Intro to Space Syntax_Day 1

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Slide 9

We constructed a spatial model of the city to understand its accessibility patterns and to test strategic design ideas.

Slide 21

The space of the city is the theatre of everyday activity. The purpose of this activity is trade - social & economic. Any urban place is therefore a trading engine – a hugely valuable asset for both social harmony and economic prosperity.

Slide 27

Und diese art von Mathematik bildet die Grundlage der Berechnung aller Space Syntax Modelle

Slide 32

The spatial layout of the city is the largest object of human creation – it should therefore be planned as an object in its own right.

Slide 33

Measuring spatial accessibility My company, Space Syntax Limited, has developed models that measure the spatial accessibility of individual streets within the overall spatial network. We display the results of the calculation graphically, using colours to represent accessibility values with highly accessible routes in red, then orange and yellow to less accessible routes in green and then blue. Here is the spatial accessibility analysis of London, showing the distinctive radial pattern of highly accessible routes from the centre to the edge. This pattern is created by the geometry of London’s street network. Our computer model analyses each segment of space between street intersections and calculates how accessible that segment is from all other segments.   Although we do not feed actual vehicle movement flows into the model, the remarkable fact is that the spatial accessibility pattern corresponds closely to the actual pattern of vehicle movement in London. Not only this, the pattern of spatial accessibility also corresponds to the historic location of land uses, with land uses that need more movement, such as popular retail, locating on more accessible streets and land uses that require less movement, such as housing, on less accessible streets.

Slide 34

Here is the spatial accessibility pattern of Beijing which, unlike London or Newcastle, has strong orbital connections.

Slide 35

Here is Tokyo, with strong radial connections and strong orbitals. Tokyo is famous for its polycentric structure with several major subcentres. Its spatial accessibility pattern makes Tokyo’s economic and cultural identity possible.

Slide 36

Even in highly planned cities such as Brasilia, we find that unplanned centres have emerged alongside planned ones. Sometimes the planned ones are not located in spatially effective places and they fail. The long-term success of planned centres is a key component of urban sustainability.   Balanced accessibility and risks in modern planning In our experience, sustainability is achieved through a balance between local and global spatial accessibility.

Slide 38

Movement is the lifeblood of cities – the spatial model provides a powerful tool to understand and, as I will show you, manage the movement of the city.   We have also discovered that the pattern of land value in London corresponds with the pattern of spatial accessibility, as well as the pattern of certain crimes such as house burglary and street attacks. These correlations are written up in the extensive academic literature that underpins these models and gives our urban planning practice an essential research foundation.

Slide 39

Looking at this simple grid system we can see that there a large number of possible routes between A and B. Understanding the likelihood of any of these routes being taken is of particular interest in spatial analysis for if we can understand the rules by which individuals choose routes we can begin to make predictions as to the likely distribution of all movement between all possible start and end points within a city.

Slide 40

This image shows the route between A and B with the shortest metric distance.

Slide 41

This image shows the route between A and B with the fewest and least significant changes in direction– i.e the smoothest route.

Slide 44

Through twenty years of academic and commercial research, Space Syntax has shown that individuals choose the most continuous routes between origins and destinations rather than the route with the shortest metric distance. (See: Hillier, B and S Iida. 2005. Network and psychological effects in urban movement. London: Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London).

Slide 50

The colour describes the average depth from each route segment to all others

Slide 53

The previous example showed how the ways in which individuals choose routes between places creates a clear overall structure of passing movement within a settlement. This is known as a ‘through movement’ analysis and can accurately reflect patterns of pedestrian or vehicular flows. We can also assess accessibility according to how easy it is to get to somewhere. Lets take another urban environment and place an office (highlighted in black) in the location shown. If we want to understand how easy it is for employees to access the office we must assess how smooth and continuous all the routes to the cinema are.

Slide 54

The previous example showed how the ways in which individuals choose routes between places creates a clear overall structure of passing movement within a settlement. This is known as a ‘through movement’ analysis and can accurately reflect patterns of pedestrian or vehicular flows. We can also assess accessibility according to how easy it is to get to somewhere. Lets take another urban environment and place a cinema (shown in purple) in the location shown. If we want to understand how well located the building is we must assess how smooth and continuous all the routes to the cinema are for residents in comparison to the ease of getting to all other locations within the system.

Slide 55

To do this we calculate how direct and continuous all the journeys from all of the settlement to the office are in comparison to getting anywhere else.

Slide 56

To do this we calculate how direct and continuous all the journeys from all of the settlement to the office are in comparison to getting anywhere else.

Slide 57

To do this we calculate how direct and continuous all the journeys from all of the settlement to the office are in comparison to getting anywhere else.

Slide 58

To do this we calculate how direct and continuous all the journeys from all of the settlement to the office are in comparison to getting anywhere else.

Slide 59

The analysis produces a different urban structure reflecting a different spatial property. Where as through movement emphasises routes, to movement analyses emphasise destinations. You can see how the main streets are still important but only near the centre of the settlement. There are also a number of side streets and even back streets near the centre that are considered easy to get to.

Slide 62

The importance of strategic spatial accessibility can be seen here by the visually obvious relationship between London’s strategic road network and the distribution of economic activity within the metropolitan region. All the major metropolitan centres and the majority of district centres lie on the intersection of major through routes.

Slide 64

To show the process by which a spatial analysis is constructed lets start with a simple urban grid…

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Now lets assume that someone wishes to travel between the house in the top left to the pool house on the bottom right…

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Given our knowledge of human route choice behavior we can assume that the individual will take this path between the two locations.

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Now lets imagine a second journey from the red hotel in the bottom left to the bank in the top right…

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Again we would imagine the route of the individual is likely to follow this path.

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We can see that the two routes overlap in places creating a difference between parts of the urban grid that are not used at all on the journey, those that are used by one of the residents and the street in the middle that is used by both.

