PRAD 255 - Module 2 - Evolution of PR - part 2final


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evolution OF PUBLIC RELATIONS (PART 2) Principles of Public Relations (PRAD 255) Ragas

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Four classic models of public relations (Grunig & Hunt, 1984)…a look at the field’s evolution I. Press agentry / Publicity II. Public information Inform, accurate information III. Two-way asymmetric Persuasion and influence IV. Two-way symmetric Mutual understanding/relationships

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I. Press agentry / Publicity One-way communication Focus on creating awareness Place stories in mass media Not listening to publics, but advocating No research Generic public (not targeted communication) Still used in sports and entertainment Classic example: PT Barnum and showmen P.T. Barnum

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II. Public information One –way communication Distribute info through mass media Little audience research Journalistic perspective Emphasis on accuracy of information Research = fact-finding like a reporter Used mostly by government public relations Classic example: Ivy Lee and railroads Ivy Lee

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III. Two-way asymmetric Designed to persuade Why two-way? Feedback loop to better understand the audience Why asymmetric? Better understand audience perceptions and how to persuade it Research is used to plan the activity and measure if objectives have been met Classic example: Edward Bernays Edward Bernays

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IV. Two-way symmetric More than persuasion  achieve mutual understanding/mutually beneficial relationships Why symmetric? to learn how the public perceives the organization to determine what consequences organizational actions/policies might have on the public Organization is just as likely to adapt as the public Modern practice of PR is increasingly a mix of two-way asymmetric and symmetric communication

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What sparked the move towards using two-way symmetry? The rise of modern activism and social movements in the 1960/1970s questioned the legitimacy of corporate America – in steps PR. Corporations realized they could not always simply persuade the public that their policy/behavior was correct. Certain issues call for engaging in dialogue and mutual understanding. 7

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Trends lines in PR today Female majority field today (70% of PR pros) 65%+ of all journalism/mass comunication majors Gender gap in salaries persist, but many women increasingly hold leadership positions The PR field makes efforts to have a more diverse workforce more reflective of the nation Number of minorities in field still lags the population PR Week survey: 7% African-American, 4% Asian, 4% Hispanic (Hispanics/Latinos most underrepresented) 8 Aedhmar Hynes, CEO, Text 100 Public Relations

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Trends for the next 50 years Multicultural world Recruitment of minorities Public demand for transparency Expanding the role of PR (beyond media relations) Corporate social responsibility Increased emphasis on measurement Managing the 24/7 News Cycle Continued growth of digital media 9

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Trends for the next 50 years (continued) The rise of social media Powerful new way to speak directly with our publics Outsourcing to PR firms 85% of corporations use an outside agency The need for lifelong learning Trend towards PR specializations Must understand business/management 10

Summary: PRAD 255 - Module 2 - Evolution of PR - part 2 (Matt Ragas)

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