery of lightning power to 20+% and with battery to work as a energy system from lab test(Jeong Min Baik: UNIST), Inventor's small lab test results(Ste Leroy+), Field tested small scale device(Mohd Farriz Basar[UTeM]+) etc, this is western media debunked. Also there seems to be some similar element to Orgone effect: p283-6. -->>cont:

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27 —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Micro Harvesters: ■7 TriboElectric (TENG): TriboElectric electricity generation is done in more flexible way in higher efficiency than most other methods with easy scalability to mega size - even to the extent to become significant enough world wide electrical source along with conventional ElectroMagnetic Induction Generator(EMIG), also will be suitable for Self powered desalination, Self hydrogen production etc(Zhong Lin Wang, Guang Zhu+)、 1m2 of Electrical Double Layer(EDL: two parallel layers of electrons formulate between water and solid matter) mechanics can sustainably produce 0.46kw/ of power(Jinsung Chun et al), Modulation of EDL to generate power(Jong Kyun Moon, YoungJun Yang+) or 1m2 of best single layer material can produce up to 1.2kw. Unique Western mainstream treatment on TENG is that this tech hasn't been debunked from day 1 by media despite other similar degree of economically paradigm shifting performances are usually discredited or ignored(most disruptive element of TENG industrial power generation is deemphasized) hence poses more growth potential than other high efficiency mechanics such as Magnetothermal, EM wave heat harvesting(FIR/THZ), or ReverseElectroWetting generator in this micro generator segment. Significant backing of Chinese State and a university in US(Georgia Tech) -->>cont: science-accepted “free energy” 20 tribo teng iv future potential linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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28 science-accepted “free energy” 21 thermal ionic movement —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Micro Harvesters: ■8# Small water flow or even Thermal Ionic fluctuation ONLY in still water can be harvested as electricity by Graphene/CarbonNanotube etc(or TriboElectricity-II, cross over with Triboelectric TENG but with mechanics more focused on Ionic movement(also see p32 ■10 Ambient thermionic movement). Not commercialized and less cohesive development. This effect has been discussed amongst academics since 2001 Various experimental devices with Ionic Liquid or deionized water used generators both with basically same results: Most common type of 8a-Pure water movement on graphene etc generates power by charge separation: when water droplet moves on flat surface/micro channels droplet is positively charged and matter surface is negatively charged causes electron to flow(Siowling Soh, Soon-Hyung Kwon, VI Petrik+), Single wall graphene has much higher power than double/triple etc(Sha Ghosh+), Water-ethanol mix in graphene form(Wenbin Huang et al+). -->cont: linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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29 science-accepted “free energy” 22 thermal ionic move, ionic liqd —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Micro Harvesters: ■8 Thermal Ionic fluctuation ONLY in STILL WATER: 8b-Salt/Ionic liquid(conductive) on graphene etc mechanics is only slightly different from deionized water; friction is generated between water flow and ions(Nik Koratkar+), ionic liquid is conductive but graphene conducts electricity faster than electrolyte(ionic liquid) so electricity still flows through prepared circuit with asymmetric electrodes etc.(Sta Skafidas, Weijie Kong+), Can also work as varying capacitance based electrostatic generator, Water evaporation driven ElectroScavenging effect generator by charge separation & power harvesting(Rub Borno+): this also relates to advanced non cloud seeding weather modification(for more details go to this link [four levels of..]and search "ElectroScavenging"), -->cont: linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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30 science-accepted “free energy” 23 thermal ionic ii, R-ElectroWet. —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Harvesters: ■8# Thermal Ionic move harvested: Thermal Ionic movement only, no kinetic or vibration power used: 50-80°C "hair electrodes" cause proton hopping(Bri Tulachan+), or Electricity at room temperature by thermal motion of ions in STILL LIQUID instead of by FLOWS of the solutions by Monolayer Graphene(Graphene Battery): Electron is emitted by interaction of graphene & cation, then it flows along graphene to electrode(Zihan Xu, Guoan Tai+). This particular theme, participated by state backed Chinese TENG research groups is practically free energy tech, & was not debunked in West but quietly discontinued on official level. This room temperature Thermal Ionic movement energy harvesting/generation is not taken up by inventor type groups. *Also Note TriboElectric related effects has mainstream disputes amongst what causes/how electron transfer occurs. ■9# Reverse Electrowetting power harvester: Reverse ElectroWetting On Dielectric(REWOD), Related to ElectroWetting process which can transport liquid with electricity by modifying the surface tension of liquid especially on hydrophobic surface(film, dielectric etc), This differs from similar looking effect causeable by ElectroMigration which gives force to move water. linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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31 science-accepted “free energy” 24 reverse electrowetting ii —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Micro Harvesters: ■9# Reverse Electrowetting harvester: This effect is listed in micro power segment here to indicate common elements with TriboElectricity process, but REWOD research is currently more focused for high density power production with large input(e.g. human kinetic power) for more of flashlight or higher power use level(e.g. 10w produced with battery set per shoe for human walking). Far more efficient than conventional piezoelectricity, Most efficient energy harvesting method at this time for human steps or car traffic type power generation(along with tribo effect TENG device). New mechanics are invented with recent mainstream backing: Use of Atomic Layer Deposition(ALD), Capillary Microfluidic device achieves 65% electric generation efficiency(Jak Kedzierski et al), Bubbler type(Instep Nanopower: Krupenkin & Taylor et al), Coating surface film with Al2O3 to increase capacitance etc. PERPETUAL MICROSEISM/MICROBAROM HARVESTING: in very high density(Tsung-Hsing Hsu+). Another "science legal free energy" capability, but this harvests sub 1hz level super slow oscillation as energy(takes more than 1 second per cycle: earth hum, weather or ocean wave triggered "perpetual tremor"). Tribo TENG has similar capability. Much lower density(efficiency) harvesting is possible with piezo etc. Naturally not officially pursued given high economical disruptiveness along with industrial electricity harvester from 1-Casimir force, 2-Room temp thermal ionic movement only, 3-Earth Magnetic Field - Schumann resonance, or 4-Tall antenna based voltage gradient tether. But now 5-FIR/THZ frequency thermal radiation is in process of commercialization by mainstream embracement! (p58) linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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32 science-accepted “free energy” 25 ambient thermionic, spin current —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Micro Harvesters: ■10# Ambient temperature & magnetic field driven Thermionic device:(GN Hatsopolous, Xinyong Fu & Zi Tao Fu[“magnetic demon”]+): use of 90° cross wise laid magnetic field to cause Hull Cut Off type threshold to control electron movement from one electrode to the other in one direction to generate cooling effect in a vacuum tube to cause thermionic emission, hence indirect use of ambient temperature with originally magnet triggered energy supply to generate minute electricity. Despite still majority's mainstream academic denial, this maxwell's demon type effect should be valid based on various science valid combo effects(Cyr Smith+): (Nottingham cooling effect related), Also this is possible in known system like Aquaporin(Liangsuo Shu, Yingjie Li+), Linked to ■8 Thermal Ionic movement electricity harvesting: both seem to be too disruptive complete "free energy" type to get official research going. ■11# Carrying electrical current by Spin current related methods, or by fractionally charged quasi-particle in quantum hall effect regime(as opposed to conventional charge current), seem to strongly imply overunity(Cyr Smith+): 1-Spin rectification at Larmor precession freq to control spin to produce DC current(YS Gui+), 2-Spin Battery: EMF (Electromotive force) of spin origin generated by static magnetic field in magnetic tunnel junction(S Maekawa+), 3-Spin current related Reverse Seebeck effect is much higher thermoelectric harvesting from heat than conventional solid state generators. Also see "Orgone"/"Orgonite" p283-6. 