10 EARLY ADULTHOOD_Young Adulthood

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7 Periods of Development

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8 Periods of the Life Span

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7) PUBERTY or PREADOLESCENCE – ten or twelve to thirteen or fourteen years 8) ADOLESCENCE – thirteen or fourteen to eighteen years 9) EARLY ADULTHOOD - eighteen to forty years 10) MIDDLE AGE – forty to sixty years 11) OLD AGE or SENESCENCE – sixty years to death 10 Stages in the Life Span

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Havighurt’s Developmental Tasks During The Life Span Early Adulthood: Getting started in an occupation Selecting a mate Learning to live with a marriage partner Starting a family Rearing children Managing a home Taking a civic responsibility Finding a congenial social group

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ADULTHOOD adultus – “grown to full size and strength” Individuals who have completed their growth & are ready to assume their status in society. Subdivided into three stages: Early adulthood ( 18 to 40 yrs) Begin to loss reproductive capability Middle adulthood (middle age)– 40 to 60 yrs Physical & mental decline Late adulthood (old age) – sixty to death Medical advances “”extends”

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EARLY ADULTHOOD Characteristics: 1) “Settling down age” - too early (career & life partner) leads to discontent - dependent on two factors: >how soon they find a suitable lifestyle that satisfies their present & future needs > the willingness to assume the responsibility - once one decides upon the pattern of life that they think will meet their needs, they develop patterns of behavior, attitudes and values. 2) “Reproductive age” - parenthood

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Early Adulthood Characteristics: 3) “Problem age” - difficulty adjustment: poor preparation/coping, multiple roles, no help in meeting/solving problems. 4) Period of Emotional Tension - worries: work, marital or parenthood 5) Period of Social Isolation - from friendliness of adolescence to competitiveness of the successful adult 6) Period of Commitments 7) Period of Dependency - “perpetual students”

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Early Adulthood Characteristics: 8) Period of Value change - some common reasons: a. acceptance in a social group ( appearance) (conventional values and behavior) b. being married or becoming a parent predisposes to being more socially conscious and concerned 9) Period of Adjustments to New lifestyles - egalitarian vs. traditional sex roles; new family-life patterns, new vocational patterns 10) Creative age

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DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS Getting started with a occupation Selecting a mate Learning to live with a marriage partner Starting a family Rearing children Managing a home Finding civic responsibility Finding a congenial social group

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Mastery of Developmental Tasks Physical efficiency - peaks mid-twenties, then slow gradual decline into forties Motor abilities - Peak strength between 20 & 30 yrs - Maximum speed of response between 20 & 25 yrs - Learning new motor skills, superior in early 20’s Mental abilities - recall of previously learned material, reasoning by analogy, creative thinking peaks early 20’s Motivation- regarded as independent adults Role model - varies

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INTERESTS in ADULTHOOD Conditions that predispose to changes in interest: Health condition Economic status Life patterns Values Sex-role changes Marital statue Assumption of parental role Preferences Cultural and environmental pressures

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Personal interests Appearance Acceptance of their physiques & maximizing it Wane in the late twenties due to pressures in business & family affairs, but resume once signs of aging set in (weight, sagging chins, graying hair, protruding abdomen) Clothes and personal adornment Improvement of appearance Indication of social status Individuality Socioeconomic success Sex appropriateness Interests In Adulthood

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Symbols of maturity Status Money Religion Recreational Interests Activities that renews strength & refreshes spirit after toil or anxiety Talking , dancing, sports & games, entertaining, amusements, hobbies Interests In Adulthood

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Moving from one social group to another Either social or vertical: Higher educational level Marriage to higher status person Family “pull” in the vocational world Acceptance & adoption of customs, values & symbols or the higher social group Money Transfer to a higher-status church SOCIAL MOBILITY

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Active participation in prestigious community affairs Graduation from a prestigious school or college Membership in one or more exclusive community clubs Social Mobility

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A high socioecenomic status A higher level of education than the majority of the group A realistic self-concept Realistic goals A high frustration tolerance The ability to express hostility tactfully The ability to accept succes or failure gracefully The ability & willingness to accept authority The ability & willingness to communicate with others A willingness to work for the group rather than self Important Qualities of Adult Leaders

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SEX ROLE ADJUSTMENTS Traditional vs Egalitarian concepts Men Male supremacy at home: wage earner, decision maker, adviser & disciplinarian of children; positions of authority & prestige outside the home. Works together in a companionship relationship, treats women as equals; not ashamed if wife has more prestigious or remunerative job.

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Women Role is other-oriented, fulfillment is based on serving others. Not expected to work outside home except on cases of financial necessity, and then does work that serves others ( nursing, teaching or secretarial work. Able to actualize her own potentials without feeling guilty about using her abilities & training to achieve satisfaction, even if requires employing someone else to take care of home/children. Sex Role Adjustments

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PERSONAL & SOCIAL HAZARDS Physical hazards - poor health; physical defects Religious - adjustments to new religious faith; mixed marriages Social - difficulty to be with a congenial social group; dissatisfaction with the role the social groups; social mobility Sex-role - Men: false practices to assert masculinity - Women: “minority-group complex”, “trapped marriage”

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VOCATIONAL ADJUSTMENTS Common Attitudes: Society-maintaining Work Attitudes - have little or no interests in their work per se & gain little personal satisfaction - paychecks is the main interest - regard jobs as heavy & unpleasant burdens, looks forward to retirement time Ego-involving Work Attitudes - derives great personal satisfaction; work is a basis of self-respect & sense of worth. - means of gaining prestige, a locus of social participation or source of intrinsic enjoyment or creative self-expression. - may become preoccupied to the exclusion of other interests; dreads retirement.