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What Space Syntax software does is then to calculate the likelihood of passing down any particular street section on route from every origin to every destination.

Slide 71

The resulting values are then colour coded to revel the structure of the system with red streets suggesting a high level of overlapping routes (and therefore a large amount of pedestrian movement) through to blue streets with next to no-one passing down the street.

Slide 72

This pattern can be seen in London, here the West End is shown according to a hierarchy of pedestrian access from red as the most accessible through to blue for least accessible.

Slide 73

…you can see that the spatial structure of the West End has a strong influence on the distribution of retail land uses shown in red.

Slide 74

This relationship persists around the world. These are land use (left) and spatial accessibility (right) images of an area of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. You can clearly see a strong relationship between the through movement spatial structure commercial land uses shown in red and orange.

Slide 75

Conversely the shortest metric path structure of the settlement shown on the right bares no resemblance to the distribution of land use.

Slide 84

Once we have decided upon the description of accessibility we wish to retrieve using spatial analysis we can then look at these qualities at different scales of assessment. This image shows a path overlap or through movement analysis of the whole of the South East of England, in this case looking at journeys of 800metres or less. As you can see the peaks of accessibility are found in the core of urban areas where the street grid is dense and integrated, making short distance journeys easier to undertake.

Slide 85

At 2km the picture is similar but the difference between urban and rural areas is less pronounced…

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As the scale increases…

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The structure of favored routes become more linear and dispersed across the region…

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To the point where..

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…the motorways and trunk roads of the region are highlighted by the analysis. These routes are highlighted at this scale as they by-pass local connections but provide very smooth routes over long distances. At this scale the analysis identifies routes where destinations are likely to be far apart but where the speed of travel is very high. In the first diagram the opposite occurs, identifying areas where destinations are but the speed of travel that is possible between them is slow. Adjusting the scale of analysis shows that there is a relationship between spatial geometry and speed. This enables us to assess accessibility for different modes of transport.

Slide 93

I would like to close my presentation by turning to Xishan District in the city of Taiyuan.   It has been a pleasure for my company to collaborate with Mr Kai Wang and his colleagues at he China Academy of Urban Planning and Design in preparing an initial analysis of Xishan District, which I would like to present to you.

Slide 94

When we analyse the global spatial pattern, we see strong levels of accessibility on each side of the river. This suggests that Xishan already benefits from good global accessibility. New, major road projects will strengthen the global pattern even further. Based on our experience, we believe that the way in which the local pattern integrates with the global pattern will be very important to the sustainability of the future Xishan.   We have proposed to use this model, as we have done in Jeddah, Sao Paulo, Newcastle and London, to help develop the strategic spatial plan, the land use plan and the transport plan. We look forward to the opportunity to do so.

Slide 95

First, we can view the local accessibility analysis of the street network where we see higher levels of spatial accessibility to the east of the river and lower levels on the west, Xishan side. This suggest to us that the spatial planning of Xishan should aim to create a stronger local movement network. As we saw in Sao Paulo, the layout geometry of the street network is a critical factor in any city’s urban performance, so the local qualities of the spatial layout – and especially the way in which the local and global patterns overlap - is something that deserves special attention in Xishan.

Slide 96

Between them, the mountains and the river define the built up area of the city.

Slide 97

The first point I would like to make is that, in order to study the spatial layout of Xishan District, we need to gain an understanding of the entire city of Taiyuan. We can begin by first acknowledging the powerful role of the mountains in defining the boundaries of the city and in creating a key element of its character.

Slide 98

Next, the Fen river, as an important communications route and supply of water.

Slide 99

The railways and the airport provide the key large-scale transport connections for the city.

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The ring motorway facilitates movement to, from and around the city.

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The east-west routes are complemented by key north-south roads, two each on either side of the river.

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Together, the east-west and north-south routes create the “supergrid” of movement connections for the city.

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Within the supergrid are located a secondary network of important streets.

Slide 104

The various layers, when presented as a composite image, create an initial spatial mapping of Taiyuan.

Slide 140

If we look at some real world examples we can see that there is great variation in street grid design. In this case London (left) and Denver display very different block size patterns. Block sizes decrease significantly toward the centre of London where as Denver’s grid system is astonishingly uniform throughout the whole city.

Slide 141

If we look at some real world examples we can see that there is great variation in street grid design. In this case London (left) and Denver display very different block size patterns. Block sizes decrease significantly toward the centre of London where as Denver’s grid system is astonishingly uniform throughout the whole city.

Slide 142

The general approach of applying spatial design is firstly to understand the spatial structure of an existing urban environment and its influence on pedestrian movement, crime propensity, land and rental value, social interaction and urban buzz - in this case the Kings Cross regeneration area…

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…and then to apply our knowledge of spatial structure to provide suitable development options. For example this first grid like option…

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…produces a weak pedestrian movement structure.

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However, a more integrated route structure that links development into the right strategic connections surrounding the site…

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…is shown to produce a powerful and coherent movement structure. The remainder of this section reveals in more detail how this approach has been applied on a number of diverse case studies.

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So, with these “urban” assets as a foundation, this is the “vision” of the future Cleveland set forth in the Connecting Cleveland 2020 Plan:

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So, with these “urban” assets as a foundation, this is the “vision” of the future Cleveland set forth in the Connecting Cleveland 2020 Plan:

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So, with these “urban” assets as a foundation, this is the “vision” of the future Cleveland set forth in the Connecting Cleveland 2020 Plan:

Slide 155

So, with these “urban” assets as a foundation, this is the “vision” of the future Cleveland set forth in the Connecting Cleveland 2020 Plan:

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So, with these “urban” assets as a foundation, this is the “vision” of the future Cleveland set forth in the Connecting Cleveland 2020 Plan:

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So, with these “urban” assets as a foundation, this is the “vision” of the future Cleveland set forth in the Connecting Cleveland 2020 Plan:

Slide 159

So, with these “urban” assets as a foundation, this is the “vision” of the future Cleveland set forth in the Connecting Cleveland 2020 Plan:

Slide 174

Our observations of Trafalgar Square described a highly underused space with very low pedestrian movement levels inside the Sqaure.