4-Spin wave tech relation to Torsion field application(GJ Bugh+), & gravity tech(Frolov+) linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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33 science-accepted “free energy” 26 air voltage gradient, kinetic + —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Micro Harvesters: ■12# Properly grounded electricity conductive kite or rod extracts atmospheric electricity(Beccaria, G Richmann, Dalibard, De Romas+), Use of "static electricity": actual flowing of unbalanced electric charge. Effect itself is easily replicated by amateurs, can easily lead to macro power generator, almost entirely ignored by recent mainstream for commercialization or research(IonPowerGroup.com+), 、 ■#13 Kinetic Power Harvester: Mostly by human or car/train traffic. Human motion(nPower PEG+), Military focus(Bionic Power+): to charge battery etc., 1hr walking range to charge phone by hydraulics(Walking Charger - Energy Harvesters LLC+),1minute hand crank generates 11-23mins of useable LED light(Envirofit Empower Duo+). Automobile slow down zone power harvested by magnetic induction(Underground Power SRL+), or by scalable Hydraulic liquid, piston, & pressure accumulator units fed to electric generator for power production to beyond 100kw+ range(KinergyPower+), Also piezo effects are used but as of 2016 cost is higher than conventional methods for industrial power. ■14 Ground/Tree/plant Electricity harvester(Barbosa, Bryan, Karavas: Voltree, Helder: Plant-e+), WiFi/Wireless system to transmit plant info to computer is workable only for short distance currently(Seiko Instruments, Ritsumeikan Univ Electronic & Computer Engineering dpt+). Photosynthesis based pot plant smartphone charger & WiFi system(Bioo - Arkyne Technologies+) linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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34 science-accepted “free energy” 27 non-harvesting self generators —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES: ■SELF GENERATING(non harvesting) MICROCURRENT DEVICES ■i Permanent Tourmaline electrode electrolysis(Kubo effect), or ■ii Self generating micro-current minerals: Acos Terahertz Face Roller(Kun Sasaki+). 、 ■iii Persistent Current(perpetual current) in Nano Ring: Mesoscopic quantum phenomena, Mainstream quietly approved but energy generator development research avoided. Observed in nano ring structure metals in still state is up to 1-2 orders of magnitude larger(over-unity, in addition to perpetual current itself!)(KB Efetov+) than any wishful mainstream theory allows to be(Pri Mohanty+) & it demonstrates unknown time dependent fluctuations, deemed phase coupling/phase coherence to be critical factor(Mar Büttiker+). Instantly commercializable Macroscopic Persistent Current is almost entirely ignored but virtually science approved(C van der Wal, Hir Koizumi+), Violation of 2nd law?(Čápek, Da Sheehan+) ■iv also Zamboni Pile/Duluc Dry Pile(Battery) of certain set up(eg Oxford Electric Bell) or what is called Orgone also self-generates ElectroMotive Force or "self-flows" unlimited microcurrent when layers of different electric potential matters are pressed together wedged by dielectric material(electrically neutral/blocks electron flow, but allows electrostatic/polarize to develop dipole moment) in addition to chemical type reaction(limited), but perpetual current effect of "iv" is often pseudoscientized even above i - iii effects are mainstream approved as "science legal", also similar "erroneous" over-unity claims were made by top physicists back when battery was invented(Volta+), -->>cont: linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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35 science-accepted “free energy” 28 solar pond, chimney, emulsion —>>cont: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Solar Chimney: Initial high cost, mainstream selectively quoting high LCOE(Levelized Cost Of Electricity), less electricity produced at night, many side benefits: Hyperion Energy, Enviromission+, Claims of more efficient, far less land use versions from pilot tests, ■ Salinity Gradient Solar Pond: Ormat+, suitable only with low cost land near salt water, tech & maintenance unstandardized, ■ WATER MIXTURE TYPES: ■ a Water-Oil emulsion fuel: Massive gap in fuel saving ability, also depends on type of boiler/engine used for: 1-25%(beyond this % is "science illegal":see p142-144), Cuts emission(PM 10-80%, NOx/SOx 10-50%), There is significance as one of few official mainstream instantly large scale useable "partial free energy tech" & commercialization exist world wide but remains low key in most nations: rarely referred even by cleantech media, minimum public funding for research in West. 、 Groups of Western Mainstream (WM) business establishment promoted Emulsion Fuel under "excuse" of emission decrease(with no reference to fuel saving) in 2001-2003. Some are still offered(Lubrizol PuriNOx, Pirelli Gecam, Total Aquazole +), while others withdrew(Shell, BP, Chevron). At mainstream exposure discussion, hygroscopic fuel's(diesel, biofuel) water mix problem solution is offered by water dispersant/water emulsifying additives(Rolling Big Power RBP-80001, Hot Shot’s Secret, FPPF, Central Illinois Manufacturing - HydroBurn, XDP Diesel Power Plus+) that include increased fuel efficiency of 3-10% range, but they are lobbied against by united mainstream groups(car & engine manufacturers) as bad for engine etc, while existence of larger magnitude of full emulsion fuel cost saving remains entirely avoided topic. -->>continues as fuel saving purpose emulsion next page: linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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36 science-accepted “free energy” 29 Emulsion Fuel ii —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Water mixture: ■ a Water-Oil emulsion fuel: A few companies serving world wide mainly for diesel but some also gasoline market: ◆Europe(Eco Energy Holding AS, IncBio, E•Fuel SA, Toeps innovation+), ◆North America(Nonox, Fierce Fuel Systems, Next Alternative Inc+), ◆Japan(AIT Emulsion, NanoFuel co+), ◆Operations in Russia openly serve mainstream(Теплоэнергоремонт-Москва, Vodmazut Раптех, «Энергосберегающие технологии» «ЭСТ» - est-m.ru, МЕССКА - messka.ru+), ◆Middle East(4C Technologies+), ◆India(Creatnet Technology Pvt +), ◆South Korea is unique amongst Western allies to openly focus at government level(CoxOil kr, Green Hitech kr, Sampower kr+), ◆Other Asia(Solar Emulsi PT Pertamina, Singapore Emulsion Fuel+), ◆China is mainly served by own state company inhouse & Taiwanese companies(Comaxima Eco-Green Technology, Shine Bond 夏邦科技股份有限公司 +), Sector Base: Finally mainstream maritime industry open debut by European back up: Quadrise MSAR, in Asia: Monohakobi. Tech Variations: ● Biofuel Emulsion(Gruppo Forini+), ● Works down to -30°C storage(SulNOx Fuel Fusions), Equipment can be expensive & actual cost saving is often on par or less than far lower cost best performing magnetic flowing fuel treatment device, or Far InfraRed or Torsion Wave emitting mineral/matter/fluid wrapped around fuel line with 5-15% saving range(this is pseudoscientized at media level & superficial science level),(p126) -->>cont: linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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37 science-accepted “free energy” 30 Coal-Water Slurry, history —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ Water Mixture Types: ■ b Coal-Water Slurry(CWS): 30-50% H2O(also note regular coal itself may contain high water content), Historically competed against oil seriously then "lost" along with plant alcohol fuels(US Prohibition), electric cars/hydrogen cars(all 1880s-1930s)/, Has most significant short term potential as partial "free energy" tech. At boiler/gasification, thermal efficiency is coal+20% while fuel vol itself increases, storage & transferability made easier as liquid fuel, Lower emission(CO2, NOx, SOx) than Diesel fuel boiler, Can utilize unrecovered fine coal, or coal sludge/tailing, to turn environmental hazard into revenue fuel product.