Looking at this simple grid system we can see that there a large number of possible routes between A and B. Understanding the likelihood of any of these routes being taken is of particular interest in spatial analysis for if we can understand the rules by which individuals choose routes we can begin to make predictions as to the likely distribution of all movement between all possible start and end points within a city.
This image shows the route between A and B with the shortest metric distance.
This image shows the route between A and B with the fewest and least significant changes in direction– i.e the smoothest route.
Through twenty years of academic and commercial research, Space Syntax has shown that individuals choose the most continuous routes between origins and destinations rather than the route with the shortest metric distance. (See: Hillier, B and S Iida. 2005. Network and psychological effects in urban movement. London: Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London).
This pattern can be seen in London, here the West End is shown according to a hierarchy of pedestrian access from red as the most accessible through to blue for least accessible.
…you can see that the spatial structure of the West End has a strong influence on the distribution of retail land uses shown in red.
This relationship persists around the world. These are land use (left) and spatial accessibility (right) images of an area of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. You can clearly see a strong relationship between the through movement spatial structure commercial land uses shown in red and orange.
The spatial layout of the city is the largest object of human creation – it should therefore be planned as an object in its own right.
This growth has occurred without proper water supply, sewage and public transport; likewise, without protection of many important historic buildings. As a result the city suffers from sprawl, decay and pollution.
The authorities in the city had a strategic choice to either build more motorways or to stop building such fast streets and start building a local infrastructure based on shorter journeys, mixed land uses and public transport.
Using the spatial model we showed how the city would suffer if more motorways were built. As a result of our contribution, the authorities decided to follow the alternative strategy.
We have created area action plans for several parts of the city, including the Jeddah Waterfront…
The Space Syntax spatial model has been used to plan the new land use pattern with retail streets formed along new boulevards, in the historic tradition of street-based trade.
The centre is separated by a complex networks of skybridges, subways and un-constituted urban blocks that deters pedestrian movement. According to the supplementary planning guidance from the district borough, of the inhabitants living in the area only 20% of expenditure is being spent within the centre. One objective of redesign has been to increase local spend by up to 50%.
Elephant and Castle was once a burgeoning residential quarter of South London with a strong commercial core many and high density urban character. The centre benefited simultaneously from both strategic communications access to central London and residential suburbs in the South and stood as the integrated core of its local residential community. As can be seen from the map above, the centre was a focus of accessibility at all scale of movement. This meant that local businesses benefited directly from passing trade.
The scale of urban fragmentation that has since ensued can be seen by the comparison of development figure grounds from 1916 and 2005. The close grained nature of the built fabric of 1916 has been undermined through successive wholesale redevelopment and replaced with fragmented, incoherent urban form. Mirroring this evolution has been the increasing prevalence given to facilitating global through movement at the expense of local inter-accessiblity. Movement modes have been physically and functionally separated to the degree that the major public and private transport through routes are extremely difficult to traverse for pedestrians.
An objective spatial model of the area was produced that accurately reflected the isolated nature of the old Sqaure design with the key pedestrian routes identified at the edges of the Square rather than passing through its landscaped heart. The image on the left describes the spatial structure of Trafalgar Square before the redesign, showing how isolated the core of the Square was by passing pedestrians workers and tourists. The image on the right shows how the pedestrianisation of the northern side of the Square and the provision of a central staircase would open up the whole of the area up to ‘through movement’, enlivening the public space and shortening pedestrian journeys.
The dramatic results of design change can be seen in the pedestrian movement observations undertaken after the redesign was completed. The pattern of behaviour has changed in line with the forecast of the spatial model with a much stronger flow of pedestrian movement into and through the heart of the Square.
Trace observations that were also undertaken after the redesign also show higher numbers of stationary workers and tourists enjoying the whole of the Square and traversing the area by going through the site rather than around it.
From the city to the bedside Multi-modal, multi-scale & multi-active spatial environments White Tengbom Team AB, Stockholm 7th December 2011 Tim Stonor Architect & Town Planner | Managing Director firstname.lastname@example.org @Tim_Stonor
What is the city for?
What is the city for? The city is not for congestion
Congestion The goal of advanced civilisations?
What is the city for? Transaction Social Economic Environmental Towns & cities are transaction machines
How do these transaction machines work?
What goes where & how does it connect people together? A definition of urban design
Multi-mode Public, private Multi-scale Macro, meso, micro Multi-active To, through & within Fundamental urban design principles
CAUPD © 2009 Looks nice But will it work?