Slide 177

An objective spatial model of the area was produced that accurately reflected the isolated nature of the old Sqaure design with the key pedestrian routes identified at the edges of the Square rather than passing through its landscaped heart. The image on the left describes the spatial structure of Trafalgar Square before the redesign, showing how isolated the core of the Square was by passing pedestrians workers and tourists. The image on the right shows how the pedestrianisation of the northern side of the Square and the provision of a central staircase would open up the whole of the area up to ‘through movement’, enlivening the public space and shortening pedestrian journeys.

Slide 183

The dramatic results of design change can be seen in the pedestrian movement observations undertaken after the redesign was completed. The pattern of behaviour has changed in line with the forecast of the spatial model with a much stronger flow of pedestrian movement into and through the heart of the Square.

Slide 184

Trace observations that were also undertaken after the redesign also show higher numbers of stationary workers and tourists enjoying the whole of the Square and traversing the area by going through the site rather than around it.

Slide 195

Two roundabout Dominated by traffic Subways Brutal architecture Previous scheme Because people didn’t trust sources of info-had to recapture a position where we are the primary source of information-the authority we wanted we managed to regain

Slide 196

Elephant and Castle was once a burgeoning residential quarter of South London with a strong commercial core many and high density urban character. The centre benefited simultaneously from both strategic communications access to central London and residential suburbs in the South and stood as the integrated core of its local residential community. As can be seen from the map above, the centre was a focus of accessibility at all scale of movement. This meant that local businesses benefited directly from passing trade.

Slide 197

The scale of urban fragmentation that has since ensued can be seen by the comparison of development figure grounds from 1916 and 2005. The close grained nature of the built fabric of 1916 has been undermined through successive wholesale redevelopment and replaced with fragmented, incoherent urban form. Mirroring this evolution has been the increasing prevalence given to facilitating global through movement at the expense of local inter-accessiblity. Movement modes have been physically and functionally separated to the degree that the major public and private transport through routes are extremely difficult to traverse for pedestrians.

Slide 198

The centre is separated by a complex networks of skybridges, subways and un-constituted urban blocks that deters pedestrian movement. According to the supplementary planning guidance from the district borough, of the inhabitants living in the area only 20% of expenditure are being spent within the centre. One objectives of redesign has been to increase local spend by up to 50%

Slide 204

The splitting of modes has undermined the value of Elephant and Castle as a destination in its own right. On the ground the pedestrian experience is one of confusion and inconvenience. The comparison of crossing facilities between and Elephant and Caste and Aldwych above shows how extreme the approach of Elephant and Castle has been to the management of heavy public transport and pedestrian demand.

Slide 206

Our high resolution spatial accessibility model of the area showed how the design of the pedestrian realm restricted the value of commercial areas such as Woolworth Road and the Northern roundabout from spreading out into adjacent streets. By defining different areas of the centre as zones of differing activity, either in terms of movement (pedestrian and vehicular) or land use (commercial and residential) pedestrians are effectively being corralled into corridors of movement, unable to navigate between major through routes and easily circulate around the centre. This unnatural zoning is demonstrated by the introverted design of the Heygate estate (outlined in blue). The estate’s labyrinthine internal walkways prevent pedestrians from circulating between New Kent Road and Woolworth Road.

Slide 207

Looking at the distribution of frontage and land use in this context, it is clear that the design of the public realm has not been developed in line with the natural behavior of local pedestrians. As such the majority of the street system that pedestrians actually use is not lined by live commercial uses and is largely left as blank frontage. In order to generate a design that is functionally affective as well as aesthetically pleasing, it was crucial to know where pedestrians would circulate in a different street system and line these streets with active land uses.

Slide 208

The central intersection of Elephant and Castle is highly spatially integrated at a global scale and constitutes a transport node for central south London.

Slide 209

Another key concept of redesign was to utilise this strategic potential for more than just a public and private transport interchange; to combine the strategic accessibility of the site with local inter-accessibility. Overlapping strategic and local accessibility is a quality found in all other vibrant commercial centres within central London – could redesigning Elephant and Castle generate the next London commercial quarter?

Slide 211

The design solution that followed from this assessment focused on remedying the structural problems identified in the areas physical from, the redevelopment of the Heygate estate in particular provided an opportunity to link residential communities with each other and the centre. The damaging segregation of vehicular and pedestrian infrastructure also had to be redressed by creating a better balance between movement through the area and movement within.

Slide 213

Testing the future spatial structure showed that reconnecting Woolworth Road to the Northern Roundabout would reinforce the value of Elephant and Castle as a local centre of trade and that connecting Woolworth Road to New Kent Road would open up new areas of relatively high pedestrian movement away from the busy roads, providing a greater diversity of urban space for non residential use and an opportunity to create exciting new urban spaces.

Slide 252

This growth has occurred without proper water supply, sewage and public transport; likewise, without protection of many important historic buildings. As a result the city suffers from sprawl, decay and pollution.

Slide 253

Much movement in the city is only possible by private vehicle.

Slide 254

Our spatial analysis revealed how the city had developed an imbalanced spatial accessibility pattern that only worked because of the motorways.

Slide 255

The authorities in the city had a strategic choice to either build more motorways or to stop building such fast streets and start building a local infrastructure based on shorter journeys, mixed land uses and public transport.

Slide 256

Using the spatial model we showed how the city would suffer if more motorways were built. As a result of our contribution, the authorities have decided to follow the alternative strategy.

Slide 257

A key element of the new spatial plan is the transformation of the many unplanned settlements – or urban villages – that surround the Historic Core.

Slide 258

Our strategy is to connect the strong local movement patterns of the urban villages with the global movement that surrounds them, making the connection with new development that allows trade to occur at their edges.