、 With its mainstream approved status, this almost forgotten low tech can exert enormous influence on shorter term energy market, climate change carbon reduction targeting & geo-econo-political situation: largely dormant massive coal reserve evenly distributed world wide can made into diesel equivalent with 1/2-1/4 of cost to destroy “fossil fuel” supply shortage, liquid fuel market price, & existing crude oil refining/sorting system. Potential to replace entire diesel/heavy oil supply if modified special engine type(no nozzle wearing etc) is introduced(eg Micronised Refined Carbons(MRC) consuming DICE: Direct Injection Carbon Engine: US gov't backed program(also GE, GM etc participation) bet 1970s-2000s, recently Australia [CSIRO & many Australian coal companies]) US: Unsuccessful gov't participated movement to promote CWS to replace majority of higher priced imported oil in 1980s. Also clean coal burning IGCC(Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power plants in US are using coal water slurry for boiler feeding (wet feed gasification to produce extra H2)(CB&I E-Gas, Texaco-GE) though almost never publicly reported. Regular fuel use US CWS system installer:(ecoTECH Energy, AuraSource Inc+) linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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38 science-accepted “free energy” 31 Coal-Water Slurryii, china —>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ b Coal-Water Slurry(CWS): China: is tech leader & CWS is high profile tech nationwide led by state companies: (中国煤炭科工集团有限公司 - China Coal Technology & Engineering Group Corp, 山东能源集团 Shangdong Energy Group, 兖矿集团 Yuankuang Group - 水煤浆气化及煤化工国家工程研究中心 Slurry Gasification and Coal Chemical Engineering Research, 浙江先创新能源技术开发有限公司 - Zjxianchuang, 北京国承瑞泰科技股份有限公司 GCPMC, jf NAIC+), Low grade coal focus: High moisture content lignite slurry (榆林市科达煤炭化学研究院有限公司 - 榆林西部煤炭技术研究中心: Yulin Western Coal Technology Research Centre+), Low grade fine ground coal mix for emission reduction focus(中煤科工清洁能源股份有限公司 cctegce+), Taiwan (Neofuel tw). Also China leads to Hydrothermal combustion of coal(SuperCritical water). Russia & ex-soviet: Relatively active use(Амальтеа-Сервис vodougol, КОТЭС Cotes-Group+): Rather surprising US controlled Ukraine gov't has declared CWS as national energy priority with Chinese financial back up(Ukrheat+).、 linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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39 science-accepted “free energy” 32 Coal-Water Slurryiii, bacteria -->>cont: Coal Water Slurry:、 Rest of world: CWS is overall even lower profile commercialization than emulsion fuel with very small # of players considering its science legal status(EET CWS, JGC, Kawasaki Heavy, Cynergi Holding SA+), Often small one-man show type operation or main business is other engineering(Advanced Coal Water Slurry Technologies, LeMar LLC, KEM-jp.com+).、 Its very disruptive nature of abundant energy, scientifically approved status can be one of the reasons why CWS and Emulsion fuel are both not highlighted by major Western environmental NGOs & mainstream entities. ■ Atmos clock+(C Drebbel+), use of self oscillating Torsion pendulum - Electro-mechanical transducer, ambience change, can combine with Foucalt pendulum element, ■ Bacteria generator; Self-Charge Electrochemical Bio-capacitor (Pankratov+), Microbial Fuel Cell(MFC)(Cambrian Innovation, Emefcy EBR +) or its “overunity” electrolysis (Microbial Electrolysis Cell - MEC), 1-2$ range material based DIY self producing no running water "moist soil based" MFC for 3rd world villages(Aiden Lab), Magnetotactic Bacteria based types etc., ■ ”Levitron”type, or ”Drinking Bird” generator,、 linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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40 science-accepted “free energy” 33 hydrodynamic, blue energy ■ Hydrodynamic heater(TEKMASH, CT Systems+), (also see p135-138: G Ivanenko, Bespalko+), inconsistent “Self running” ability but happens often, valid mainstream science until it becomes overunity, ■ Temperature based volume changing ultra sensitive Phase Change Material (PCM) driven Hydraulic Motor: SOLO-TREC(J Jones & Y Chao), ■ Atomic/Nanogenerators, 24hr Infrared Solar(Hong Liu+), Particulates(Da Yurth+), Atomic Hydrogen Welding(Langmuir), Negative electrical resistance carbon fibre(De Chung+), ■ Blue Energy ■ Some “free energy tech” usually costs more than existing system such as Blue Energy: Reversed electrodialysis, Pressure Retarded Osmosis(PRO)/Osmotic power, Hydrocratic ocean energy. Exception eg: Combined low pressure high flow desalination with additionally electricity generated by removing ions from seawater with Molybdenum Disulfide(MoS2) nanofilter(Nar Aluru+):30-50+% electricity cost saving. But further efficient if osmotic pressure is used(Moh Heiranian+) : can become efficient free energy generator while making drinking water from ocean(not officially demonstrated). Also pure power generation-wise, Capacitive (mix) energy extraction by Double Layer Expansion(CDLE)(Br Logan+), or by Donnan Potential(CDP), and Two stage PRO(Wei He+) might become super low cost in future linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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41 SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES: i.e. beyond grid parity if commercialized as electricity generation, often same treatment as inventors' ”free energy”(p122-150); many stopped researches, stay microscale, suddenly retracted without explanation, some suspected internal only corporate use, Selective, under-exaggerated, outdated data for efficiency & cost performance in mainstream reporting contradicts manufacturer or academic/field-lab data(particularly in fast advancing tech like Wind/Ocean energy or semiconductor related Solar cell & solid state devices as well as MEMS, etc, But again now emerging commercialized exceptions, ■ Non UV H2 Photolysis from water by Sn3O4(H Abe+), many other “artificial photosynthesis”s, ■ 50-200%+ increased efficiency engines(Myers, Ogle,Covey, Pogue, Castellini, Brandt, La Force, Hatton, Caggiano, Belland, Purushottam Pipaliya, Holland, Ch Brown, Fish+) by cam timing, spark plug, carburetor+), Specific angled screen in carburetor “accidentally” improved 50% mileage in 1960s(Ford), but model was soon “recalled to correct it back” to factory spec(Pantone+). Pneumatic engine(“science illegal” version, p135-138): Peugeot 208 Hybrid Air(40km/litre, 94mpg), Tata & MDI-lu(Negre), both being shelved, Some non electric Japanese cars mostly sold only in Japan(35km+/l), Volkswagen XL1(100km/l, 250 test units only) & discontinued Lupo(35km/l). In1920s mainstream predicted 80mpg norm with test cars performing 100mpg+(Byr Wine, Al Wallace, Bru McBurney+), Now available 95% efficient Shinsei Electrostatic Motor, science-accepted “lowest cost” tech1 (past grid parity): efficient engine

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42 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 2: phase change, tether etc —>> cont: SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES(& Grid Parity): ■ Regenerative Shock Absorber normally brings negligible 5% range car mileage efficiency(eg ClearMotion, hydraulic motor runs to generate power) but in certain specific electrical energy needs application it could bring substantial saving. ■ ElectroDynamic Tether: mainstream approved idea as only limited use in space environment as lowest cost tech(long conducting wire[mainly 500m plus for large power but works from 1m] moves along earth magnetic field etc to generate electricity), Can be used to replace fuel with free electricity for low orbit satellites and even ultra high elevation flight if air craft propulsion re-configuration is made(plasma, ion thrust etc) with high elevation cruising(BE Gilchrist, Jam McCanney+)/(Boeing - Tether Unlimited). But actually generates full time "free energy" on earth surface: by likely triggering imbalanced static electricity to flow, Works at on-ground still-earth vertical environment with graphene/nanocarbon use(IonPowerGroup.com+) ■ Super efficient Phase Change Material(PCM) for housing: to release or absorb heat at preset temperature: BioPCM, DuPont Energain, PCM injected wood: Enertia Home, Combine PCM with Vacuum Insulation Panels(VIP) to provide certain packages/boxes perpetual free cooling or heating depends on outside temperature transition: va-Q-tec AG+ ■ Micro-Nano Porous