Architecture Town Planning Urban economics Criminology Urban Design Transport Planning Landscape Architecture Social Anthropology Space Space/form Function Design The common domain of space
UCL Space Syntax Laboratory Fundamental research Teaching Technology development Space Syntax Limited Strategic consulting Internship Technology development People Ideas Questions Research & practice A process of mutual exploitation
Urban space So what Space is invisible. So, is it: fluffy stuff, only interesting to urban designers? or: a hard-nosed currency to be handled carefully by investors & asset managers?
The spatial layout of buildings and urban places exerts a powerful influence on human behaviour. The way that places connect is directly related to the way that people move, interact and transact. The fundamental role of space
Organise movement Distribute land use Influence crime & safety Affect urban carbon footprint Determine land value Which is the bottom line for property developers and homebuyers alike. Urban space So what can space do?
Moving in space
Movement is the lifeblood of the city. Moving in space
Which is the easiest route between A and B? B A Moving in space
A B Shortest path/least metric distance? Moving in space
A B Simplest path/least angle change? Moving in space
Investigate by observing & recording Moving in space
Create a movement database Moving in space
In brief same input B Observation studies show that most people prefer simple, more direct paths over complex, indirect paths – even if the complex path is shorter. A B A Most people prefer simplest paths Moving in space
Urban functioning Pedestrian flow scan Tower Hamlets People per hour 450 to 900 250 to 450 150 to 250 100 to 150 50 to 100 0 to 50
Urban functioning Vehicle flow scan Bloomsbury
Measuring movement Spatial distance Measuring movement
. Describing space Graph theory Two different spatial layouts: Two different graphs:
Total depth = Total depth = 10 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 0 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 Describing space Measuring depth in graphs 3 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 1 16 Depth is a ‘system metric’ and varies from place to place in the spatial layout.
Describing space Representing simultaneous relations Using colours to represent numerical values provides an effective visualisation of simultaneous relations in spatial layouts.
Tate Britian Layout influences wayfinding
Analysing urban space
Spatial network analysis
Spatial hierarchy in the network
Research shows that 60-80% of movement flows are due to the structure of the network, measured by spatial accessibility. More accessible places get more movement Key discovery #1 Spatial layout organises movement
In brief same input Key discovery #2 Spatial layout distributes land use
In brief same input Courtesy of The TLRN Central London Pedestrian Study by Atkins 80% retail located on 20% most spatially accessible streets
Key discovery #2 Spatial layout distributes land use
Area 5 Area 6 Area 3 Area 2 Perth, Australia Property crime analysis Key discovery #3 Spatial layout influences crime & safety
Disconnected grids increase travel emissions Key discovery #4 Spatial layout affects carbon footprint
Centre vitality £ % Street quality Property value Residential security Personal safety Urban layout Key discovery #5 Spatial layout influences land value
Urbanism The largest object of human creation It costs money to provide & maintain. It has a functional impact. Once built, it is hard to remove.
Suppressed movement economy. Enhanced movement economy. Main street, mixing global & local movement. Fast highways, separating global & local movement. The cost of access Fast highways not “Main Streets”
Spatial masterplanning Rapid design development & testing
Spatial masterplanning Rapid design development & testing
Spatial masterplanning Rapid design development & testing
Each place has a unique spatial signature.