Slide 263

The Space Syntax spatial model has been used to plan the new land use pattern with retail streets formed along new boulevards, in the historic tradition of street-based trade.

Slide 264

We have helped to create a new public transport network in which routes and stations have been aligned with key accessibility corridors and nodes.

Slide 265

We have identified the location for a major new street, the “Jeddah Boulevard”, which will serve as a new focus for commercial business in Jeddah.

Slide 266

As in Sao Paulo, the spatial accessibility model has been used to create guidance on building heights…

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…and on urban design features, such as tree shading, that will ensure that the strategic spatial planning principles are translated into fine-scale design.

Slide 269

We have created area action plans for several parts of the city, including the Jeddah Waterfront…

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…illustrating these for potential developers and investors.

Slide 1

Introduction to Space Syntax Theory, technology & practice Day One Harvard University Graduate School of Design 12-13th January 2011 Tim Stonor & Ed Parham

Slide 2

Day One Principles & projects A lecture by Tim Stonor Managing Director at Space Syntax Limited Loeb Fellow at Harvard University Honorary Senior Lecturer at University College London. Day Two Between the laptop & the pencil A workshop with Ed Parham Associate Director at Space Syntax Limited Honorary Research Fellow at University College London. Course structure

Slide 3

Course overview Day One Part One Theory & methodology Thinking spatially Describing & measuring space networks Spatial networks & graph analysis Moving in space Measuring movement Spatial distance ‘To’ movement ‘Through’ movement Urban movement = ‘to’ movement + ‘through’ movement Scales of movement Describing & measuring urban ‘complexity’ The spatial anatomy of a city Urban block size / permeability The ‘lining’ of the network Measuring urban functional outcomes Form/function inter-relationships Part Two Practice Manipulating spatial networks A Building space Manipulating spatial networks B Urban space Problematic urbanism Costs of access & the emptying city An urban planning & design toolkit Location Linkage Layout Land use Landscape Urban space case studies London, Trafalgar Square Skelmersdale London, Elephant & Castle Sao Paulo, Diagonal Sul Jeddah

Slide 4

Hillier, B Introduction to Space is the Machine, Cambridge University Press, pp1-8. Hillier, B (1996) Cities as movement economies. Urban Design International , 1 (1) , pp. 41-60. Hillier, B (2009) Spatial sustainability in cities: organic patterns and sustainable forms. In: Koch, D. and Marcus, L. and Steen, J., (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Space Syntax Symposium. (pp. p. 1). Royal Institute of Technology (KTH): Stockholm, Sweden. Hanson, J and Hillier, B (1987) The architecture of community: some new proposals on the social consequences of architectural and planning decisions. Architecture et Comportement/Architecture and Behaviour , 3 (3) , 251 – 273. Course reading

Slide 5

www.spacesyntax.org The website of the Space Syntax Laboratory at University College London. Links to software, publications, international symposia. www.spacesyntax.com The website of Space Syntax Limited, the consulting arm of the Space Syntax Laboratory. Links to case studies, clients, partners. www.spacesyntaxnetwork.wordpress.com A blogsite, bringing together and summarising both academic and commercial practice out of University College London. Space Syntax resources

Slide 6

Day One summary 3h in 3min

Slide 7

Space Syntax describes the spatial architecture of the city. Cities are large collections of buildings held together by a network of space: the street network. The network of space is the largest thing in the city. It is what holds it all together. Space has: an architecture, that is a certain geometry and a topology, that is, a certain pattern of connections. Focus Networks of space in buildings & cities Summary

Slide 8

Space Syntax models provide a complete representation of the spatial network, defining the basic element as the segment of a street between junctions. Space Syntax analyses the spatial relations between each spatial segment and all the others in the network. Space Syntax A mathematical description of space Summary

Slide 9

Sao Paulo Space Syntax Making sense of space at every scale Thinking spatially

Slide 10

By isolating and analysing the street network we bring to light a fundamental fact of cities. The spatial structure of the street network is generally the primary determinant of movement. Movement is the lifeblood of the city and creates the dense patterns of human contact that are its raison d’etre. Key discovery #1 Spatial layout shapes urban movement Summary

Slide 11

Movement potentials are measured in two ways, reflecting the fact that every trip involves two things. First, selecting a destination from an origin. Deciding where to go. Call it the “to-movement” element of the trip. Mathematicians call it closeness. Two key properties of space To-movement Summary

Slide 12

Second, selecting the spaces to pass through on the way to the destination: selecting the route to get there. Call it the “through-movement” element of the trip. Mathematicians call it between-ness. Two key properties of space Through-movement Summary

Slide 13

Research shows that 60-80% of movement flows are due to the structure of the network, measured by spatial accessibility. More accessible places get more movement This does not mean that space determines individual movement. It means that human movement follows predictable patterns. The evidence base Summary

Slide 14

Key discovery #2 Spatial accessibility shapes land use Summary As cities evolve, land uses exploit spatial accessibility. Movement-sensitive land uses locate on movement-rich streets. Less movement-sensitive uses locate around the corner. In this way, historic cities organise themselves, mixing land uses in a natural way that people understand intuitively.

Slide 15

Centre vitality £ % Street quality Property value Residential security Personal safety Urban layout Key discovery #3 Space influences urban performance Thinking spatially Space Syntax shows that spatial layouts have powerful, social, economic & environmental properties that can be measured objectively.