antibacterial, anticorrosion high adhesion Paint with significant heat insulating water based paint can induce game changing overall cost saving (Nansulate - Industrial Nanotech - INI World Wide+): but some of this company type is apparently holding back from adding further disruptive thermoelectric paint capability? linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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43 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 3: ammonia, some biofuel —>> cont: SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES: ■ Portable ammonia maker from H2O+air by compression cycle etc for engines(J Fleming), ■Super high concentration (H2O2)Hydrogen Peroxide: low cost sustainable clean fuel for commercial planes, can be made/separated/accumulated by water electrolysis/plasma discharge/photocatalysis etc from natural water and air, but had met massive selective distorted danger info & storage impossibility exaggeration from mainstream groups(General Kinetics+), ■(N2H4)Hydrazine Fuel Cell: small, no precious metal, easy high power fuel(Daihatsu co), ■ Aluminium Air Battery:1700km+ run range 100kg weight for electric cars(Phinergy), ■ Galvanic Reaction Salt Water Cell: (Hydra Light+)Very slow reaction design, Currently for small phone charge type power level, about 1/30-50th cost of regular 2A battery, with conistent voltage and current, ■ Thorium:US in 70s, Uranium took over, nuclear plant use, far less radiation, re-starting (India, Russia, China, US, Norway, Israel+), portable(Dratch+), ■ Biofuel(Ethanol) from cellulose only(inedible plant, grass straw, tree branches, broken trees etc), Some produce with <1/2 cost of retail petrol of high fuel price nation(Kawasaki Heavy - within 2weeks of intending commercialization, key board members + CEO fired, and project shelved), others also announced tech success without commercialization intention since 2006(Taisei Kensetsu & Sapporo Beer, Honda+), as often happens in Japan, small sector limited domestic only or 3rd world use intention seems allowed?(Kita-Akita city forestry coop, Sumitomo Forestry, Mitsui Zosen+): But stagnant commercialization situation started to change world wide since around 2014(see Biomass: p89, 91) linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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44 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 4: clean coal process etc —>> continued SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES: ■ Coal based Gas/Oil/Direct power: Natural gas like CENfuel(Lloyd & Turner ) & Low Temp Coal Carbonization: LTC, Rexco(Karrick), Improved Bergius method, Micro active at Sasol+, Similar Lurgi process active in China(70+ plants), EM wave/Ultrasonic use(M Kawabata+), Low fume DCFC (Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, DEHPL+) mechanics avail since 1890s(W Jacques+), A few of IGCC (Integrated coal Gasification Combined Cycle, usually said to be more expensive than regular coal combustion, but high efficiency low cost data can be hidden by high startup cost etc): more on gasification, ■ Super high density Enzymatic fuel cell(YH Percival Zhang)、 ■ Certain customized Geothermal heating: Heat Pump, Gradient Energy Harvesting etc: e.g. Discarded oil well-mine EGS(Sologen), Downhole heat exchanger use, 300m deep closed loop in high heat area useable even without heat pump cost etc, Also much lower cost Hydrothermal Spallation drilling soon "went out of business"(Potter Drilling): ■ Cooling use OTEC(Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) near some water areas(Sea Water Air Conditioning)(Makai, Bluerise nl+), In some super high cost power small island OTEC becomes lowest energy cost by improved Kalina Cycle(Xenesys), PCM used OTEC engine, ■ Betavoltaics types: Tritium Light or Battery(P Brown+), Zinc sulfide or Radium Paint + Solar Cell, Optoelectric Nuclear Battery(Kurcharov Inst+), Radioisotope Generator(NASA+): mininuclear heat converted to electricity by thermoelectric device. ■ Hydrothermal vent power extraction: large scale indicated by test success, ■ Orimulsion: Water(30%) emulsified bitumen by Venezuelan state corp: broke "taboo" of not making bitumen emulsion for road pavement/sealant use linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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45 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 5: perpetual hydrogen etc —>> continued SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES: ■ Exotic configurations: Limited to pilot success; • Advanced Compressed air energy storage by additional full recovery of both Heat compressed & Cold air released, • Pneumatic engine(Negre+, “illegal” version: p135-138), • Magnetic Energy Recovery Switch (Shimada+): “legal back EMF(electromotive force)”, • Water-carbon rod low powered electric arc gas: AquaFuel(H Eldridge, W Richardson, Rug Santilli), ■ Aluminium based Hydrogen Production methods :Aluminium based metal alloy & water “Hydrogen fuel cell” lab results as all similar mechanics but mostly uncommercialized. Physics wise undeniable natural effects- eg:、     i Slow oxidizing low cost focused alloy pellets(B Froats), ii Rapid shock cooling-heating as catalyst to “crack” oxidized film of nano aluminium particles to reactivate(Dynamix-Muroran univ: Mas Watanabe+)+, 、 iii Use of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) as catalyst(not consumed) to prevent/delay aluminium oxidation (Hy-Energy: Erl Andersen)+, iv Undisclosed catalyst accelerates pitting of aluminum powder surface to prevent/delay passivation(AlumiFuel: Jas Anand+), v Chloride ion use pitting to dissolve oxidized film(Hydergy India: AVK Reddy+),

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46 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 6: perpetual hydrogen ii —>> continued SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES: ■ Aluminium based Hydrogen Production methods • Aluminium based metal alloy & water “Hydrogen fuel cell” eg:、 vi Aluminium alloy with gallium/lithium etc which prevents/slows oxidized layer from fully covering aluminum(HydroAlumina: Ge Woodall, Chemalloy: Freedman+), vii CatalyticCarbon and aluminum in 80°C hot water + DC pulse(not electrolysis) to prevent almost all aluminium oxidation, this on-board generator makes 110L/minute of H2, low quality-dirty-sea water ok(Phillips Company 4T: Haw Phillips)、 ■ Non aluminium based Hydrogen: i Cavitation(Cavitation Energy Systems), ii Electrohydraulic effect(H2 Energy Renaissance): electrohydraulics/shockwave/cavitation methods are rarely looked by academic level but effect is undeniable(Sop Burjanadze, Tak Sato & Mas Oizumi+), iii Nanoparticle coated H2O electrolysis (Dopp+), iv Ultrasonic H2 generation from water with non-oxidizing nanocrystal: ZnO fibers + BaTiO3 dendrites (Xiaochun Li), v Various metal catalyst: eg i-Molecular Molybdenum Persulfide catalyst H2 dissociation from water(JR long+), vi PhotoCatalytic Dav Milstein+), vii 84% efficiency pure water Electrolysis by Cathode 35Mpa high pressure Solid Polymer Electrolyte use, fluctuating power input workable like wind(Honda R&D), ■ HEAT RECOVERY: unless otherwise stated generally 100-1000°C temp difference is used - often which power generation is proportional to. Also leads to emission reduction: part of mainstream focus in many, particularly Western nations, while almost ignored in some others:

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47 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 7: heat recovery(H.R.) hrsg —>> con SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST: ■■ 1. Kinetic Power Generators based Industrial HEAT RECOVERY as Electricity: Often as industrial CHP(Combined Heat & Power), or Combined Cycle at power generator: common installation in at least as new system in Chemical, Pulp & Paper, Wood, Petroleum Refining, Metal, Gas turbine/Nuclear power generation industries, use of Regular •a-d •a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG)(Nooter/Eriksen, Alstom, GE +) most large mainstream industrial conglomerate types offer as first round of heat recovery as Combined Cycle with 10-20% range additional electrical recovery(of original electrical conversion % ratio). Once Through Steam Generator: OTSG obviates drum to increase efficiency & control(Innovative Steam Technologies+) Also low grade heat primary or secondary recovery process of HRSG "left over" heat by conventional Organic Rankine Cycle(ORC- use of low boiling temp stronger turbine power organic compound medium instead of water) generally used from 80°C+ (INTEK GMK GmbH, Turboden, Triogen BV+), but there are significant differentiation in suitability and performance gap for this mature tech. With (further) 2-10%+ electrical gain, or 70-95C previously discarded water or hot spring water can produce power by 20-70kw potential module(Ishikawajima Harima, Electratherm+): optimization focus(Granite Power Granex+), on board ocean freight power generator from diesel engine heat(Opcon Energy System+), -->>cont: 、 linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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48 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 8: h.R. ii more than orc —>> con SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST: ■■1. Kinetic Power Generators based HEAT RECOVERY as Electricity : •a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG): But some specialists(2G Energy AG+) might improve/replace ORC/steam RC process with less often used Radial Flow Organic Rankine(Exergy SpA, Cryostar SAS +), Axial & radial mix turbine(Aqylon+). 、 Often, not always, substantial yield improvement is made by following: Kalina Cycle(ammonia & water mix medium)(Kalina Power - Enhanced Systems Technologies - Global Geothermal), or more specialized use customizable its 2nd generation(Kalex Systems), or similar OTEC purpose Uehara Cycle(Xenesys - 佐賀大学海洋エネルギー研究センター), Others: ORC with Rotary Heat Engine works from 25 vs 40°C temp difference(Davinci-mode jp), Trilateral Flash Cycle(TFC)(Ian Smith+), CO2 SuperCritical Brayton(no phase change)(Net Power LLC, Sandia NL+) or CO2 SuperCritical Rankine Cycle(phase change at 31°C)(Echogen Power Systems+) etc. Possible to generate DC electricity when closed CO2 flow is placed near certain dielectric(?) material from triboelectric effect(Infinity Turbine): similar to already known but not commercialized ORC + Liquid Metal MHD effect. -->>cont: 、 linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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49 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 9: heat recovery iii stirling etc —>> cont: ■■1. Kinetic Power Generators based HEAT RECOVERY as Electricity: •b Stirling Engine(Qnergy - Ricor Cryogenic, Microgen Engine+) heat recovery efficiency significantly differs depends on company from 10-30%(Free Piston type is higher), remote equipment operation(Stirling Technology Inc RemoteGen+), also efficient cooling(Twinbird jp, Sunpower Inc+). Can be offered as residential fuel cell type set up by feeding gas/oil: Micro CHP, •c Deluge Engine(Hageman) runs from 30°C diff, •d Others: thermo-responsive material and Osmotic power use Osmoblue(E Dahan+)works from 30°C temp difference,、 ■■2. Mainly Solid State Harvesting device: & similar Industrial HEAT RECOVERY as Electricity, lower cost than gas turbine/combustion engines or steam generators(J Fairbanks+) in certain situations, device efficiency indicated in following "•a-l" is deemed highest possible figure unless otherwise stated. In some cases general operating rate can be much lower: -->>cont:、 linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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50 —>> cont: ■■2. Mainly Solid State Harvesting device: based Industrial HEAT RECOVERY as Electricity:、 •a Thermoelectric/Seebeck-Pelletier effect: Thermoelectric heat pump using n & p type semi conductors, it uses temperature gap between one end to the other to generate power. Used in Soviets since 1940s, in West for military/space after '60s, western mainstream use of conventional models. Actually 5kw range generator was claimed with operating efficiency of 10% for commercialization before yr2000 but retracted(Jade Mountain), Often on lower temperature range 50-600°C, some are max 300°C level use. But much higher performance seems to exist by use of carbon nanotube or nano structure etc though unclear if those super efficient models are openly marketed: Evident Thermo, [acquired GMZ tech which claimed max 43% efficiency], Komatsu/KELK’s 40% rating, Japanese peers Likely slightly lower(Yamaha, Toshiba+), max 20% possible at 300°C range(AEInnova+), suspected similar level(O-flexx+). Alkali-Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC)by C-TEC Nano Conversion at least 20% range, 15% range(Je Snyder+), Reverse Spin Hall - Spin Seebeck Effect use: wrappable plastic like spin current generator at least 10times conventional efficiency with much lower production cost(Nippon Denki+), -->>cont:、 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 10: h.r. iv thermo-electric linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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51 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 11: h.r. v thermo-electric 2 —>> cont: ■■2. Mainly Solid State Harvesting device: based Industrial HEAT RECOVERY as Electricity:•a Thermoelectric(TE):、 Though other solid state devices are generally 20%+ as std model, including sterling engine, TE's ease of use and super compactness is often advantage. And even supposedly conventional 2-8+% operating efficiency device can generate at least up to 1KW range in many cases and space saving energy recovery with success track record. Often specific efficiency is not disclosed, some might have much higher rate. Large # of companies offer TE devices(Romny Scientific, Melcor, TECTEG, Gentherm, Экоген Ecogen, RGS Development Thermagy+), Some are High temperature(600°C+) capability focus for generally higher efficiency aim, Run high power requirement meters & switches(НПП Квант+), Steam heat use(Kryotherm+), 1KWh range generation from large truck diesel engine exhaust is possible(Hi-Z Technology+), Flue exhaust or flare heat from chimney(Alphabet Energy+), Electricity from heated tire(Goodyear BH03). Yet there are same 2%+ efficiency range thermoelectric paint available for a long time that has been ignored by mainstream till quite recently(UNIST Korea, Ashutosh Tiwari+) 50-150°C workable wrap-around style sheet of carbon nanotube + plastic(Sekisui Chemical+), Low temp 60-100°C hot spring water flow placed next to 5-15°C cold spring water wedging thermoelectric sheet to generate power for >0.5kwh use per 3-4 pairs of water pipe with cold-hot reverse flow(water pipe is 5-10cm diameter, with latest commercially avail technology): a few dozen of projects exists in Japan. 5 x 20 x15cm size heatpipe used forked device emit 15w with 70-80C difference if device recovers with 3-5% efficiency(Yos Takefuji: Ai-Cynap) -->>cont:、 linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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52 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 12: h.r. vi thermo-electric 3 —>> cont: ■■2. Mainly Solid State Harvesting device: based Industrial HEAT RECOVERY as Electricity:•a Thermoelectric:、 Cost effective cooling(Aisin - Toyota, Z-max jp+), 2-3 times more efficient than conventional Thermoelectric cooler(Phononic), or 10times(NanoFreeze Technologies Lund AB): Some have potential to replace majority of existing type refrigerators by much lower cost. Note Pelletier cooling has also precise temp control, no maintenance & far longer lasting, soundless operation compared to conventional compression refrigeration. Engine heat recovery to save air conditioning etc of 5% fuel mileage saving overall(VolksWagen+) Also space commercialization etc of Radio Isotope Thermoelectric generation exists but generally has beyond harmful level radioactivity emitted in near field, Self generating electricity from heat to fan the woodstove chamber to save 30-50% of regular wood cooking fuel and eliminate most of smoke in 3rd world use(Philips Domestic Appliances and Personal Care BV: van der Sluis), or additionally it charges battery for portable small cooker(BioLite Energy+). -->>cont:、

