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1. On the topic, “Challenges Facing Financial Accounting,” what did the AICPA Special Committee on Financial Reporting suggest should be included in future financial statements? Non-financial Measurements (customer satisfaction indexes, backlog information, and reject rates on goods purchases). Forward-looking Information Soft Assets (a company’s know-how, market dominance, marketing setup, well-trained employees, and brand image). Timeliness (no real time financial information)

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Service Cost - Actuaries compute service cost as the present value of the new benefits earned by employees during the year. Future salary levels considered in calculation. Interest on Liability - Interest accrues each year on the PBO just as it does on any discounted debt. Actual Return on Plan Assets - Increase in pension funds from interest, dividends, and realized and unrealized changes in the fair market value of the plan assets. Amortization of Unrecognized Prior Service Cost - The cost of providing retroactive benefits is allocated to pension expense in the future, specifically to the remaining service-years of the affected employees. Gain or Loss - Volatility in pension expense can be caused by sudden and large changes in the market value of plan assets and by changes in the projected benefit obligation. Two items comprise the gain or loss: difference between the actual return and the expected return on plan assets and, amortization of the unrecognized net gain or loss from previous periods

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Balance Sheet and Statement of Cash Flows Chapter 5 Intermediate Accounting 12th Edition Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield Prepared by Coby Harmon, University of California, Santa Barbara

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Explain the uses and limitations of a balance sheet. Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Prepare a classified balance sheet using the report and account formats. Determine which balance sheet information requires supplemental disclosure. Describe the major disclosure techniques for the balance sheet. Indicate the purpose of the statement of cash flows. Identify the content of the statement of cash flows. Prepare a statement of cash flows. Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows. Learning Objectives

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Balance Sheet Statement of Cash Flows Purpose Content and format Preparation Usefulness Balance Sheet and Statement of Cash Flows Usefulness Limitations Classification Additional information reported Techniques of disclosure

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Evaluating the capital structure. Assess risk and future cash flows. Analyze the company’s: Liquidity, Solvency, and Financial flexibility. Balance Sheet Usefulness of the Balance Sheet LO 1 Explain the uses and limitations of a balance sheet.

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Most assets and liabilities are reported at historical cost. Use of judgments and estimates. Many items of financial value are omitted. Limitations of the Balance Sheet LO 1 Understand the uses and limitations of an income statement. Balance Sheet

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Three General Classifications Assets, Liabilities, and Stockholders’ Equity Companies further divide these classifications: Classification in the Balance Sheet LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet Illustration 5-1 Balance Sheet Classification

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Cash and other assets a company expects to convert into cash, sell, or consume either in one year or in the operating cycle, whichever is longer. Current Assets LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet Illustration 5-2 Accounts and basis of valuation

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Review The correct order to present current assets is a. Cash, accounts receivable, prepaid items, inventories. b. Cash, accounts receivable, inventories, prepaid items. c. Cash, inventories, accounts receivable, prepaid items. d. Cash, inventories, prepaid items, accounts receivable. LO 8 Explain how to report other comprehensive income. Balance Sheet

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Generally any monies available “on demand.” Cash equivalents are short-term highly liquid investments that will mature within three months or less. Any restrictions or commitments must be disclosed. Cash LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet – “Current Assets” Illustration 5-3

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Portfolios Short-Term Investments LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Type Valuation Classification Held-to-Maturity Debt Amortized Cost Current or Noncurrent Trading Debt or Equity Fair Value Current Available- for-Sale Debt or Equity Fair Value Current or Noncurrent Balance Sheet – “Current Assets”

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Claims held against customers and others for money, goods, or services. Accounts receivable – oral promises Notes receivable – written promises Major categories of receivables should be shown in the balance sheet or the related notes. Receivables LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet – “Current Assets”

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Accounts Receivable – Presentation Options LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Current Assets: Cash $ 346 Accounts receivable 500 Less allowance for doubtful accounts 25 475 Inventory 812 Total current assets $1,633 Current Assets: Cash $ 346 Accounts receivable, net of $25 allowance 475 Inventory 812 Total current assets $1,633 1 2 Balance Sheet – “Current Assets”

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Company discloses: basis of valuation (e.g., lower-of-cost-or-market) and the method of pricing (e.g., FIFO or LIFO). Inventories LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet – “Current Assets”

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Payment of cash, that is recorded as an asset because service or benefit will be received in the future. insurance supplies advertising Cash Payment Expense Recorded BEFORE rent maintenance on equipment Prepayments often occur in regard to: Prepaid Expenses LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet – “Current Assets”

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Generally consists of four types: Securities Fixed assets Special funds Nonconsolidated subsidiaries or affiliated companies. Long-Term Investments LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets”

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Long-Term Investments Securities LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets” bonds, stock, and long-term notes For marketable securities, management’s intent determines current or noncurrent classification.

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Fixed Assets LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets” Land held for speculation Long-Term Investments

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Special Funds LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets” Sinking fund Pensions fund Cash surrender value of life insurance Long-Term Investments

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Nonconsolidated Subsidiaries or Affiliated Companies LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets” Long-Term Investments

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Property, Plant, and Equipment LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets” Assets of a durable nature used in the regular operations of the business.

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Intangibles LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets” Lack physical substance and are not financial instruments. Limited life intangibles amortized. Indefinite-life intangibles tested for impairment.

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LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet – “Exercise” BE5-6 Mickey Snyder Corporation’s adjusted trial balance contained the following asset accounts at December 31, 2007: Prepaid Rent $12,000; Goodwill $40,000; Franchise Fees Receivable $2,000; Franchises $47,000; Patents $33,000; Trademarks $10,000. Prepare the intangible assets section of the balance sheet. Intangibles Goodwill $ 40,000 Franchises 47,000 Patents 33,000 Trademarks 10,000 Total $130,000

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Other Assets LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets” This section should include only unusual items sufficiently different from assets in the other categories.

