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Review: Stages/Periods of Dev/Life Span 10 Stages Life Span 7 Periods Prenatal Prenatal Infancy Infancy BABYHOOD CHILDHOOD Early Childhood Adolescence Late Childhood Young adulthood Puberty Middle Adulthood Adolescence Older Adulthood Early Adulthood Middle Age Old Age 8 Periods Life Span Prenatal Infancy & Toddlerhood EARLY CHILDHOOD Middle Childhood Adolescence Young Adulthood Middle Age Late adulthood

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10 Stages in the Life Span 1) PRENATAL PERIOD – conception to birth 2) INFANCY – birth to 2nd week of life 3) BABYHOOD – 2nd week to end of 2nd yr 4) EARLY CHILDHOOD – two to six years 5) LATE CHILDHOOD – six to 10 or 12 years 6) PUBERTY or PREADOLESCENCE – ten or twelve to thirteen or fourteen yrs 7) ADOLLESCENCE – thirteen or fourteen to eighteen years 8) EARLY ADULTHOOD – eighteen to forty years 9) MIDDLE AGE – forty to sixty years 10) OLD AGE or SENESCENCE – sixty years to death

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7 Periods of Development

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Development in 8 periods of the Life Span

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DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES CATEGORIES Gross Motor Behavior Preambulatory skills, walking & advanced physical activities Fine motor-adaptive behavior Prehension, manipulatory hand skills & application of sensorimotor abilities to task of daily life Language behavior Vocalization,comprehension, expression in spoken or other modes of communication Personal-social behavior Acquisition of societal & cultural standards of behavior

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Milestones in Child Development

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Milestones in Child Development

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Milestones in Child Development

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Milestones in Child Development

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Milestones in Child Development

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Milestones in Child Development

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CHARACTERISTICS of BABYHOOD True Foundation Age Age of Rapid Growth and Development Age of Decreasing Dependency Age of Increased Individuality Beginning Socialization Beginning of Sex Role Typing Appealing Age Beginning Creativity Hazardous Age

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CHARACTERISTICS of BABYHOOD True Foundation Age at this time, many behavior patterns, attitudes & patterns of emotional expression are established Freud: personality maladjustments in adulthood had origins is unfavorable childhood experiences Erickson: childhood is the scene of man’s beginning as man; develop “basic trust” or “basic distrust”

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CHARACTERISTICS of BABYHOOD True Foundation Age Why important? Patterns established in early in life persist regardless of whether good or bad, harmful or beneficial. Undesirable pattern of behavior or unfavorable beliefs & attitudes can be corrected. Early foundations quickly develop into habits, have lifelong influence on child’s personal & social adjustments. Learning & experience play dominant roles in development, these can be directed/controlled so development will be along lines that will make good personal & social adjustments possible.

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CHARACTERISTICS of BABYHOOD Age of Rapid Growth & Change Babies grow, both physically & psychologically; most rapid during the 1st year of babyhood. Changes in body proportions are accompanied by growth in height & weight Intellectual growth & change parallel physical growth & change. Before babyhood ends, babies understand many things & can communicate needs/wants in ways others can understand.

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CHARACTERISTICS of BABYHOOD 3. Age of Decreasing Dependency Results form rapid development of body control Random mass movements give way to coordinated movements Rebellion against being “babied” negativism

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CHARACTERISTICS of BABYHOOD Age of Increased Individuality with increased independence, permit babies to develop along lines suited to their interests & abilities. The individuality apparent at birth increases as babyhood closes. As increases so must treat each baby as an individual.

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CHARACTERISTICS of BABYHOOD Beginning of Socialization Egocentrism in young baby gives way to desire to become part of the social group; protest when left alone. Attachment behavior to mothers or mother substitutes satisfaction, leads desire to establish warm/lasting relationships with others.

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CHARACTERISTICS of BABYHOOD Beginning of Sex-Role Typing sex oriented clothes and toys started at birth 7. Appealing Age Appearance: big heads, protruding abdomens, small thin limbs, tiny hands & feet; dressed in baby clothes & wrap in baby blanket. Because of their helplessness & dependency

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CHARACTERISTICS of BABYHOOD 8. Beginning of Creativity Learnings will develop interest & attitudes that will lay foundations for later creativity or for conformity to patterns set by others. 9. Hazardous Age Physical & psychological hazards

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DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS of BABYHOOD Physical Development Speech Development Emotional Behavior Developments in Socialization Beginnings of Interest in Play Development of Understanding Beginnings of Sex-role Typing Family Relationships Personality Development

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Pattern of Physical Development Weight Height Physical Proportion Bones Muscles and Fat Body Builds Teeth Nervous System Sensory organ development

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Physical Development Weight 2x birth weight at 4 mos 3X birth weight at 12 mos Increase mainly due to fatty tissue Height 1 ½ of birth length at 12 mos Physical Proportion lesser growth in head compared to that of trunk and limbs

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Physical Development Bones Increasing number of bones Ossification begins and is completed in puberty. Fontanelles Anterior closes – 12-18 mos Posterior closes – 3-6mos Muscles and fats Muscles: underdeveloped Fat tissues: more developed

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Physical Development Body builds Ectomorphic= long & slender Mesomorphic= heavy, hard & rectangular Endomorphic= round & fat Teeth 1 yr: 4-6 teeth 2 yr: 16 1st to develop are the mandibular incisors (lower front) while the last are the molars

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Physical Development Nervous System Brain weight: 1/8 Gain inbrain gretest during 1st two years of life Cerebellum: triples in weight during the 1st year Sensory Organ Development - 3 mos, eye muscle well coordinated- see clearly - hearing also develops at this time - smell & taste well developed at birth continue to improve - highly sensitive to all skin stimuli bec thin skin texture; all sense organs relating to touch, pressure, pain & temperature present