Slide 16

spatial layout is a critical aspect of design that influences human behaviour recent spatial layout planning has caused social, economic & environmental damage there are profound benefits to be derived from careful spatial layout design Space Syntax provides an objective means of measuring & forecasting spatial layout impacts. This course Four key messages Thinking spatially

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Thinking spatially

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The Earth as a spatial network Much of the earth’s landmass is continuously connected. Thinking spatially

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A networked geography Spatial networks are the largest objects of human creation. Thinking spatially

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Urban centres as intense parts of the spatial network Thinking spatially

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The space of the city is the theatre of everyday activity. The purpose of this activity is trade social & economic. Any urban place is a trading engine – a hugely valuable asset. Thinking spatially

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Describing & measuring space Spatial networks & graph analysis Describing & measuring space A

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. Graphs are diagrams of relations between spaces. They describe differences between spatial layouts in an objective way. Describing space Graph theory Two different spatial layouts: Two different graphs: Describing & measuring space A

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Total depth = Total depth = 10 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 0 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 Describing space Measuring depth in graphs 3 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 1 16 Depth is a ‘system metric’ and varies from place to place in the spatial layout. Describing & measuring space A

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Describing space Representing simultaneous relations Using colours to represent numerical values provides an effective visualisation of simultaneous relations in spatial layouts. Describing & measuring space A

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. . Justified Graph from Entrance Justified Graph from Nurse Base Entrance Nurse Base shallow deep Justified graphs illustrate the single most important property of spatial networks in buildings & cities: they are different when seen from different points of view. Describing space Assigning functional attributes Describing & measuring space A

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Axial line graph Convex space graph Describing space Convex spaces and axial lines Describing & measuring space A

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Introduction The syntactic description of space Seeing space Describing & measuring space A

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Seeing space Describing & measuring space A

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A network whose connections are driven by the geometry of buildings (and other ‘obstructions’) Axial network analysis Describing & measuring space A

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Spatial hierarchy in the axial network Describing & measuring space A The graph measures bring to light spatial properties that emerge from the structure as a whole rather than from local connections.

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Each place has a unique spatial signature. Describing & measuring space A

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London Describing & measuring space A

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Beijing Describing & measuring space

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Tokyo Describing & measuring space

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Brasilia Describing & measuring space

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Moving in space

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Movement is the lifeblood of the city. Moving in space

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Which is the easiest route between A and B? B A Moving in space

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A B Shortest path/least metric distance? Moving in space

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A B Simplest path/least angle change? Moving in space

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Investigate by observing & recording Moving in space

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Create a movement database Moving in space

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In brief same input B Observation studies show that most people prefer simple, more direct paths over complex, indirect paths – even if the complex path is shorter. A B A Most people prefer simplest paths Moving in space

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Measuring movement Spatial distance Measuring movement

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15 18 36 … 31.4 Measuring space

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23.6 Measuring space

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9.8 Measuring space

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Measuring space Spatial integration

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. Spatially isolated Spatially integrated Cities are relational systems Measuring space Each space within a spatial network is affected by its relations to all other spaces in the system.

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Old town Ashford Mixed use Integrated movement Accessible centre Zoned land uses Separated movement Inaccessible centre A simple analysis revealing profound differences New town Skelmersdale Measuring space

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Measuring movement ‘To’ movement

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In brief same input ‘To’ movement Measuring movement

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In brief same input Measuring movement ‘To’ movement

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In brief same input Measuring movement ‘To’ movement

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In brief same input Measuring movement ‘To’ movement

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In brief same input Measuring movement ‘To’ movement

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In brief same input Measuring movement ‘To’ movement

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In brief same input Measuring movement ‘To’ movement

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‘To’ movement accessibility of Chester Measuring movement ‘To’ movement

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‘To’ movement accessibility of Chester Commercial Core Measuring movement ‘To’ movement

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Centrality Clusters of non residential activity in metropolitan London © CASA, UCL Global ‘To’ movement for metropolitan London Measuring movement

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Measuring movement ‘Through’ movement Measuring movement

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In brief same input ‘Through’ movement Measuring movement

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In brief same input Measuring movement ‘Through’ movement

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In brief same input Measuring movement ‘Through’ movement

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In brief same input Measuring movement ‘Through’ movement

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In brief same input Measuring movement ‘Through’ movement

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In brief same input Measuring movement ‘Through’ movement

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In brief same input Measuring movement ‘Through’ movement

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In brief same input Measuring movement ‘Through’ movement

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In brief same input Measuring movement ‘Through’ movement

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In brief same input Courtesy of The TLRN Central London Pedestrian Study by Atkins Measuring movement ‘Through’ movement correlates with retail location

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Measuring movement Land use/‘Through’ movement Strong correlation

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Measuring movement Land use/Shortest path No such correlation

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Urban movement = ‘to’ + ‘through’ movement Urban movement

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‘To’ movement analysis highlights the principal commercial centre of the city. Chester ‘To’ movement Urban movement

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Chester ‘Through’ movement Urban movement ‘Through’ movement analysis highlights the routes that feed the main commercial centre, which are small, local centres in their own right.

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London ‘To movement’ Urban movement As in Chester, ‘To’ movement analysis highlights the principal commercial centre of the city. It also picks out the key radial connections, which are large, important local centres.

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London ‘Through movement’ Urban movement ‘Through’ movement analysis identifies the many smaller, local centres that create London’s identity as a ‘City of villages’.

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Scales of movement Scales of movement

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Scales of movement Bucharest Local accessibility

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Scales of movement Bucharest City-wide accessibility

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Scales of movement South East England ‘Through’ movement 800m

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Scales of movement South East England ‘Through’ movement 2km

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Scales of movement South East England ‘Through’ movement 5km

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Scales of movement South East England ‘Through’ movement 10km

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Scales of movement South East England ‘Through’ movement 50km

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Scales of movement South East England ‘Through’ movement 100km

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High Low Area scale 10km Spatial accessibility High Low Citywide scale 50km Spatial accessibility Urban movement Mumbai Local & global spatial network hierarchies

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Sustainable urban movement is a balance between movement at different scales: local as well as global movement. It is about multi-scale activity transacting within a common set of spaces. This is the process of economic & social trade that gives cities their purpose. Many modern cities have lost the balance between global and local and, being low-density and disconnected, have become too oriented towards large-scale, vehicle dependent movement. Urban movement Sustainable urban movement Balancing local and global