الرؤية تراث تاريخي عريق Jeddah Global location
51 km Rapid urban expansion Since then, rapid urban expansion means the city is now 51 kilometres from north to south. Madinah Road Makkah Road
التحديات معاناة المشاة Jeddah Weaknesses sprawl decay pollution
New plan A car-based plan is socially & economically unsustainable Existing Former plan
مشروع المركز المدني لجدة تحليل الموقع مكونات الخطة الرئيسية Jeddah Waterfront 500Ha masterplan
Urban care process Analytic design Jeddah Central
Jeddah Waterfront Corridors for transaction
Party walls Privacy/shading screens Continuous facades Shading structures/ privacy screen Shared surface/ Pedestrian priority Building height ranges Vertical land use distribution Accessible roof space Plot coverage ranges On street parking Infrastructure routed below parking areas Active frontages Ground floor setback for shade Overlooking uses Floor to floor heights Plot widths Jeddah Re-creating local, street-based movement
Align new streets with the Red Sea breeze & shade them
Route hierarchy according to accessibility Development guidelines Density and building height generation هيئة الطرق حسب وصوليتها ارشادات التنمية توليد الكثافة وأطوال المباني
Building height guideline model Development guidelines Density and building height generation ارشادات التنمية توليد الكثافة وأطوال المباني نموذج ارشادي لطول المبنى
استخدامات المباني Development Specifications Development guidelines Density and building height generation مؤشرات العمران – الواجهة البحرية موجهات التطوير توليد الكثافة وارتفاعات المباني
توليد الكثافة وأطوال المباني نموذج ارشادي لكثافة وأطوال المباني واستغلال الأراضي Urban care process Parametric design Jeddah Central
Recirculate the city with “healthy” movement
Urban care process Analytic design Jeddah City Plan Existing Former plan New plan by Space Syntax
Designing for movement Elephant and Castle
Designing for movement Elephant and Castle
Designing for movement Elephant and Castle
1916 Coherent urban layout “The Piccadilly of the south” 2005 Fragmented urban layout - isolated, divided communities - disposable income exodus. Designing for movement Elephant and Castle
Elephant & Castle Defragmenting & Reconnecting
Elephant & Castle Area layout framework
Elephant & Castle Proof of concept – linkage modelling
Elephant & Castle A new ‘High Street’ centre
Elephant & Castle Civic Square
Elephant & Castle Pedestrian flow forecasting
80% say “Yes”
Trafalgar Square, London
Trafalgar Square, London Low levels of space use
Trafalgar Square In 1996, there were pockets of activity on the south-east side of the square.
Trafalgar Square Tourists cross dangerous roads
Trafalgar Square, London Pedestrian survey
Trafalgar Square Visual field from centre of space
Trafalgar Square Visual field from southern island Manipulating spatial networks
© Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. Licence number: LA100032379 2000 Designing for movement Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square, London Spatial accessibility model
© Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. Licence number: LA100032379 To Leicester Square & Covent Garden To the South Bank To Buckingham Palace & St James Park To Leicester Square, Piccadilly & St James Design issue Movement was pushed around the edges of the Square by the physical design of the space such as indirect staircase links. Design strategy The design strategy, developed with Foster + Partners, was to bring movement through the heart of the Square via a new, central staircase. Trafalgar Square, London Urban design concept
Before After Trafalgar Square, London Spatial accessibility analysis
Trafalgar Square, London Artist’s impression
First day of opening Trafalgar Square, London
Trafalgar Square, London New central staircase
PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT ALL 12:00 to 14:00 – WEEKDAY DAY 1 - 2003 Designing for movement Trafalgar Square
Pedestrians - Movement Pedestrians - Stationary Designing for movement Trafalgar Square
Elephant & Castle Southern Crossing
Nottingham Old Market Square
Millennium Bridge, London
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Pedestrian flow 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 Spatial accessibility R^2 = .89 p = 0.0047 Blackfriars Bridge Hungerford Bridge London Bridge Southwark Bridge Waterloo Bridge Westminster Bridge Urban care process Space/movement forecast
Beijing CBD Networked landscape CAUPD © 2009
Strategic Visibility Rent per sqm Retail Shopping mall, Scandinavia Strategic layout assessment
existing First floor Two units are taken away as a test on changes in visibility proposed Retail Shopping mall, Scandinavia Design development
Second floor First floor Lower ground floor Ground floor Retail Shopping mall Spatial accessibility
Second floor First floor Ground floor Lower ground floor Third floor Ground floor mezzanine Retail Shopping mall Spatial accessibility
Retail Department store Customer circulation patterns
Entrance Retail Supermarket Customer paths
Perceived usefulness and frequency of being seen for ‘creative’ staff Frequency of being seen All line analysis of spatial layout Found ‘useful’ by others Workspace Communication and interaction patterns
Workspace Communication and interaction patterns
Workspace UMIST Biocentre Spatial integration