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Pattern of Motor Control Head Region Eyes optic nystagmus – 12 hours ocular pursuit – 3-4 weeks Horizontal eye movements – 2-3rd mos Vertical eye movements – 3-4th Smiling birth social smile – 3-4 mos Head holding

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Motor Development Trunk Region side to back – 2 mos back to side – 4 mos rolls over – 6 mos Sitting Pulls to a sitting position – 4 mos Sits with support – 5 mos Sits w/o support – 7 mos Sits w/o support longer 9 mos

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Motor Development Arm and Hand Region thumb opposition – 3-4 mos picking up objects – 8-10 mos reaches for an object – 6-7 mos picks up small objects – 12 mos Leg Region crawling and creeping – 8-10 mos pulls to standing position – 10 mos stands, walks with support – 11 mos stands w/o support, walks in all fours – 12 walks w/o support - 14

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Babyhood Skills continues to be refined and learned completely throughout childhood essentials for developing these skills Opportunity for practice An incentive to learn Good model to copy with guidance to ensure the copying will be correct

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Some Common Skills Hand skills self feeding self Dressing self grooming play Leg Skills walks along – 15 mos creeps upstairs – 18 mos runs well – 24 mos

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Speech Development comprehension and communication Facial expression, tone of voice, gestures Prespeech forms of communication Crying Babbling: 2-3rd mos, peaks 8th month Gesturing Emotional expressions

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Speech Development Tasks Involved in Learning to Speak Pronunciation Imitation, trial & error Vocabulary building nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs Learns the names of people & objects first  verbs like “give” & “take”  adjectives such as “nice” & “ naughty”. Prepositions, conjunctions & pronouns learned in early childhood Sentences 12-18 mos; consist of 1 word accompanied by a gesture more words into sentences but gestures predominate.

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Emotional Development Some common emotional patterns Anger Interference with attempted movements Thwarting some wish Not letting them do what they want Response: screaming, kicking legs, waving arms, hitting & kicking anything within reach  2yrs- jump up & down, throw themselves to the floor, hold their breath Fear Stimuli: loud noises; strange persons, objects & situations; dark rooms; high places; animals Response: withdraw from frightening stimulus, accompanied by whimpering, crying, holding breath

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Emotional Development Curiosity Stimulus: anything new or unusual acts but if newness pronounced that results to fear Response: tensing facial muscles, opening mouth & protruding tongue. Later, grasp objects that aroused curiosity and handle, shake, bang or suck them Joy Stimulated by physical being, react to being played with, being tickled & watching or listening to others Response: smiling, laughing & moving arms & legs If intense, coo, gurgle or shout with glee, all bodily movements intensified Affection Stimulus: anyone who plays, take care or shows affection toys or pets Response; hugging, patting & kissing loved object or person

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Social Development 2- 3 mos Distinguishes people from inanimate objects Does not like to be left alone 4-5 mos No discrimination on caregiver, reacts to scolding, smiling and angry faces Tries to attract attention of other babies 6-7 mos Stranger anxiety, attachment stage Smiles at other babies and are interested in crying babies

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Social Development 8-9 mos Attempts to imitate speech, gestures, actions 9 to 13 mos Attempt to explore clothes and hair of other babies, imitate their behavior and sounds, toys 12 mos Reacts to the warning “no-no” 13- 18 mos Lesser fights over toys, cooperation, sharing

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Social Development 16-18 mos NEGATIVISM – stubborn resistance 18-24 mos Playing with other babies, uses toys to establish social relationships 22-24 mos Cooperates with the caregiver in routine activities like dressing, feeding

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Development of Understanding through sensory exploration (sensorimotor stage) Some important concepts in babyhood Space Weight Time Self Sex-role Social Beauty comic

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Sex Role Typing begins at birth reinforced by surroundings, clothes, toys foundations for sex-appropriate behaviors

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Personality Development in Babyhood “Critical period” in personality development Changes in Personality pattern Family Relationships Causes of changes in family Relationships: Dream-child concept Degree of dependency Parental anxiety Child-training methods Maternal employment Maternal overwork Arrival of new sibling Relationships with older siblings Preference of certain family members

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Hazards of Babyhood Physical Hazards Mortality Illness vs accidents Boys vs girls Crib death (SIDS) Illnesses Accidents Malnutrition Obesity Physiologic habits Eating habits Sleep habits Habits of elimination

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Hazards of Babyhood Psychological Hazards Motor development hazards Speech hazards Emotional hazards deprivation, stress, too much affection, dominant emotions Social hazards Play hazards Family-relationship hazards Separation from mother Failure to develop attachment behavior Deterioration in family relationships Overprotectiveness Inconsistent training Child abuse

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Highlights Characteristics of babyhood: the true foundation of age; a time of rapid growth & change and of decreased dependency; a time of increased individuality & the beginning of socialization; a time of sex-role typing & creativity; a time that is both appealing & hazardous Babies who lag behind their age-mates in mastering the developmental tasks of babyhood, are handicapped when they reach the childhood years Physical growth & development gradually decelerates, while development of physiological functions occurs at a rapid rate.

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Highlights Because muscle control follows the laws of developmental direction, the earliest skills to be learned are the head, arm & hand skills To be able to communicate, babies must comprehend what others are communicating to them and, in turn, communicate with others. Since initially cannot speak, their communication are mainly prespeech forms- crying, babbling, gestures, & emotional expressions

Summary: test thursday

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