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53 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 13: h.r. vii thermo-galvanic etc —>> cont: ■■2. Mainly Solid State Harvesting device: based Industrial HEAT RECOVERY as Electricity:•a Thermoelectric:、 Free standing type woodstove fan is widely available: If 2 or more combined use of high power low temp activation types in certain room shape or air flow configuration it can save 15-30% heating cost but most come with low Curie temperature(loses effect of thermoelectric) at 300°C range(SmartFan ie, Valiant Accessories+). Generally more powerful sterling engine type fan(some also directionally rotates) saves more though starting temperature is high(Valcan Stove Fan, Warpfive Stove Fan), Campfire cook stove phone charging(JikoPower+) •b ThermoGalvanic Cell/ThermoElectric Cell/ThermoCell(DIFFERENT FROM Solid State ThermoElectric device): This is not semiconductor but made of electrodes and liquid electrolyte(redox ion) to function as enclosed thermoelectric device by temperature dif between electrodes within cell, also there is time lag in effects to use as battery without no heat input for short time. Basically works permanently as long as there is temp difference. Low key image & mostly forgotten since 1980s but now some seem to show similar significant effectiveness as best performing Solid Thermoelectric cell at 50-200°C low temp range(ATC - Australian Research Council[Ted Abraham], Tsukuba Univ[Kobayashi & Moritomo et al]), New much thinner flat Carbon Nanotube CNT use(Renchong Hu+), CNT & Aerogel-Based ThermoElectrochemical Cell(Yong Hyup Kim +) -->>cont:、 linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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54 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 14: h.r. viii thermo-magnetic —>> cont: ■■2. Mainly Solid Harvester based HEAT RECOVERY as ELECTRICITY: •c"MagnetoThermoElectric", Thermo Magnetic Motor, Curie Engine etc: At least two of following three combined energy generation mechanics are used: @1 Ferromagnetic material(become magnet when gets close to it and retain magnet state somewhat even after removed[hysteresis]) "motor" is placed between heated magnetic and cold heat sink, and it oscillates back and forth by thermal demagnetization at Curie temperature on heated magnetic side and re-magnetization inducing cold sink side: this vibration between heating and cooling states are recovered as electricity via piezo effect or/and electromagnetic induction for micro devices. @2 Losing and gaining magnetic field in time-variant oscillating manner is used to generate electricity. Also for rotating motor type: @3 Kinetic rotation motion is converted to power. Despite some mainstream media and "science blog" debunking, recent academic documents and other witnesses indicate this is also one of highest efficiency amongst mainstream approved heat recovery tech, also can be good combo with solar energy for heat recovery(Prime Photonics+). Water based 20°C temp difference workable system(Swiss Blue Energy AG), Opportunity to synergize further for even higher efficiency with Pyroelectric effect(produce electricity from rapid temperature change oscillation), and Shape Memory Alloy/Polymer(heat or magnetic): applicable to micro and industrial size power generation both. linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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55 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 15: h.r. ix thermionic, pyro-elect. —>> cont: ■■2. Mainly Solid Harvester device based HEAT RECOVERY as ELECTRICITY: : •d Thermionic device(electron discharged from one electrode to other as collector across vacuum when there is temp difference between them), super high temp use, NASA used 12% efficient device in 1976, 25% range at 1500°C in 1960s in Soviet block(Orlinov & Stafanov et al), then disappeared from civilian market. But now Carnot limit(max heat energy engine conversion limit: about 37%) far exceeding(lately this is not necessarily auto pseudo-scientization treatment) MicroPower Global device exists: ex-ENECO inc, Sevastyanenko, Kucherov,& Hagelstein: LENR researchers) 40% range? at 250-600°C: Beyond Carnot Limit should be explainable by current science(Joh Roßnagel+), Single Layer Graphene use would boost 40%+ at below 700°C(Shi-Jun Liang+), -->>cont: linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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56 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 16: h.r. x thermo-acoustic etc —>> cont: ■■2. Mainly Solid State Harvesting device based HEAT RECOVERY as ELECTRICITY:、 •e Pyro-electric(oscillating temperature to generate electricity), also nanogenerator for micro device exists(PENG): PyroElectric generator often requires temperature alternating device to cause rapid temperature oscillation to activate effect. New mechanics are improving effectiveness: Self heat-cool alternating polymeric PyroElectric Nanogenerator by water vapor, without any energy using heat alternating device(Fengxian Gao et al), 30% efficient by MEMS use(Sc Hunter/ORNL+), Nanowire use(Wenxi Guo et. al+) can be hybridized with piezoelectric generator(Ju-Hyuck Lee+), Heatpipe use for rapid temperature change transfer to increase efficiency(Dan Zebek+), •f ThermoAcoustic(heat is recovered to cause air molecule massive excitation type standing wave effect in confined space, then create temperature difference & electricity generation), 300°C max. 20%+ efficiency electricity conversion(Etalim, Aster Thermoacoustic+), Gas combustion use instead of existing heat recovery but still comes far ahead of conventional system cost(Nirvana-es.com), High performance cooling from heat(SoundEnergy BV, Cool Sound Industries+)、

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57 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 17: h.r. xi heat pump, thermo pv —>> cont: ■■2. Mainly Solid State Harvesting device based HEAT RECOVERY as ELECTRICITY:、 、 •g High performance unconventional heat pump: 30% extra energy saver for various heat movement generally not achievable by other systems: Fisonic Cavitation(Fisenko). CO2 Heat Pump "EcoCute" for hot water generation: part of industry or residential standard in some nations/regions(eg Japan) somewhat less to much less installation in other nations for its 10-20+% more saving in some situations compared to regular heat pump(Denso, Sanden+), Claims of COP >8(Mayekawa+): defacto 800+% efficiency. This is one of several state backed energy related tech promoted in Japan: Some tech prospered like this while others suddenly disappeared till recently(eg SuperCritical water). Non toxic CO2(R744) can be also used in similar way for refrigeration with less restrictions by environmental laws. Pure cooling without heating combo has been deemed no cost saving over conventional medium system, but some industrial sized systems are actually emerging as energy saving TransCritical CO2 Refrigeration Cycle by unique combination of elements(Carnot Refrigeration+), •h Micron-gap ThermoPhotoVoltaics: MTPV corp(DiMatteo+); generally ignored Near Field TPVs efficiency is upto a magnitude ahead of mainstream Far Field TPVs, Jx Crystals TPV: Jx Crystals (Fraas) already measured 35% efficiency in 1989,

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58 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 18: h.r. xii Thz-FIR rectenna etc —>> cont: ■■2. Mainly Solid State Harvester based HEAT RECOVERY as ELECTRICITY: •i Ambient EHF(Extreme High Frequency), Thz(Terahertz), FIR(Far InfraRed) Rectenna (0.1-30Thz) by nano material use: Likely most disruptive science approved under-explored heat recovery as EHF-FIR-Thz range EM radiation of heat harvesting by Frequency Selective Surface(FSS) nanostructures & resonance amplifying(Redwave Energy, Univ Manchester+): usually focused on industrial heat <300°C, for industrial size electricity generation with much higher efficiency than other solid state devices. EM overall density is much higher in this range than lower RF waves in addition to easier high % harvesting quality. Metamaterial(manmade specific geometric pattern) or SRR(Split Ring Resonator enabled broader band reception should significantly improve efficiency especially at Extremely High Frequency range harvesting up from 0.001-1Thz range(Parc Xerox+), But generally 70-80+% conversion range should be possible & without heat-cooling maintenance concern like thermoelectric. In addition, FIR Rectenna(FIR absorbing Optical Rectenna) technically allows microcurrent harvesting perpetually 24hrs since everything emits FIR wave at above 0K(-273C). Also see various anomalous effects in this EM radiation range(p198-207), -->>cont: linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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59 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 19: h.r.xiii Rev spin hall effect etc —>> cont: ■■2. Mainly Solid State Harvester based HEAT RECOVERY as ELECTRICITY: •j Some high heat generating Fuel Cells can build in CHP to boost efficiency past 90%+(heat included) level: ■PAFC(Phosphoric acid): Fuji Electric+, ■MCFC(Molten Carbonate): FuelCell Energy+, ■SOFC(Solid Oxide)Bloom Energy, Ene Farm/Kyocera - Osaka Gas - Toyota, Sunfire GmbH+, Ene Farm is for house based unit, its SOFC is at 52% electrical efficiency & produces lower cost power than retail price and can be