Cookies and Types

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COOKIES Baking

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The word “cookie” means “small cake”, and that’s more a less what a cookie is. In fact, some cookies are made from cake batters. The most obvious difference between cakes and cookies, are in makeup. Because most cookies are individually formed or shaped, there is a great deal of hand labor involved. Learning the correct methods and then practicing diligently are essential for efficiency.

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Cookie Characteristics and their Causes Cookies come in an infinite variety of shapes, sizes, flavors and textures. Characteristics that are desirable in some types are not desirable in others. In order to produce the characteristics we want and to correct faults, it is useful to know what causes these basic traits.

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CRISPNESS Cookies are crisp if they are very low in moisture. The following factors contribute to crispness: Low proportion of liquid in the mix. High sugar and fat content. Baking long enough to evaporate most of the moisture Small sizes and thin shapes Proper Storage

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Softness SOFTNESS High proportion of liquid in the mix Low in sugar and Fat Honey, molasses, corn syrup included in the formulas Under baking Large sizes and thick shapes Proper Storage

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Chewy CHEWINESS Moisture is necessary for chewiness, but other factors are also important. In other words, all chewy cookies are soft, but not all soft cookies are chewy. High sugar and liquid content, but low in fat High proportion of eggs Strong flour or gluten developed during mixing

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SPREAD Spread is desirable in some cookies, while others must hold their shape. Several Factors contribute to spread and lack of it.

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temperature flour Strong flour or activation of gluten decreases spread Low oven temperature increases spread. High temperature decreases because the cookie sets up before it has a chance to spread too much.

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sugar leavening agents High sugar content increases spread. High baking soda or baking ammonia content encourages spread.

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creaming liquid The creaming together of fat and sugar contributes to leavening by incorporating air. Creaming a mixture until light increases spread. Blending fat and sugar into a paste reduces spreading. A slack batter- that is, one with a high liquid content-spreads more than a tough dough.

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pan grease Cookies spread more if baked on heavily greased pans.

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Mixing Methods Cookie mixing methods are very much like cake mixing methods. The major difference is that less liquid is usually incorporated, so that mixing is somewhat easier. Less liquid means that gluten will become less developed by the mixing.

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Three Basic Cookie Mixing Methods: These methods are subject to many variations, due to differences in the formula. ONE-STAGE CREAMING SPONGE

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Three Basic Cookie Mixing Methods: ONE-STAGE METHOD The One-Stage Mixing Method is preferred because its simplicity reduces the possibility of errors. Sift the dry ingredients together. Place all the ingredients, both wet and dry into the mixing bowl and mix in slow speed until they form a smooth dough or batter. Low moisture type of cookies

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Three Basic Cookie Mixing Methods: In this method of mixing, the longer the sugar and shortening are creamed, the less spread the product will have because the sugar crystals are broken up more thoroughly. Mixing for a long period of time after the flour has been added will develope the gluten excessively. * This will result in cookies with insufficient spread. When a portion of the sugar is added in the final step with the flour, better spread will be obtained. * Nut, raisins, and chocolate chips are added at the end of the mixing period and mixed only long enough to incorporate them in the dough or batter. CREAMING METHOD

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COOKIE Types and Makeup Methods

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BAGGED DROPPED ROLLED MOLDED ICEBOX BAR SHEET 7 Seven Types of Cookies

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BAGGED DROPPED Seven Types of Cookies BAGGED OR PRESSED COOKIES ARE MADE FROM SOFT DOUGH. THE DOUGH MUST BE SOFT ENOUGH TO FORCED THROUGH A PASTRY BAG BUT STIFF ENOUGH TO HOLD ITS SHAPES SIMILAR TO BAGGED COOKIES, MADE FROM SOFT DOUGH. OTHER BAKERS USED THE TERM “DROP” FOR BOTH BAGGED METHOD. THE DROP AND BAGGED COOKIES, USED SPOON OR SCOOPER AS FOR DEPOSITING DOUGH. USUALLY, PASTRY BAG IS FASTER AND IT GIVES BETTER CONTROL OVER THE SHAPES AND SIZES OF THE COOKIES. PANNING PURPOSES: ALLOW ENOUGH SPACE BETWEEN COOKIES FOR SPREADING. RICH COOKIES SPREAD THEMSELVES.