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FAMILY ADJUSTMENTS Marital Adjustments Parenthood Adjustments Singlehood Adjustments

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FAMILY ADJUSTMENTS Marital Adjustments Mate; Sexual; In-law Parenthood Adjustments Voluntary childlessness; Single parenthood Singlehood Adjustments Reasons for singlehood; Effects of singlehood

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FAMILY ADJUSTMENYS Marital Adjustments: Mate Conditions Contributing to Difficulties in Marital Adjustment: 1. limited preparation for marriage 2. roles in marriage 3. early marriage 4. Unrealistic concepts of marriage 5. mixed marriages 6. shortened courtships 7. romantic concepts of marriage 8. lack of identity

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FAMILY ADJUSTMENTS Marital Adjustments: Mate Factors Influencing Adjustment to a Mate: 1. Concept of an ideal mate 2. Fulfillment of needs 3. Similarity of backgrounds 4. Common interests 5. Similarity of values 6. Role concepts 7. Change in life pattern

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FAMILY ADJUSTMENTS Marital Adjustments: Sex Factors Influencing Sexual Adjustments: 1. Attitudes toward sex 2. Past sexual experiences 3. Sexual desire 4. Early marital sexual experiences 5. Attitudes toward use of contraceptives 6. Effects of vasectomy

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FAMILY ADJUSTMENTS Marital Adjustments: In-laws Factors Influencing In-laws Adjustments: 1. Stereotypes 2. Desire for independence 3. Family cohesiveness 4. Social mobility 5. Care of elderly relatives 6. Financial support of in-laws

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FAMILY ADJUSTMENTS Marital Adjustments Conditions Affecting Stability of Marriage: 1. Number of children 2. Social class 3. Similarity of background 4. Time of marriage 5. Reason of marriage 6. Time at which the couple become parents 7. Economic status 8. Parental model 9.Ordinal position in childhood family 10. Maintenance of identity

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FAMILY ADJUSTMENTS Parenthood Adjustments Factors Influencing Adjustments to Parenthood: 1. Attitudes toward pregnancy 2. Attitudes toward parenthood 3. Age of parents 4. Sex of children 5. Number of children 6. Parental expectations 7. Feelings of parental adequacy 8. Attitudes toward changed roles 9.The child’s temperament

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FAMILY ADJUSTMENTS Parenthood Adjustments Reasons for Voluntary Childlessness: 1. Engrossing careers 2. Unwillingness to give up the established “good life” 3. Interracial or interreligious which will be handicaps to their children 4. Fear of inadequate income to give best for their children Limited Number of Children: 1. Less disrupting to marital relationship 2. Unwillingness to give careers 3. Gratifications of parenthood & of personal interests

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FAMILY ADJUSTMENTS Singlehood Adjustments Reasons Why Young Adults Remain Single: 1) An unattractive or sex-inappropriate appearance 2) An incapacitating physical defect or prolonged illness 3) Unwillingness to assume responsibilities of marriage & parenthood 4) Pursue a career requiring working long & irregular hours or much traveling 5) Residence in community where sex ration is unbalanced 6) Lack of opportunity to meet eligible members of opposite sex 7) Responsibilities for aging parents or younger siblings

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FAMILY ADJUSTMENTS Singlehood Adjustments Reasons Why Young Adults Remain Single: 8) Disillusionment as result of unhappy earlier family experiences 9)Sexual availability without marriage 10) An exciting lifestyle 11)Opportunity to rise on the vocational ladder 12) Freedom to change & experiment in work and lifestyle 13) Belief that social mobility is easier when single than married 14)Strong & satisfying friendships with member pf the same sex 15) Homosexuality

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STUMBLING BLOCKS To MASTERY Of DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS Of EARLY ADULTHOOD Inadequate foundations Physical handicaps Discontinuities in training Overprotectiveness Prolongation of Peer-group influence Unrealistic aspirations

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HIGHLIGHTS Vocational & family adjustments are difficult bec of limited foundations on w/c to build adjustments to the newness of roles these adjustments require. Major problems in vocational adjustment: selection of vocation, achieving stability in the selection made & adjustment to work situations. Increasing number of family-life patterns makes marital adjustment difficult, esp when the family-life pattern that fits the individual needs differs from that approved by society. Conditions contributing to difficulties in marital adjustments: limited preparation for marriage, early marriages, unrealistic & romanticized concepts of marriage, mixed marriages, shortened courtships, lack of identity in marriage & marked role changes.

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HIGHLIGHTS Common adjustment problems in marriage: adjustment to mate, sexual adjustment, financial and in-laws adjustment. Parenthood is “crises” in individuals life bec necessitates changes in attitudes, values & roles. Factors influencing adjustment to parenthood: attitude towards pregnancy & parenthood, age of parents, sex of children, parental expectations, feelings of parental adequacy, attitudes toward changed roles necessitated by parenthood and child’s temperament. Criteria assessing marital adjustment: happiness of husband & wife, good parent-child relationships, good adjustments of children, ability to deal satisfactorily with disagreements, “togetherness”, good financial adjustments & good in-law adjustments.

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HIGHLIGHTS Effects of singlehood today are far less damaging to both men and women than in the past. Most common & serious vocational hazards are job dissatisfaction & unemployment. Most common & serious marital hazards center around adjustment to a mate, competitiveness in the marital relationship, sexual adjustments, acceptance of family economic status & role changes, relationship with in-laws & adjustment to parenthood. 3 criteria for success of adjustment to adulthood: achievement in the vocation & life pattern chosen by the individual; degree of satisfaction derived from chosen vocation; success of personal adjustments

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