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Describing & measuring urban ‘complexity’ The spatial anatomy of a city Describing & measuring urban ‘complexity’

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The spatial anatomy of a city Taiyuan, China Describing space B

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LogChoiceN 太原站 Describing space B Taiyuan Global spatial network hierarchy 50km

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LogChoice800m 迎泽大街 太原站 Describing space B Taiyuan Local spatial network hierarchy 800m

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Describing space B Taiyuan Built up area

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Tai Hang Mountain Lvliang Mountain Heng Mountain Describing space B Taiyuan Mountains

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Describing space B Taiyuan Fen River

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Taiyuan Wusu Airport Central Railway Station Describing space B Taiyuan Railways and airport

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Dayun motorway to Datong Ring Road Taijiu motorway to Shijiazhuang Taichang motorway to Changzhi Dayun motorway to Pingyao & Lvliang Describing space B Taiyuan Motorways

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Describing space B Taiyuan North south street structure

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Describing space B Taiyuan Main spatial structure

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Describing space B Taiyuan Simple route hierarchy

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Describing space B Taiyuan A simple spatial description

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Describing space C Urban block size / permeability Describing space C

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Mean depth 2.8 Mean depth 3.0 Mean depth 2.7 A grid with smaller central blocks and larger peripheral blocks has a lower mean metric distance from all points to all others than a regular grid. In a grid with larger blocks in the centre, the mean distance becomes larger than a regular grid. This simple formal fact is reflected everywhere in cities. Describing space C Urban block size The geometry of centrality Block size Small Large

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Block size Small Large Describing space C Centres, with their need for inter-accessibility & commercial transaction, have smaller block structures than the residential areas that surround them. London, Tower Hamlets Centrality in action

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. Old town Ealing An economically vibrant centre. Characterised by smaller urban blocks towards the commercial centre and larger blocks in the residential areas behind. New town Skelmersdale A failed UK ‘New town’. Characterised by overly small residential urban blocks, creating an overly permeable layout in which movement is diluted. Describing space C Centrality & sustainability Centrality in action

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Describing space D The ‘lining’ of the network Describing space D

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Urban space-form Land use scan Tower Hamlets Retail Residential Medical Storage Catering Offices Education Leisure Under construction Industry Parking Community Services Hotels Vacant Government Agriculture Transport Empty or abandoned site Land use Green Spaces Describing space D

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. Urban space-form Land use scan Comparatives . Old town Ashford New town Skelmersdale Describing space D

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Urban space-form Frontage character scan Tower Hamlets Blank wall High opaque fence High see through fence Low fence Semi-transparent wall Transparent wall Very low fence Frontages Describing space D

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Urban space-form Frontage character scan Bloomsbury Old town Barnsbury New town Caledonian Road Active 80% Inactive 20% Active 13% Inactive 87% Describing space D

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Urban space-form Building entrances scan Tower Hamlets Controlled # # # # Uncontrolled # # Normal Unused Normal Fire Exit Service Unused Entrances Describing space D

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Urban space-form Pedestrian infrastructure Tower Hamlets Describing space D

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Measuring urban functional outcomes Measuring urban functional outcomes

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Urban functioning Pedestrian flow scan Tower Hamlets People per hour 450 to 900 250 to 450 150 to 250 100 to 150 50 to 100 0 to 50 Measuring urban functional outcomes

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Urban functioning Pedestrian database London central Oxford Street Covent Garden Baker Street Soho Mayfair Street comparison 8–10 10-12 12- 2 2-4 4-6 6-8 Oxford Street Soho London subarea comparison Baker Street Pedestrian movement Pedestrian movement Measuring urban functional outcomes

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Urban functioning Walking rate analysis Comparatives 24 People/1,000 residents 36 People/1,000 residents Old town Colchester New town Harlow Measuring urban functional outcomes

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Urban functioning Vehicle flow scan Bloomsbury Measuring urban functional outcomes

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Urban functioning Pedestrian crossing scan Tower Hamlets People per hour 1,400 700 140 Traffic light red phase (pph) Traffic light green phase (pph) Measuring urban functional outcomes

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Urban functioning Informal crossing scan Tower Hamlets Straight crossing Staggered crossing Traces Measuring urban functional outcomes

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Form/function inter-relationships Form-function inter-relationships

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Structure/function correlations Space/movement diagnostic Form-function inter-relationships

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Area 5 Area 6 Area 3 Area 2 Perth, Gosnells Property crime analysis Structure/function correlations Space/crime diagnosis Form-function inter-relationships

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Key layout indicators Building centred density Plot exposure Dwelling type Dwellings per street segment Structure/function correlations Value of property security This project is supported by the UCL-led UrbanBuzz Programme, within which UEL is a prime partner Form-function inter-relationships

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Dwellings per street segment Dwellings per street segment Risk Structure/function correlations Value of property security 20 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 78 This project is supported by the UCL-led UrbanBuzz Programme, within which UEL is a prime partner Form-function inter-relationships

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Diagnostic analysis Burglary valuation A B –£1,590,000 +£691,000 Form-function inter-relationships

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Diagnostic analysis Personal attack valuation B A +£14,500 pa +£3,200 pa Form-function inter-relationships

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Urban valuation tool Value of property security Indicators Dwelling type Plot exposure Dwellings per street segment Building centred density Risk factors Cost ±% ±£ ! Risk intangible ? tangible This project is supported by the UCL-led UrbanBuzz Programme, within which UEL is a prime partner Form-function inter-relationships

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Manipulating spatial networks A Building space Manipulating spatial networks A

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Tate Britian Layout influences wayfinding Manipulating spatial networks A

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Tate Britian Layout influences wayfinding Manipulating spatial networks A

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Tate Britian Layout influences wayfinding Manipulating spatial networks A

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Tate Britian Layout influences wayfinding Manipulating spatial networks A

