Edwin Hubble PowerPoint

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Edwin Powell Hubble 1889-1953 By Julian Gossen and Eamonn McCormick

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Early Life and Family Edwin P. Hubble was born on November 29, 1889 in the town of Marshfield, Missouri His father was a successful insurance executive When he was 9 his family moved to Chicago, where he went to high school Although quite competent in the academic field, he excelled mostly in sports such as high jump, boxing and track and field

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University of Chicago Hubble continued his sports at the University of Chicago as well as studying mathematics, philosophy and astronomy By studying these subjects he eventually earned a bachelor of science Hubble received a Rhodes Scholarship, allowing him to transfer from the University of Chicago to Oxford University In 1910 he was one of the first people to receive this scholarship

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Oxford University His three years spent at Oxford caused him to adopt some exclusively British characteristics and traits During his time at Oxford he had not yet decided to have a scientific career and did not study astronomy He started by studying something called jurisprudence (the theory of law and philosophy) then switched his to Spanish He earned his masters in Spanish at Oxford, not generally a recommended coarse for astronomers

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After Oxford University Upon his return to the United States, he taught physics, mathematics and Spanish at the New Albany High School Hubble became a member of the Kentucky bar association (lawyer association), however there is no record of him ever practicing law in Kentucky Hubble served in World WarⅠand quickly became a major in the army He got his Ph.D in 1917 from the University of Chicago in astronomy

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Mount Wilson Observatory In 1919 Edwin Hubble accepted a job at the Mount Wilson Observatory, offered to him by George Hale, founder of the observatory The Hooker Telescope at Mt. Wilson was the largest in the world at the time of its construction Hubble arrived just at the time it was being finished and continued being a member of staff at the observatory for his whole life The observatory was where he made some of his most important and influential discoveries

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Galaxies Other then the Milky Way In the years 1922 and 1923 Hubble made observations from Mt. Wilson Observatory that changed scientists view of the universe Hubble observed and identified several Cepheid variables in Spiral Nebulae (now called Spiral Galaxies) This allowed him to find the distance between our galaxy and others Because of the extremely large distance between them, he was able to prove that there are galaxies other then our own; the Milky Way

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Explaining his Theory I will attempt to explain his theory in the simplest terms possible, however some of the ideas are difficult to explain: A Cepheid variable is variable star, which is a star that varies in apparent magnitude, which is the brightness seen from Earth The luminosity and pulsation period of a Cepheid variable are in relation, meaning it can be used as a standard candle, an object that is used to calculate distance

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Explaining his Theory Continued Luminosity is the amount of electromagnetic energy that an object produces in an amount of time Because the Luminosity of the Cepheid variables was known, Hubble figured out the distance between the Andromeda galaxy and the Milky Way The diameter of the Milky way is 100,000 light years, so 50,000 from the centre to edge Some of the Cepheid variables Hubble found where in the Andromeda Galaxy which is approximately 2,500,000 light years away, much too far away to be in our galaxy. This proves that galaxies other then the Milky Way exist

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Effects of his Theory When Edwin Hubble announced his discovery on January 1st, 1925, his findings went against many astronomers beliefs, including notable figures such as Harlow Shapley, who had also worked at Mt. Wilson Not only did Hubble disprove old knowledge, he also added to the scientific reservoir by creating a method to classify galaxies, a form of which is still used today • Hubble’s discovery has been said to be as influential as the discovery of the Earth and other celestial bodies orbiting the Sun

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Hubble’s Law Hubble’s next discovery was more important and he has received more recognition for it Hubble’s discovery of redshifts increasing with distance not only helped calculate the age of the universe and proved that it was expanding , it also helped Einstein with his theory of relativity This theory also supports the big bang theory, which was proposed only two years before Hubble released his theory

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Explaining Hubble’s Law Hubble’s law is v=HOr, where v is velocity, HO is Hubble’s constant and r is distance This law assumes that the universe is expanding at a constant rate and that the velocity (v) is in relation to distance (r). Hubble’s constant, which can only be found through calculation, has been in debate for a long time

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Debate on Hubble’s Constant Hubble originally thought that the constant was 500/km/s/Mpc which can also be described as 150km/sec per million light years For many years, Hubble’s constant has been debated and answers ranged from 180/km/s/Mpc to 55/km/s/Mpc Some of the debates on the constant where very heated, in part because this could determine the age of the galaxy Finally, it took the creation of the Hubble Space Telescope to resolve this problem; the constant being close to 72 plus or minus 8 km/km/s/Mpc