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“Obligations that a company reasonably expects to liquidate either through the use of current assets or the creation of other current liabilities.” LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet Current Liabilities

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“Obligations that a company does not reasonably expect to liquidate within the normal operating cycle.” All covenants and restrictions must be disclosed. LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet Long-Term Liabilities

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LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet – “Exercise” BE5-9 Included in Ewing Company’s December 31, 2007, trial balance are the following accounts: Accounts Payable $240,000; Pension Liability $375,000; Discount on Bonds Payable $24,000; Advances from Customers $41,000; Bonds Payable $400,000; Wages Payable $27,000; Interest Payable $12,000; Income Taxes Payable $29,000. Prepare the long-term liabilities section of the balance sheet. Long-term liabilities Pension liability $375,000 Bonds payable 400,000 Discount on bonds payable (24,000) Total 751,000

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Companies usually divide equity into three parts, (1) Capital Stock, (2) Additional Paid-In Capital, and (3) Retained Earnings. LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet Owners’ Equity Illustration 5-15

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(a) Investment in preferred stock LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet. Balance Sheet Classification Exercise Account (b) Treasury stock (c) Common stock (d) Cash dividends payable (e) Accumulated depreciation (f) Interest payable (g) Deficit (h) Trading securities (i) Unearned revenue (a) Current asset/Investment (b) Equity (c) Equity (d) Current liability (e) Contra-asset (f) Current liability (g) Equity (h) Current asset (i) Current liability Classification

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Classified Balance Sheet Account form Report form Balance Sheet - Format Accounting Trends and Techniques—2004 (New York: AICPA) indicates that all of the 600 companies surveyed use either the “report form” (506) or the “account form” (94), sometimes collectively referred to as the “customary form.” LO 3 Prepare a classified balance sheet using the report and account formats.

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Contingencies Accounting Policies Contractual Situations Fair Values Additional Information Reported There are normally four types of information that are supplemental to account titles and amounts presented in the balance sheet: LO 4 Determine which balance sheet information requires supplemental disclosure.

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Parenthetical Explanations Notes Cross-Reference and Contra Items Supporting Schedules Terminology Techniques of Disclosure LO 5 Describe the major disclosure techniques for the balance sheet.

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The Statement of Cash Flows LO 6 Indicate the purpose of the statement of cash flows. One of the three basic objectives of financial reporting is “assessing the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows.”

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To provide relevant information about the cash receipts and cash payments of an enterprise during a period. The statement provides answers to the following questions: Where did the cash come from? What was the cash used for? What was the change in the cash balance? Purpose of the Statement The Statement of Cash Flows LO 6 Indicate the purpose of the statement of cash flows.

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Three different activities: Operating, Content and Format The Statement of Cash Flows LO 7 Identify the content of the statement of cash flows. Investing, Financing Illustration 5-24

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Content and Format The Statement of Cash Flows Operating Cash inflows and outflows from operations. Investing Cash inflows and outflows from non-current assets. Financing Cash inflows and outflows from non-current liabilities and equity. The statement’s value is that it helps users evaluate liquidity, solvency, and financial flexibility. LO 7 Identify the content of the statement of cash flows.

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Information obtained from several sources: (1) comparative balance sheets, (2) the current income statement, and (3) selected transaction data. Preparation The Statement of Cash Flows LO 8 Prepare a statement of cash flows.

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Preparation The Statement of Cash Flows LO 8 Prepare a statement of cash flows. BE 5-12 Midwest Beverage Company reported the following items in the most recent year. Activity Operating Financing Operating Operating Investing Operating Financing Required: Prepare a Statement of Cash Flows

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Preparation The Statement of Cash Flows LO 8 Prepare a statement of cash flows. Noncash credit to revenues. Noncash charge to expenses.

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Review In preparing a statement of cash flows, which of the following transactions would be considered an investing activity? a. Sale of equipment at book value b. Sale of merchandise on credit c. Declaration of a cash dividend d. Issuance of bonds payable at a discount receivable. Balance Sheet LO 8 Prepare a statement of cash flows.

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Issuance of common stock to purchase assets. Conversion of bonds into common stock. Issuance of debt to purchase assets. Exchanges on long-lived assets. Additional Information Reported Significant financing and investing activities that do not affect cash are reported in either a separate schedule at the bottom of the statement of cash flows or in the notes. Examples include: LO 8 Prepare a statement of cash flows.

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High amount - company able to generate sufficient cash to pay its bills. Low amount - company may have to borrow or issue equity securities to pay bills. Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows Without cash, a company will not survive. Cash flow from Operations: LO 9 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows.

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Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows Ratio indicates whether the company can pay off its current liabilities from its operations. A ratio near 1:1 is good. LO 9 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows. Financial Liquidity Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities Average Current Liabilities Current Cash Debt Coverage Ratio =

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Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows This ratio indicates a company’s ability to repay its liabilities from net cash provided by operating activities, without having to liquidate the assets employed in its operations. LO 9 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows. Financial Flexibility Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities Average Total Liabilities Cash Debt Coverage Ratio =

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Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows The amount of discretionary cash flow a company has for purchasing additional investments, retiring its debt, purchasing treasury stock, or simply adding to its liquidity. LO 9 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows. Free Cash Flow Illustration 5-34

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Review The current cash debt coverage ratio is often used to assess a. financial flexibility. b. liquidity. c. profitability. d. solvency. Balance Sheet LO 9 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows.

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Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. Copyright

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