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Tate Britian Layout influences wayfinding Manipulating spatial networks A

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Tate Britian Layout influences wayfinding Manipulating spatial networks A

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Manipulating spatial networks B Urban space Manipulating spatial networks B

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Understanding movement: Structuring movement Manipulating spatial networks B

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Understanding movement: Structuring movement Manipulating spatial networks B

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Understanding movement: Structuring movement Manipulating spatial networks B

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Understanding movement Structuring movement Manipulating spatial networks B

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Understanding movement Structuring movement Manipulating spatial networks B

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Understanding movement Structuring movement Manipulating spatial networks B

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Understanding movement Structuring movement Manipulating spatial networks B

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Understanding movement Structuring movement Manipulating spatial networks B

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Problematic urbanism The costs of access & the empty city Problematic urbanism

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Suppressed movement economy. Enhanced movement economy. Main street, mixing global & local movement. Fast highways, separating global & local movement. The cost of access Fast highways not “Main Streets” Problematic urbanism

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Modern planning Zoned land uses, creating longer journeys Historic planning Mixed land uses, minimising journey lengths The cost of access The zoning of land uses Problematic urbanism

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Suppressed movement economy. Enhanced movement economy. Urban building, active frontage, street dependent. Anti-urban building, blank frontage, car dependent. The cost of access Anti-urban buildings Problematic urbanism

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The separation of local communities, land uses & individual buildings has created the “commuting society” and, with it, very significant costs on time, energy & health. The loss of local movement economies has social and economic, as well as environmental, costs in terms of property crime, personal attack & social isolation. The costs of imbalanced accessibility Problematic urbanism

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Cleveland: 86% manufacturing job losses Problematic urbanism Industrial decline & fragmentation

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15,000 Vacant Buildings

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1,000-2,000 Demolitions Annually

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Transforming vacant lots

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26,570 foreclosures (2006-2009)

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Targeting Urban Agriculture

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Targeting Greenspace Expansion

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…..a city with densely built, mixed-use, walkable neighborhoods connected by greenways and complemented by urban gardens and open space amenities

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Space Syntax Limited © 2010 Tim Stonor Fragmented landscapes Issues in North American urbanism

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Space Syntax Limited © 2010 Tim Stonor Fragmented landscapes Issues in North American urbanism

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Urban space case studies Urban space case studies

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Urban space case studies

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Trafalgar Square, London Urban space case studies

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Trafalgar Square, London Urban space case studies

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Trafalgar Square, London In 1996, most of the space was empty for most of the time. Urban space case studies

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Trafalgar Square In 1996, there were pockets of activity on the south-east side of the square. Urban space case studies

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Trafalgar Square Tourists cross dangerous roads Urban space case studies

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We followed people and found that most walked around the edges. Trafalgar Square Urban space case studies

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Trafalgar Square Views from the heart of the space are limited. Urban space case studies

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Elephant & Castle Southern Crossing Views from the south side are extensive, providing valuable information. Urban space case studies

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© Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. Licence number: LA100032379 Designing for movement Trafalgar Square Urban space case studies 2000

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Trafalgar Square We constructed a Pedestrian Movement Model, based on spatial accessibility. Urban space case studies

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© Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. Licence number: LA100032379 To Leicester Square & Covent Garden To the South Bank To Buckingham Palace & St James Park To Leicester Square, Piccadilly & St James Design issue Movement was pushed around the edges of the Square by the physical design of the space such as indirect staircase links. Design strategy The design strategy, developed with Foster + Partners, was to bring movement through the heart of the Square via a new, central staircase. Designing for movement Trafalgar Square Urban space case studies

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Trafalgar Square before redesign Trafalgar Square after redesign Designing for movement Trafalgar Square Urban space case studies

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Trafalgar Square Pedestrian Movement Forecast Model Urban space case studies

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Trafalgar Square The new central staircase

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Trafalgar Square First day of opening

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Trafalgar Square The new Central Staircase

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Shoreditch The new approach to street design Spot the guardrail! Urban space case studies

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Designing for movement Trafalgar Square Urban space case studies Day 1 2003

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Pedestrians - Movement Pedestrians - Stationary Designing for movement Trafalgar Square Urban space case studies

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Trafalgar Square Aldwych Shoreditch The new approach to street design X crossings Urban space case studies

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Olympic Park London 2012 Urban space case studies

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Nottingham, England Old Market Square Urban space case studies

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Millennium Bridge, London Urban space case studies

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200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Pedestrian flow 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 Spatial accessibility R^2 = .89 p = 0.0047 Blackfriars Bridge Hungerford Bridge London Bridge Southwark Bridge Waterloo Bridge Westminster Bridge Urban care process Space/movement forecast Urban space case studies

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The London Promenade Urban space case studies

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Axial Integration R3 Green at 8 © Crown Copyright 2006. No. XXXXXXXXX Skelmersdale Inaccessible town centre Urban space case studies

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Skelmersdale Redevelopment proposal Integrate Vehicular and pedestrian Movement Incorporate existing movement generators Improve connections to residential estates Urban space case studies

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© Crown Copyright 2006. No. XXXXXXXXX Axial Integration R3 Green at 8 Skelmersdale Proposed pedestrian accessibility Urban space case studies

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Urban space case studies

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Elephant & Castle Underused potential Urban space case studies

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Designing for movement Elephant and Castle Urban space case studies

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1916 Coherent urban layout “The Piccadilly of the south” 2005 Fragmented urban layout - isolated, divided communities - disposable income exodus. Designing for movement Elephant and Castle Urban space case studies

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Designing for movement Elephant and Castle Urban space case studies

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Urban space case studies

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Designing for movement Elephant and Castle Urban space case studies

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Elephant and Castle Pedestrian movement observation Urban space case studies

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Brook Drive Newington Butts Borough Road Heygate Estate Designing for movement Elephant and Castle Urban space case studies