sold to grid(Japan only), ■PEMFC(Proton Exchange Membrane): Ene Farm/Panasonic+, •k Paintable heat recovery system can significantly benefit: Thermo Diode Coating(Ne Chernoff) or Spin Seebeck - Reverse Spin Hall Effect Paint: Surface plasmon effect use dielectric material's spin current generator, & use of magnon + phonon resonance would further improve efficiency(Ei Saito), Ultrasonic spray coating hetrojunction Perovskite solar cell of 11% efficiency(AT Barrows+), Also ferroelectric Perovskite's multi-energy response ability hasn't been explored(Solar-PyroElectric-PiezoElectric): eg KBNNO. ->>cont:、 linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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60 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 20: h.r. xiv scrubber, steam trap + —>> cont: ■■2. Mainly Solid State Harvester based HEAT RECOVERY as ELECTRICITY: •l MHD & Faraday effect application: Electrical generation increases if high temp electro-conductive waste heat exhaust or hot molten salt like flow is passed by MHD device prior to existing system extraction. Self powered Magnetic Flow Meter by opposing magnets separate charges in conductive water & picked up by opposed electrodes to cause electron flow(OMEGA Engineering+), but this industrial level potential energy harvesting tech is mostly ignored by mainstream. ■■3. Heat Recovery as HEAT, can save indicated % of entire related heating system: •a Condensing Scrubber: Direct contact heat of exhaust fume to water with possible 5-15% range extra saving(while cleaning air) compared to conventional heat recovery from the same source. Savings can exceed 30%+ compared to no action at all(Babcock & Wilcox, Bionomic Industries QSense, Valmet+). Use of heat pump amplifies saving(Condens Heat Recovery Oy, Caligo Industries+), most significant consistent mainstream use in some Nordic nations.、 •b Venturi-Orifice steam trap: Loss in steam system is often taken for granted at boiler or industrial systems. But they can save 5-25% of energy, while additionally eliminating costs for related maintenance or mechanical systems with fast payback of 0.5-3yrs(Enetrap jp, Thermal Energy International, Delta Steam Systems, Ingrid Wernicke Industrieservice+). Similar less degree of saving is possible with commonly available steam eductor/ejector or venturi auto feeder/mixer. -->>cont: linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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61 -->cont: ■■3. Heat Recovery as HEAT, can save indicated % of entire related heating system: •c CHP: Combined Heat & Power/Cogeneration can more than double efficiency with conventional tech use, well established in some nations(Denmark, Finland, Russia, Netherlands+), many ex-soviet & its allies+, while surprisingly low use in others(Japan, France, Sweden+). Often as centralized District Heating System, this set up allows all types of new heat recovery like Solar thermal, biomass to incorporate later on): Also further efficient Combined Cooling, Heat & Power (CCHP, Trigeneration, use of absorption chiller) when there is also cooling need, •d Heat Pipe application: Low or no maintenance heat pipe(capillary driven liquid-vapor phase change circulation system with inner side and outer side within a sealed vessel) is often still underutilized super efficient heat conductor for various industrial/residential heat energy saving applications (5-1000times copper)(Aavid Thermacore, 鞍山鞍明实业有限公司, 常州龙腾光热科技股份有限公司+) that enables transfer of heat in recoverble shapes(eg Vapor Chamber to make it possible to use conventional flat thermoelectric device otherwise unrecoverble, or Heat Pipe to rapidly transfer heat & coolness to maximize thermoelectric power generation. They are hard to quantify as % recovery improvement) science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 21: h.r. xv chp, heat pipe linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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62 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 22: h.r. xvi heat pipe 2, sma-nitinol -->>cont: ■■3. Heat Recovery as HEAT, can save indicated % of entire related heating system: •d Heat Pipe application: Heatpipe is also able to do its secondary recovery heat use etc to save energy up to 40% or more in surprising # of cases if fully exploited from conventional system: eg HVAC air conditioning, particularly dehumidification(wrap around cooling coil on cooling and passive reheating) on any scale(Heat Pipe Technology inc, Advanced Cooling Technologies+). Yet it is notable this is defacto mandatory application in other industries like electronics, specific manufacturing-chemical process, aerospace etc for effective cooling and heating. Some of more advanced application like no fan required cooling outperforms fan used cooling in electronics with no electricity use(eg Calyos SA, Nofan Computer, Compulab Airtop, Sparton Rugged Electronics+) is not utilized for energy sector ■■4. Heat Recovery as TORQUE, Shape Memory Alloy(SMA): Nitinol engine(Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy, expands when cooled): “Negative fatigue” temperature shapeshift metal with significant torque, Order of magnitude increased durability to steel springs, US Navy link(Rid Banks, Sandoval, Ginell, McNichols, Hochstein, A Johnson+),

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63 science-accepted “lowest cost” tech 23: h.r.xvii shape metal a. -nitinol2 -->>cont: ■■4. Heat Recovery as TORQUE, Shape Memory Alloy(SMA): Nitinol engine: 、 Due to cooling needs, Nitinol engine is more suitable for small unit based system. Active movement to commercialize in 1970s but disappeared after. As happens for some disruptive energy use, Shape Memory Alloy(SMA) is widely used & encouraged for other non energy applications such as medical, dental, aerospace, robotics, structural integration etc. Also there is some energy saving element at various automatic actuation at set temperature etc. Can be made simple system to produce energy with much lower cost than existing heat recovery tech. Less disruptive format mainstream Nitinol based generator debut(Exergyn), Some private type trials with solar air heating/desorption chamber for 24hr "perpetual free energy system" demonstrations made(Kimton Gravity Engine, Kellogg's Research Labs, Actment jp+), General Motors(GM) got US gov't grant in 2009 with Dynalloy & HRL Laboratories along with patent for car exhaust heat recovery but news disappeared. Tech effect for power generation suitability is scientifically mainstream approved but occasional main media level pseudoscientization effort exists. Shape Memory Polymer tried for some micro energy harvesting, eg ElectroActive Polymer by wind or oscillation(TU Delft, Bayer AG+). Also it is notable Nitinol is activatable in much wider temperature now with -200 to +150C range: eg Fe-Ni-Co-Ti(Daido Univ- Daido Steel - 形状記憶合金の吉見製作所 +). SMA can be also almost no electricity use cooling by heat absorbing state under certain conditions(Seelecke & Schütze +)

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64 science-accepted “super low cost” (grid parity) solar <6cents/KWh ■ SOLAR: Rapid cost dropping(most competitive LCOE[Levelized Cost Of Electricity] is on par with std Wind: <6cents/KWh), as of 2016 certain solar electricity generation techs indicate past grid parity: lowest cost at LIMITED direct sun avail remote areas, individual house, high cost nations(eg Europe), high day time cost(eg Japan), or remote islands(eg Vanuatu, Hawaii). Fastest advancing major energy tech due to direct link with microelectronics, computer, semiconductor/PCB(Printed Circuit Board) manufacturing(metal crystallization control), spectroscopy, laser-optics, photonics, nanotech, space: many are linked to inventor “free energy”、 Open discussion & active pursuing of how to “violate” Shockley-Queisser limit(S-Q limit) & quantum efficiency COP>1, by theoretical/experimental level at mainstream academic with corporate/NGO/Gov’t sponsored. Although academic & socio-economical ramification is much bigger, this is a sharp contrasted attitude towards wind[Betz Limit], nuclear remediation(p265,266) or thermodynamics[2nd law, p161], And this mainstream handling method of S-Q limit can be applied/simulated to the way of embracing inventor tech classic level over-unity electricity/energy extraction, as LENR-Cold Fusion gets officially accepted, but this requires powerful Western interlocked mainstream sponsor back up which is fractured support at best currently: excess S-Q is far less disruptive for business structure.