ACCESSIBILITY ANALYSIS VISIBILITY ANALYSIS Workspace Testing design options Spatial integration
Museums & Galleries Tate Britain Visitor movement patterns
Museums & Galleries Tate Britain Accessibility
The British Museum Spatial accessibility of all floors Museums & Galleries The British Museum Accessibility
Green spaces network Major urban grid High Low Spatial accessibility of the core campus and urban context Campus routes Spatial accessibility Strategic importance The analysis of potential circulation routes has been developed to test different strategic options and opportunities identified by MJP. The diagram above shows that significant improvements in accessibility and legibility can be achieved through targeted improvements to the public realm. Education UCL Identifying strategic links
Agent analysis Movement generators Start of day 60 370 140
low high Movement density Forecast model Movement density Start of day
low high Movement density Forecast model Movement density Scheduling
Education UMIST Biocentre Spatial integration
Ground floor Spatial accessibility Pupil Entrance Education Westminster Academy
Transport London, Victoria Station Customer movement tools
Southmead Hospital Horfield Golden Hill Ashley Down Baptist Mills Westbury Park Southmead Filton Bentry Henbury Stoke Bishop Tyndall’s Park St Pauls CITY CENTER 5 Km Falcondale Rd Filton Rd Kellaway Ave Muller Rd M32 Southmead Rd Ashley Down Rd Westbury Rd A4 Portway Crandbrook Rd Bishponds Rd Church Rd Parry’s Ln Station Rd Bond St Anchor Rd Canford ln Reproduced by permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of HMSO. © Crown Copyright and database right 2007. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey license number 908689625 Bristol Southmead Site location
Space Syntax Limited © 2007 Bristol Southmead Hospital Skanska Innisfree Consortium Baseline Report Draft 02 127 Reproduced by permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of HMSO. © Crown Copyright and database right 2007. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey license number 0040058177 The map to the left shows the spatial accessibility structure for all journeys across and through Bristol. It has been found that this measure often corresponds to vehicular volumes where specific traffic restrictions do not apply. The strategic analysis picks out the major movement corridors through the city, and shows how the hospital site is situated between three major arterials: Southmead Road, Filton Road and Monk's Park Avenue. The strategic routes all converge in the city centre yet there are very few locations where strategic routes converge in the north of the city, again reducing the relative accessibility of the Southmead area in relation to more central areas. Horfield Golden Hill Ashley Down Baptist Mills Westbury Park Southmead Filton Bentry Henbury Lawrence Weston Stoke Bishop Tyndall’s Park St Pauls Southmead Hospital City Centre Bristol Southmead City-wide accessibility
0 0.25 0.5 kilometer Southmead Hospital Southmead Filton Horfield Golden Hill Tyndall’s Park Temple Meads Bristol City Centre Southmead and surrounding area Bristol city centre and surrounding area Bristol Southmead Urban grain
Reproduced by permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of HMSO. © Crown Copyright and database right 2007. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey license number 0040058177 Monk's Park Avenue Southmead Road Kendon Way Avon Way Dorian Way Southmead Way Monk's Park Way Kendon Drive Pedestrian flows Bristol Southmead Patient, visitors and staff movement flows
Bristol Southmead Spatial accessibility
Bristol Southmead Spatial accessibility PSC 1
Bristol Southmead Spatial accessibility PSC2
Reproduced by permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of HMSO. © Crown Copyright and database right 2007. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey license number 0040058177 Monk’s Park Avenue Filton Road Southmead Road Wellington Hill West Kingsholm Road Bristol Southmead Strategic routes Proposal
Bristol Southmead Strategic routes Impact evaluation
Bristol Southmead NGM proposal Impact evaluation
Distance in metres > 300 0 Total number of segments: 1201 Mean: 136.3m Maximum: 238.0m Total number of segments: 1641 Mean: 197.3m Maximum: 329.0m Evidence-based approach Option testing
Accessibility underpins vulnerability Pinderfields Hospital Healthcare Hospital campus Vulnerability index
Healthcare Hospital campus Vulnerability index
Activity patterns Spatial properties Figure 1: ‘snapshot observations’ showing users and activity Figure 2: nurse movement and interactions Figure 3: visual field from nurse base Figure 4: ward accessibility patterns Healthcare Hospital wards assessment
NIGHTINGALE 50/50 SINGLE Healthcare Hospital wards Distance from nurse base
Existing Proposed Healthcare Hospital wards Design evaluation
minimum standard excellence The spatial DNA D D A A A A C C B B B B C C D D Building A Building B Building C Building D Each building can be objectively assessed in terms of the layout properties that impact on patterns of use.
Tim Stonor Architect & Town Planner | Managing Director, Space Syntax Twitter @Tim_Stonor Blog www.timstonor.com LinkedIn www.linkedin.com/in/timstonor email@example.com www.spacesyntax.com