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Frontage interface map Ground floor land use map INTERFACE ACTIVE/ LIVE FRONTAGE + PEDESTRIANISED ACTIVE/ LIVE FRONTAGE ACTIVE/ NON LIVE FRONTAGE INACTIVE FRONTAGE LAND USE CATERING COMMERCIAL OFFICE COMMUNITY FACILITIES HOTEL LAW / EMERGENCY SERVICES LEISURE / ENTERTAINMENT NOT ACCESSIBLE PILOTIS PRIVATE GARDEN PUBLIC SPACE RESIDENTIAL RETAIL TRANSPORT UNDER CONSTRUCTION UNKNOWN / OTHER VACANT / DERELICT Designing for movement Elephant and Castle Urban space case studies

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High Low Spatial Accessibility Designing for movement Elephant and Castle Urban space case studies

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City of villages Urban space case studies

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MAKE Foster + Partners Tibbalds Planning & Urban Design Gehl Associates JMP Martha Schwartz & Partners Space Syntax … Professional team… Urban space case studies

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Designing for movement Elephant and Castle Urban space case studies

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Elephant & Castle Area layout framework Urban space case studies

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Designing for movement Elephant and Castle Urban space case studies

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Elephant & Castle New urban quarter Urban space case studies Image courtesy Foster and Partners 2004

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Elephant & Castle A new ‘High Street’ centre Image courtesy Foster and Partners 2004 Urban space case studies

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Elephant & Castle World-class public realm Civic Square Urban space case studies Image courtesy Foster and Partners 2004

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Elephant & Castle Pedestrian flow forecasting Urban space case studies

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80% Say Yes Urban space case studies

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Elephant & Castle Southern Crossing Urban space case studies

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Elephant & Castle Southern Crossing Urban space case studies

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Elephant & Castle Southern Crossing Urban space case studies

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الرؤية تراث تاريخي عريق Sao Paulo Diagonal Sul Urban space case studies

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Urban space case studies

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الرؤية تراث تاريخي عريق Jeddah Global location Urban space case studies

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Growth 60 years ago the centre was a kilometre across Urban space case studies

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51 km Rapid urban expansion Since then, rapid urban expansion means the city is now 51 kilometres from north to south. Madinah Road Makkah Road Urban space case studies

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التحديات معاناة المشاة Jeddah Weaknesses sprawl decay pollution Urban space case studies

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Urban space case studies

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New plan Historic Core Spatial accessibility analysis Motorway city Urban motorway Urban space case studies

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Urban space case studies

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New plan A car-based plan is socially & economically unsustainable Existing Former plan Urban space case studies

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Historic Core is “choked” by unplanned settlements Al Hindawiyah As Sabil Historic Core Al Amariyah Al Kandarah An Nazlah Al Baghdadiyah Ash Sharafiyah As Sahifah Urban space case studies

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Globally important routes Connecting locally routes Realignment and extension of intermediary routes Intermediary important routes Roads Locally important routes Strategy Integrate the segregated scales of movement Urban space case studies

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Route hierarchy according to accessibility Development guidelines Density and building height generation هيئة الطرق حسب وصوليتها ارشادات التنمية توليد الكثافة وأطوال المباني Urban space case studies

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Building height guideline model Development guidelines Density and building height generation ارشادات التنمية توليد الكثافة وأطوال المباني نموذج ارشادي لطول المبنى Urban space case studies

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استخدامات المباني Development Specifications Development guidelines Density and building height generation مؤشرات العمران – الواجهة البحرية موجهات التطوير توليد الكثافة وارتفاعات المباني Urban space case studies

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توليد الكثافة وأطوال المباني نموذج ارشادي لكثافة وأطوال المباني واستغلال الأراضي Urban care process Parametric design Jeddah Central Urban space case studies

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Recirculate the city with “healthy” movement Urban space case studies

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Create a public transport system that follows main streets Shared space (pedestrians / buses) Pedestrian Priority area Secondary public transport network Primary public transport network Multi-modal transport interchange Old Airport Waterfront Al Balad Khozam Urban space case studies

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The outcome Enhanced accessibility, movement & trade Existing The Jeddah Plan Jeddah Boulevard Urban space case studies

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Line key boulevards with major, street-facing buildings Urban space case studies

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Align new streets with the Red Sea breeze & shade them Urban space case studies

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Party walls Privacy/shading screens Continuous facades Shading structures/ privacy screen Shared surface/ Pedestrian priority Building height ranges Vertical land use distribution Accessible roof space Plot coverage ranges On street parking Infrastructure routed below parking areas Active frontages Ground floor setback for shade Overlooking uses Floor to floor heights Plot widths Jeddah Re-creating local, street-based movement Urban space case studies

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مشروع المركز المدني لجدة تحليل الموقع مكونات الخطة الرئيسية Jeddah Waterfront 500Ha masterplan Urban space case studies

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Urban care process Analytic design Jeddah Central Urban space case studies

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Jeddah Waterfront Corridors for transaction Urban space case studies

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Urban care process Analytic design Jeddah City Plan Existing Former plan New plan by Space Syntax Urban space case studies

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A singular expertise A common language Architecture Town planning Urban economics Criminology Masterplanning Transport planning Property agency PR & branding Space Space/form Function Design Urban space case studies

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Urban care process Analytic design Trafalgar Square Observe Explain Forecast Deliver Urban space case studies

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Working across scales Buildings Public Spaces Masterplans Area Action Plans Urban Development Frameworks Regional Strategies Macro Meso Micro Urban space case studies

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Boston Urban infrastructure database Urban space case studies

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Tim Stonor architect & town planner Managing Director, Space Syntax Limited Lincoln Loeb Fellow, Harvard University Twitter @Tim_Stonor Blog www.timstonor.com LinkedIn www.linkedin.com/in/timstonor t.stonor@spacesyntax.com www.spacesyntax.com Contact details

Tags: space syntax architecture morphology urban planning design urbanism sustainability

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