Migration Advantages and Disadvantages

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MIGRATION Advantages And Disadvantages

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In 2009 - 10, the number of new migrants who settled permanently in Australia was 148,884. How Many People Migrate To Australia

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Since 1945, over six million people have come to Australia as new settlers. Australia received more than 900,000 migrants during the 1990s, compared with: • 1.1 million in the 1980s • 960,000 in the 1970s • 1.3 million in the 1960s • 1.6 million between October 1945 and 30 June 1960. Post-War Migration

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Figures 1.1 and 1.2 shows that current levels of migration are relatively low compared with migrant intake in the 1950’s and 1960’s

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Figure 2.2: Region of origin of new migrants in Australia, 2009-10

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Who Can Migrate New Zealanders can enter, live and work in Australia under the terms of the Trans-Tasman Travel Agreement and do not need a visa. All other migrants must apply for a visa to come to Australia. To get a visa, migrants must pass health and character checks and meet certain entrance criteria depending on the category they fit into.

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Are chosen because they are refugees or people in need of humanitarian assistance. Skill Stream Migrants: Family Stream Migrants: Humanitarian Program Entrants: Are chosen according to their occupation, age, education, work experience and English language ability. Are chosen according to their relationship with a sponsor who must be a close family member and an Australian resident or citizen.

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Where Do Migrants And Refugees Settle In Australia?

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What Are The Impacts Of Migration? Federal and State governments enjoy benefits from extra migrants because of the tax revenue they generate. ADVANTAGES - Migrants contribute to the economic development of Australia in many ways, such as: Economy:

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filling skill shortages; investing in the Australian economy; fostering international trade through knowledge of overseas markets, business networks, cultural practices and languages other than English. Economy:

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Note - Skilled migrants are most beneficial to the Federal Budget because they earn more money, pay more taxes and make less use of government services. Australia's multi-lingual multicultural workforce can increase productivity and help businesses gain a competitive advantage.

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Disadvantages of migration: However, State governments can be exposed to additional costs, including education and health care. Some believe immigration is a drain on the Australian economy, that new migrants’ take jobs from Australian’s’ and that creates unemployment The research outlined below shows that immigration does not cause higher unemployment. In fact, migrants create jobs by increasing demand for goods and services. In August 2009, the unemployment rate for all people born overseas was 5.3% compared with 5.5% for those born in Australia.

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• More than half (55%) of all migrants arrive in Australia with a post-school qualification. Migrants from Southeast Asia are especially disadvantaged: less than one-third (30%) of migrants with post-school qualifications obtained in the Southeast Asian region had their qualification recognised in Australia. However, less than half (48%) of all migrants who arrive with a skilled or basic vocational qualification have their qualification recognised in Australia.

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• Migrants must wait two years before they can access most social security payments, including unemployment assistance, sickness benefits or student allowances. This waiting period does not apply to refugees and other humanitarian entrants on Permanent Protection Visas. • Sponsors of some family migrants must lodge a bond ensuring repayment to the government if the migrant claims social security benefits within two years of arrival. This bond is between $1,500 and $3,500 per person.

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Most new migrants are not eligible for age or disability pensions until 10 years after their arrival in Australia. DID YOU KNOW? Current research shows no evidence of a causal connection between crime and ethnicity. The crime rate of the overseas born population has been lower than that of the Australian born population. Factors such as unemployment, education, socio-economic disadvantage and lack of access to services have more bearing than ethnicity on crime rates.

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Advantages – There is a rich mix of traditions and beliefs within our society, for example, festivals and restaurants. Over 200 languages are spoken in Australia Disadvantages of migration for Australia – Some groups in our society see diversity as a threat rather than an asset. These groups claim that immigration is a threat to Australia’s unique national identity and culture and would like to see a return to a dominantly Anglo-Australian population base. Cultural Advantages and disadvantages

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Geopolitical advantages and disadvantages Advantages for Australia: Migration allows Australia to continue to build its bilateral and multilateral links in the Asia-Pacific region. Australia’s trade , defence and tourism sectors continue to benefit. Migration enables the government to achieve its other key geopolitical goal of becoming a member of the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) trade forum Geopolitical Disadvantages for Australia Australia’s migration policies may influence our relationship with international government organisations like the United Nations. For example, changes to the Tampa crisis in 2001 could have potentially affected future economic and political links with the nations who are critical of our policies.

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What is multiculturalism? Australia is made up of people from diverse cultures and backgrounds. Multiculturalism celebrates this diversity and recognises the challenges and opportunities that come with it. The main principles of Australia's multicultural policy are: • Responsibilities of all - all Australians have a civic duty to support those basic structures and principles of Australian society which guarantee us our freedom and equality and enable diversity in our society to flourish.

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• Respect for each person - subject to the law, all Australians have the right to express their own culture and beliefs and have a reciprocal obligation to respect the right of others to do the same. • Fairness for each person - all Australians are entitled to equality of treatment and opportunity. Social equity allows us all to contribute to the social, political and economic life of Australia, free from discrimination, including on the grounds of race, culture, religion, language, location, gender or place of birth. • Benefits for all - all Australians benefit from productive diversity, that is, the significant cultural, social and economic dividends arising from the diversity of our population.

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