English 8 - Unit 14 - Wonders of the world

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Nga: Yes.

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far north Hotel rainforest 6924 4

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WRITE.

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May 29, 2003 Dear Hoa, How are you? (1) ……………………………………..………………………… . My class has just returned from a trip to the Grand Canyon in Arizona. (2)……………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………..……..…… . We spent a week there and I didn’t want to leave. Although it was summer, it was quite cool at night because the area is more than 2,000 meters above sea level. On our first day, a park ranger led us on a guided hike along the edge of the canyon. He talked about the history of the area. (3) ……………………………………………………………………………………… . (4) …………………………………………………………….… . What do you plan to do during the summer vacation? Write to me after your exams. Your friend, Tim WRITE A. That’s all I have time to tell you about B. The Canyon is part of Grand Canyon Park and it was formed by the Colorado River millions of years C. I hope you’re studying hard for your exams next week D. He talked about the original inhabitants who lived there during the Stone Age D. He talked about the original inhabitants who lived there during the Stone Age A. That’s all I have time to tell you about B. The Canyon is part of Grand Canyon Park and it was formed by the Colorado River millions of years C. I hope you’re studying hard for your exams next week

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Language focus

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2. Yesterday, Nga and Nhi talked about My Son, one of the World Cultural Heritages of Viet Nam. Report the questions Nhi asked Nga.

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It is also important that you use an indirect question in reported speech, i.e. after the interrogative or whether / if  you continue the sentence as if it were a statement (subject-verb etc.). The auxiliary verb “do”  is not used in indirect questions. Example: He asked: “Where does she live?“ – He asked where she lived. Questions in Reported Speech Reported questions If you put a question into Reported speech there are some steps which are the same like in statements: (changing of the person, backshift of tenses, changing of expressions of time). In Reported speech there is no question anymore, the sentence becomes a statement. That's why the word order is: subject - verb Question without question words (yes/no questions): Peter: "Do you play football?" - Peter asked me whether (if)  I played football. Question with question words: Peter: "When do you play football?" - Peter asked me when I played football.

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Gerunds : Verbs + ing   Gerunds are formed like the present participle by adding ing to the infinitive. Gerund is a verb used as a noun(I like dancing). And these are some verbs which are followed by gerunds(hate,like,avoid,finish ,suggest,mind,keep(meaning continue),enjoy,risk,stop.) Some prepositions are followed by gerunds:be keen on,be fond of (like),be good at,be interested in ,be afraid of, a method/way of,insist on,accuse  someone of,be used to. be used to +gerund/noun should not be confused with used to + infinitive,which describes a past habit._I used to smoke.(but I don't any more).

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Gerunds and Infinitives Part 1 1. A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing." The gerund form of the verb "read" is "reading." You can use a gerund as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence. Examples: Reading helps you learn English. subject of sentence Her favorite hobby is reading. complement of sentence I enjoy reading. object of sentence Gerunds can be made negative by adding "not." Examples: He enjoys not working. The best thing for your health is not smoking. 2. Infinitives are the "to" form of the verb. The infinitive form of "learn" is "to learn." You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence. Examples: To learn is important. subject of sentence The most important thing is to learn. complement of sentence He wants to learn. object of sentence Infinitives can be made negative by adding "not." Examples: I decided not to go. The most important thing is not to give up. 3. Both gerunds and infinitives can be used as the subject or the complement of a sentence. However, as subjects or complements, gerunds usually sound more like normal, spoken English, whereas infinitives sound more abstract. In the following sentences, gerunds sound more natural and would be more common in everyday English. Infinitives emphasize the possibility or potential for something and sound more philosophical. If this sounds confusing, just remember that 90% of the time, you will use a gerund as the subject or complement of a sentence. Examples: Learning is important. normal subject To learn is important. abstract subject - less common The most important thing is learning. normal complement The most important thing is to learn. abstract complement - less common

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4. As the object of a sentence, it is more difficult to choose between a gerund or an infinitive. In such situations, gerunds and infinitives are not normally interchangeable. Usually, the main verb in the sentence determines whether you use a gerund or an infinitive. Examples: He enjoys swimming. "Enjoy" requires a gerund. He wants to swim. "Want" requires an infinitive. 5. Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects. List of Verbs Followed by Gerunds Examples: She suggested going to a movie. Mary keeps talking about her problems. 6. Some verbs are followed by infinitives. List of Verbs Followed by Infinitives Examples: She wants to go to a movie. Mary needs to talk about her problems.

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Infinitive as subject An infinitive can be the subject of a sentence. This was fairly common in older English. To err is human, to forgive divine. To find fault with others is easy. In modern English, this is unusual. We more often use it as a ‘preparatory subject’, and put the infinitive clause later. It is human to err. It is easy to find fault with others. Infinitive as object Many verbs can be followed by an infinitive clause in the place of the direct object. She wants some exercise. (noun object) She wants to dance. (infinitive object) I don’t want to go to bed. Infinitive clause as complement An infinitive clause can be used after be as a subject complement. The best thing to do now is to vanish. You are to sit in that corner and keep quite. The main thing is to stay calm. To-infinitives can be used as the object or complement of a verb, adjective or noun. You have the right to remain silent. She was anxious to contact her husband. That was a sight to see. Automation has come to stay. It is time to go. To-infinitives The marker to is normally used before infinitives. Note that this to is not a preposition; after the preposition to we use –ing forms.  The to-infinitive has many functions. Verbs that can be followed by infinitives Many verbs can be followed by the infinitives of other verbs. I failed to understand his motive. You should learn to say no. He agreed to come. He tried to open the door. We decided to continue our journey. She promised to come.

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Verbs Followed by Infinitives 8 = verb followed by an infinitive OR an optional noun + an infinitive 13 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with a difference in meaning 14 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with little difference in meaning

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Points to be noted 1. Some verbs (let, make, see, feel, watch, notice, have, and sometimes know and help) are followed by object + infinitive without to. I heard her open the door. We watched them play. Let me explain. 2. Some verbs cannot be followed by object + infinitive. Suggest, for example, is followed by a that-clause. I suggested that he should consult a doctor. (NOT I suggested him to consult a doctor.) 3. Many of the verbs listed above can also be followed by an -ing formor a that-clause. Can you teach me to paint? Can you teach me painting? They stopped to talk. They stopped talking. 4. Many of the verbs given above can be used in passive structures with infinitives. They encouraged me to make another attempt. (Active) I was encouraged to make another attempt. (Passive) They requested him to help them. (Active) He was requested to help them. (Passive) They ordered her to give the money back. (Active) She was ordered to give the money back. (Passive) Some verbs, however, can be used with infinitives in active structures but not passives. Examples are: like, dislike, love, hate, prefer, wish and verbs with similar meanings. She likes people to be happy. (NOT People are liked to be happy by her.) I hate to work on Sundays. (NOT To work on Sunday is hated by me.)

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