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Redshift The concept of a redshift is that light is made to seem more red Galaxies that are moving away from us are red shifted; meaning that we can tell them apart from other ones Because redshift increases with distance, the Hubble constant can be calculated using redshift The redshift concurs with Einstein's equation of general relativity on an isotropic expanding space

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Effects on the World The idea that space is expanding had already existed, however Hubble was the first to prove it and it greatly increased the recognition of this theory The big bang theory states that ever since the big bang, matter has moved outwards and Hubble’s Law helped to prove that Edwin Hubble, with this theory helped Einstein correct what he called “the biggest blunder of his life”

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Effect on Einstein In 1915 Albert Einstein released his theory of general relativity, one of the most important theories in history The problem was that this theory relied on the concept of space being bent by gravity and expanding or contracting, which he thought too ridiculous to be true and therefore changed it Because of Hubble’s discoveries, Einstein was able to undo his changes to the original theory and prevent the biggest blunder of his life Einstein was so grateful towards Hubble that he visited him in 1931 to thank him for the confirmation

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World War Ⅱ Service During World War Ⅱ, Hubble served just as he had during World War Ⅰ, however this time it was as part of the scientific group who worked with ballistics He worked at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, which is a place where weapons are tested before use and production • Due to his exceptional service the U.S Army granted him the Legion of Merit

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Nobel Prize For much of his later career, he attempted to have astronomy recognized as a category of physics Hubble wanted astronomy to be part of physics so that scientists like him could win Nobel Prizes for their contribution to science Just after Hubble died in 1953 astronomy became part of physics Although Hubble died before astronomy became part of physics, the intent of the Nobel Prize committee was to award him the Nobel Prize in physics

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His Effects on Mt. Wilson Hubble felt that the Mt. Wilson Observatory needed a larger telescope and managed to convince the owners to make an even larger telescope The Hale telescope was twice as large as the first one and Hubble had the honour to be the first person to use it • Hubble's work at the Mt. Wilson Observatory continued until his death, however, other then an asteroid called 1373 Cincinnati, he discovered very little

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Personal Life and Death Hubble died unexpectedly from cerebral thrombosis which is a condition where a blood clot blocks veins, in Hubble's case, this clot was in his brain and it killed him There was no funeral held for him and the current location of his body is unknown, his wife did not share his final resting spot His wife Grace Hubble outlived him by a shocking 47 years Young Hubble Old Hubble Dead Hubble

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List of Awards and Honours Legion of Merit, for his service in World War Ⅱ Gold Medal of Royal Astronomical Society, a society based in London, England The Hubble Space Telescope is named in his honour, in part to try and calculate the Hubble Constant A crater on the moon is named after him, probably because there are so many they ran out of names Bruce Medal given out by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Franklin Medal , given out by the Franklin Institute

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Relation to other Astronomers Hubble is one of the most famous astronomer of recent years, but how does he compare to past astronomers? Edwin Hubble was purely an astronomer, and although his discoveries include the concept of multiple galaxies and the idea of expanding space, he perhaps did more observing and less calculating then his predecessors Galileo invented a version of the telescope that gave three times normal sight and found the earth orbited the sun. He was not only a astronomer but also a mathematician and physicist and invented more In my opinion Galileo was the greater of the two, however Hubble’s theories are no less important

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Actual Scientific Discoveries Edwin Hubble was certainly a intelligent person, but most of his important work is observations, not conclusions The discoveries he made could have been made by another person easily, however he happened to be the person looking through the telescope The fact that Hubble discovered other galaxies was made considerably easier because he happened to be looking through the worlds largest telescope at the time His concepts of redshift cannot be denied however, this led to Einstein’s theory of relativity, he didn’t actually help Einstein

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Criticism Against Him Many people have criticized Edwin Hubble and his wife Grace Hubble for being racist towards Mexicans and African-Americans When Einstein visited Mt. Wilson Observatory Hubble attempted to be photographed with the famous man, to increase his popularity Edwin Hubble did several disreputable things for fame including hiring a publicist to get him on the front of Time magazine and attempting to win a Nobel Prize

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The Hubble Space Telescope, named after Edwin Hubble orbits Earth and because it is in space, the atmosphere does not interfere with its sight

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The Hubble Telescope This telescope was not made by Edwin Hubble, it was not made for him and he was not alive when it was made, but it is named in his honour The idea of having a space telescope dates back to when Hubble was alive, however there is no record he had any influence on the idea The telescope was deployed 1990, 13 years after it was authorized The telescope originally had a defective mirror and there have been five missions so far to repair and renew it

Summary: Powerpoint about Edwin Hubble

Tags: edwin hubble astronomy redshift doppler shift

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