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65 science-accepted “super low cost” solar 2 beyond s-Q —>> cont ■ SOLAR: But Direct Solar Heat(solar thermal) application is universally lower cost in most of the world up to high latitude Southern Scandinavia or Middle of Western Canada. Following solar pages list up potential cost reduction ideas, also some techs are installable as lowest cost energy in some areas (*Note: due to photovoltaic’s high tech nature, production process, choice of material & how it is used affect costing much more than most other energy tech but this report doesn’t cover these elements) ■1. Over S-Q limit Single Junction(SJ) Photovoltaic Solar Cell(SC): Significant number of SJ cell Shockley-Queisser Limit 33% exceeding efficiency at lab level experimental claims or strong indications/theoretical ideas discussed at conference without criticism/risking loss of job, articles pass mainstream journal editorials, and embraced by influential business/NGO/Gov’t lobbies & funders, Examples: i Light concentrating property Standing Nanowire (Krogstrup, Fontcuberta i Morral+), ii Solar Thermo-PhotoVoltaic(STPV, thermal upconversion: absorb heat and re-emit it as extra photon for capture; Boriskina+)(also see p57 •h) with specific geometric emitter-absorber combo(Rephaeli+), —>> continue

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66 science-accepted “super low cost” solar 3 exciton —>> continued- ■1. Excess S-Q SJ Solar cell: iii Multiple Exciton Generation(MEG) by Quantum Dot Solar Cell:(Nozik, Oc Semonin, Ra Ellingson+):• Electron avalanche effect triggering(Br Parkinson, W Tisdale+), •Beyond thermodynamic efficiency limit Electron Carrier Multiplication?: Tuneable Quantum Dot(also does instant photon capture before disappears) to make photon disappear into vacuum, then reappear(p251■) with Electron/exciton multiplying effect: singlet fission effect, “7 excitons at cost of 1”/ Quantum efficiency COP=7(& indication on over-unity like actual electricity yield?), linked to Population Inversion - Self Powering Laser(VI Klimov, RD Schaller+ : US Gov’t at Center for Advanced Solar Photophysics [CASP]), Similar replication at NREL(H Brody), Outside US(BL Oksengendler+), iv Plasmon types: •Surface Plasmon Solar Cell(use collective oscillation-resonance of electron) to trap light & increase absorption(Mi Burns+), Plasmonic Photonic Enhanced Solar Cells(Microcontinuum) •Plasmonic enhancement of Dye Sensitized SC: DSSC)(Co Andrei+), Even combine DSSCs + collection of high capacity Triboelectric Nanogenerators(TENG) for human random motion harvesting + supercapacitors(F-SC) in all fibre shaped mode in clothing(Zhong Lin Wang), •Plasmonic nanostructure with upconverter-doped dielectric core(A Atre+), —>> continue

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67 science-accepted “super low cost” solar 4 exciton —>> continued- ■1. Excess S-Q SJ Solar cell: v Infrared/Teraherz wave Capture: Note this tech is already working in other applications but not applied to solar energy use due to disruptiveness? •24hr solar(Solterra Solar: Squires & Jabbour+), •Lead selenide nanocrystals to convert Infrared ray to visible photons for increased capture(Bardeen+), •Trap infrared photon to directly generate electricity(Fr Meseguer+), •Infrared capturing nano solar rectenna(optical rectenna) arrays made by atomic layer deposition(Br Willis), Upright nano antenna maximally tuned to specific sun light infrared frequency(Bar Cola), Similar mechanics(Microcontinuum, CoolCAD Electronics+) vi Others: vi-a Down conversion(split 2x too high energy photons for band-gap into two lower energy photons to recover both), vi-b Hot Carrier Solar Cell(Le Bris+): keep low heat transfer from electron to phonon, vi-c Intermediate Band Solar Cell(Yo Okada+) with “photon ratchet” for extra light recovery, vi-d •Single Junction Tandem Solar cell(Wl Walukiewicz+), •Perovskite oxides photo-ferroelectric material to function like Multi-Junction cell(An Rappe+), vi-e Piezo-phototronics(3way coupling: piezoelectric-semiconductor-photoexcitation effects) used for beyond thermodynamics limit?(Zhong Lin Wang+), —>> continue linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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68 science-accepted “super low cost” solar 5 "overunity" —>> continued- ■1. Excess S-Q SJ Solar cell: vi-f Metamaterial Based Solar Cell: controlling/engineering light or electromagnetic wave absorption characteristic(refractive Index) to cause resonance state/maximize plasmon for high efficiency, also InfraRed wave can be absorbed as 24hr solar(Lamda Solar - Metamaterial Technologies Inc, Dubna Nuclear Institute JINR[ОА Займидорога, ВН Самойлов]): latter's product has Super high dielectric constant/permittivity capacitor built in & claims star signal can be adjusted to recover small power with this Heterogeneous Metamaterial("hetroelectrical capacitor"). vi-g If cost is low, high performance Solid State Device (p50-58) can replace photovoltaics to generate electricity up to 50 times more than photovoltaics per same area(Ka Matsubara+), vi-h 60-70% level efficiency Solar MHD lab success by superconducting type magnet(Concentrating Solar Power Utility Inc+) vi-i Larger than unity” thermodynamic light efficiencies, when cooling involved (cold electricity link?[supercurrent “plus”]: p122-125): • Part of mainstream in Soviet-Russia since 1930s(SI Vavilov, YP Chukova, Yu Slyusarenko+); related to “over unity” anti-stokes excitation from lattice energy(Letokhov+), laser cooling+, • Converting lattice vibrations into infrared photons(Raj Ram+), • Solar cell illuminated by circularly polarized light generates charge/spin currents far more than spin polarization of carrier density(I Žutić, Ja Fabian+), also link to various photon related time dilation effect), vi-j Quantum efficiency COP >1, Singlet Exciton Fission cell(Congreve, Ma Böhm+), vi-k Infrared & Heat absorbing Iron oxide based Charge Ordering RFeO4 solar cell(Green Ferrite: Na Ikeda) in which electric dipole depends on electron correlations(not covalency, ie controllable by spin?), 24hr power generation, and COP>1 indication, seemed commercial ready but shelved? 、 linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm - Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada

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69 —>> continued- ■1. Excess S-Q SJ Solar cell: 、 vii Heavier on theory: •Fill factor(FF, Available power at the maximum point) modelling shows higher limit for Organic Solar Cell(VA Trukhanov+), Nanostructured cell limit doesn’t apply(Yun