Tim Stonor_Designing mobility for democracy


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Designing mobility for democracy Spatial layout, urban movement & human transaction NYU Institute for Public Knowledge 14th April 2011 Tim Stonor t.stonor@spacesyntax.com @Tim_Stonor

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The three key roles of a city… Thinking spatially A spatial layout Routes Land use assets A movement machine Configuration of routes Attraction of land use assets A transaction engine Social Economic Cultural

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Engineering makes everything possible

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Everything has been figured out. Except how to live. Jean-Paul Sartre

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Academic & professional silos BUILT ENVIRONMENT Architecture Town Planning Urban Design Landscape Architecture Transport Planning ECONOMICS Urban Economics SOCIAL STUDIES Social Anthropology Criminology The perils of taxonomy

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The three key components of city design… Layout connectedness Effects of layout on movement. Asset distribution Effects of space on land use location - historic v planned cities. Public realm design Making it possible for people to transact - socially and economically. Converting movement into transaction.

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Architecture Town Planning Urban economics Criminology Urban Design Transport Planning Landscape Architecture Social Anthropology Space Space/form Function Design The common domain of space

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Analysing urban space

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Axial network analysis

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Spatial hierarchy in the axial network Spatial accessibility

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Each place has a unique spatial signature. An urban DNA.

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60-80% of movement flows are structured by the pattern of spatial accessibility. More accessible places get more movement. Key discovery #1 Spatial layout shapes urban movement

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Movement-sensitive land uses locate on movement-rich streets. The majority of urban retail locates on the most spatially accessible streets. Key discovery #2 Spatial accessibility shapes land use

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Straße des 17. Juni Müllerstraße Prenzlauer Allee Landsberger Allee Karl-Marx-Allee Adlergestell Potsdamer Straße Mariendorfer Damm Historische Mitte City West Spatial accessibility low high Global accessibility Berlin

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HISTORISCHE MITTE Tempelhofer Damm CITY WEST Frankfurter Allee Müllerstraße Karl-Marx-Straße Hermannplatz Kottbuser Damm Turmstraße Th-Heuss-Platz Schönhauser Allee Prenzlauer Allee Greifswalder Straße Berliner Allee Landsberger Allee Am Tierpark Köpenick Schöneweide Hermannstraße Schloßstraße Hauptstraße Uhlandstraße Potsdamer Straße Kurfürstendamm Breite Straße Siemensstadt Badstraße Marktstraße Spatial accessibility low high Local accessibility Berlin

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Buildings turn backs to the street Negative street character Suppressed movement economy Buildings face onto the street Positive street character Enhanced movement economy Key design principles Buildings should face the street

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Key design principles Buildings should have active bases

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Routes should be simple since movement & search are linear. Urban areas need a critical mass of continuous connected routes. Key design principles Routes

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You should be able to see how to get to what you can see. Key design principles Buildings & routes

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Trafalgar Square, London

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Trafalgar Square, London Low levels of space use

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Trafalgar Square, London Pedestrian survey

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Trafalgar Square, London Spatial accessibility model

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© Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. Licence number: LA100032379 To Leicester Square & Covent Garden To the South Bank To Buckingham Palace & St James Park To Leicester Square, Piccadilly & St James Design issue Movement was pushed around the edges of the Square by the physical design of the space such as indirect staircase links. Design strategy The design strategy, developed with Foster + Partners, was to bring movement through the heart of the Square via a new, central staircase. Trafalgar Square, London Urban design concept

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Before After Trafalgar Square, London Spatial accessibility analysis

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Trafalgar Square, London Artist’s impression

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First day of opening Trafalgar Square, London

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Trafalgar Square, London New central staircase

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Observe Explain Forecast Deliver Trafalgar Square, London Spatial design process

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Nottingham, England Old Market Square

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Millennium Bridge, London

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UCL Space Syntax Laboratory Fundamental research Teaching Technology development Space Syntax Limited Strategic consulting Internship Technology development People Ideas Questions Research & practice A process of mutual exploitation

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Research headlines… Thinking spatially Local economic productivity Better connected towns generate higher levels of retail income Community cohesion People see more of each other in better connected places Property, personal & road safety Better designed streets have less crime & fewer accidents Property value Better connected housing is more highly valued Energy consumption Connected places generate less carbon-intensive transport

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Unplanned settlements A spatial imbalance

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Jeddah Spatial integration of contiguous settlements

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Special project development guidelines Primary routes Land use mix Commercial 30% Residential 65% Social Infrastructure 5% FAR 4.5 Plot coverage (ground) 80 – 100% Plot coverage (upper) 50 – 75% Building height 5 – 7 Secondary routes Land use mix Commercial 10% Residential 75% Social Infrastructure 15% FAR 3.0 Plot coverage (ground) 70 – 80% Plot coverage (upper) 50 – 60% Building height 4 - 5 Self organising development guidelines Plot area FAR 60 - 99 sq m 1.0 100 – 299 sq m 3.0 300 – 599 sq m 4.0 600+ sq m 5.0 Jeddah Space-based height/density coding

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Existing Former plan New plan by Space Syntax Manipulating spatial networks Jeddah Spatial Planning Framework

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The second digital mutation

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Tim Stonor architect & town planner Managing Director, Space Syntax Limited Lincoln Loeb Fellow Twitter @Tim_Stonor Blog www.wordpress.timstonor.com LinkedIn www.linkedin.com/in/timstonor

Tags: mobility space syntax urban planning design social economic environmental value