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BAGGED DROPPED Seven Types of Cookies BAGGED OR PRESSED COOKIES ARE MADE FROM SOFT DOUGH. THE DOUGH MUST BE SOFT ENOUGH TO FORCED THROUGH A PASTRY BAG BUT STIFF ENOUGH TO HOLD ITS SHAPES SIMILAR TO BAGGED COOKIES, MADE FROM SOFT DOUGH. OTHER BAKERS USED THE TERM “DROP” FOR BOTH BAGGED METHOD. THE DROP AND BAGGED COOKIES, USED SPOON OR SCOOPER AS FOR DEPOSITING DOUGH. USUALLY, PASTRY BAG IS FASTER AND IT GIVES BETTER CONTROL OVER THE SHAPES AND SIZES OF THE COOKIES. PANNING PURPOSES: ALLOW ENOUGH SPACE BETWEEN COOKIES FOR SPREADING. RICH COOKIES SPREAD THEMSELVES.

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ROLLED MOLDED Seven Types of Cookies COOKIES ROLLED AND CUT FROM A STIFF DOUGH , WHICH ARE OFTEN USED AT HOME BECAUSE OF EXCESSIVE LABOR. DIIVIDING THE DOUGH INTO TWO EQUAL PORTION. EACH PIECE IS MOLDED INTO THE DESIRED SHAPES. FOR TRADITIONAL COOKIES, DOUGH ARE FLATTEN AND STAMP A DESIGN ONTO THE COOKIES

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MOLDED Seven Types of Cookies

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ICEBOX Seven Types of Cookies AN IDEAL OPERATION THAT IS WISH TO HAVE A FRESHLY BAKED COOKIES ON HAND AT ALL TIMES. IT MAY BE MADE UP IN ADVANCE AND COOL… THEN CUT AND BAKED.

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BAR Seven Types of Cookies THE PROCEDURE IS CALLED A BAR METHOD BECAUSE THE DOUGH IS BAKED IN LONG, NARROW STRIP AND LATER CUT CROSSWISE INTO BARS.

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SHEET Seven Types of Cookies IT IS MAINLY BECOME A SHEET TYPE OF COOKIES, BECAUSE THE APPLICATION IS BEING DONE ON A SHEET TRAY AND CUT INTO DESIRED SHAPES.

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STENCIL Seven Types of Cookies A SPECIALIZED TECHNIQUE USED WITH A PARTICULAR TYPE OF SOFT DOUGH BATTER. THE BATTER IS CALLED “STENCIL PASTE”.

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PANNING, BAKING AND COOLING

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Preparing the Pans Use clean pans. Line the sheets with parchment or silicone paper is fast, and it eliminates the necessity of greasing the pans Heavily greased pans increases the spread of cookie, greased and floured pan decreases spread. Some High-Fat cookies can be baked on un-greased pans.

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Baking

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BAKING Most cookies are baked at a relatively high temperature for a short time. Too low temperature increases spreading and may produce hard, dry, pale cookies Too high temperature decreases spreading and may burn the edges or bottoms

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BAKING The heat of the pan continues to bake the cookies if they are left on it after being removed from the oven Doneness is indicated by color. The edges and bottom should be turning light brown in color With some rich dough, avoid burning the bottoms by double-panning the cookies by placing the sheet pan on a second pan of the same size

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COOLING For most cookies baked without silicone paper, remove them from the pans while they are still warm or they may stick. If cookies are very soft, do not remove them from the pans until they are cool enough and firm enough to handle. Do not cool too rapidly or in cold drafts, or cookies may crack. Cool completely before storing.

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