Interactive Learning Theory Matrix

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Behaviorist Theory

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Behaviorist Theory

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Behaviorist Theory

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Behaviorist Theory

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Behaviorist Theory

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Behaviorist Theory

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Interactive Learning Theory Matrix Behaviorist Theory Cognitive Theory Constructivist Theory Social Learning Theory Connectivism Adult Learning Walden University Prof. Dr. Shirley Weaver EDUC 6115-2 by Tina Nkobi

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How does learning occur? Behaviorism focuses on the importance of consequences of the performances and contends that responses that are followed by reinforcement are more likely to occur in the future. (Ertmer & Newby1993) The theory of behaviorism concentrates on the study of overt behaviors that can be observed and measured. (Good & Brophy, 1990) One needs to differentiate between the classical conditioning (Pavlov) and the operant (instrumental) conditioning (Skinner). In the classical conditioning a neutral stimulus - ringing of the bell in Pavlov’s Experiment with the dog - is associated with a reflex such as salivation. In operant conditioning the learner operates on his environment and receives a certain reward for a certain behavior (operations). The link between the operation – the rat pressing the lever in Skinner’s experiment and the reward stimulus (food) is established. Behaviorist Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What factors influence learning? The most critical factor however is the arrangement of stimuli and consequences within the environment. (Ertmer & Newby1993) Positive Reinforcement or reward: Responses that are rewarded are likely to be repeated. Negative Reinforcement: Responses that allow escape from painful or unpleasant situations are likely to be repeated Extinction or Non-Reinforcement: Responses that are not reinforced are not likely to be repeated   Punishment: Responses that bring painful or undesirable consequences will be suppressed, but may reappear if reinforcement contingencies change. (Good & Brophy, 1990) Behaviorist Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What is the role of memory? Behaviorism does not study the memory, the acquisition of habits is discussed but lacks an explanation as to how these habits are stored or retrieved for future use. Memory is developed in form of habits or automated responses when a stimulus and its response occurs repeatedly. Behaviorist Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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How does transfer occur? The transfer occurs in the conditioning process until the behavior becomes automatic. The transfer is a result of generalization which is conclusion inferred from a set of descriptions or observations. Situations involving identical or similar features will all behavior to transfer across common elements. The recognition is part of the transfer process. Reinforcing behavior pattern can result in the transfer as well as evaluation and assessment. Behaviorist Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What types of learning are best explained by this theory? The use of instructional cues (word, phrase, or sentence that describes a particular aspect of a concept or skill) practice, repletion and reinforcement can strengthen stimulus-response associations. Recalling facts, defining and illustrating concepts, applying explanations and forming a specified procedure automatically is the result of this process. Behaviorism cannot however fully explain the acquisition of higher level skills where greater depth of processing is required. Behaviorist Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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Behaviorist learning theorists include Edward Watson, John Thorndike, and B.F. Skinner. These theoretical ideas led directly to instructional designs and interventions such as the Keller Plan (Keller & Sherman, 1974), computer-assisted instruction, and instructional systems designs. For example, Gagne’s (1965) events of instruction proceed through linear and structured phases, including to 1. gain learners attention - multimedia 2. inform learner of objectives - multimedia 3. stimulate recall of previous information – online resources, video and audio 4. present stimulus material - video and audio 5. provide learner guidance online resources 6. elicit performance – virtual performance measuring tools 7. provide feedback and reinforcement - multimedia 8. assess performance - virtual performance measuring tools How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Behaviorist Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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How does learning occur? The learning occurs with the changes in the probability of response. Acquiring knowledge is processed through mental structure changes, rather than through responses through stimuli. The mind is used as reference tool to process past information and create new knowledge (Ertmer & Newby, 1993). The focus lies in of how the learnt is acquired rather than what is learnt. The information processing thus creates new knowledge Cognitive Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What factors influence learning? Like in behaviorism environmental changes play a role. Instructional explanations, demonstration and illustrative examples can influence the learning. The role of practice and correct feedback will influence the learning. The cognitive approach focuses on the mental processing activities and acknowledges the process of planning, goal-setting and organizational strategies. The encoding process of the information will create new knowledge. Motivation, attention and perception are key factors that will influence the learning. Cognitive Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What is the role of the memory? Information is received, organized, stored in memory and then retrieved in an organized and meaningful manner. Techniques such as analogies, hierarchical relationships and matrices help to relate the new information to prior knowledge. Rehearsal plays an important factor. The information going in as sensory input and processes through short-term-memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) and is then encoded for later retrieval.   Metacognition refers to one's knowledge concerning one's own cognitive processes or anything related to them, e.g., the learning-relevant properties of information or data (Flavell, 1976). Metacognition refers to deliberate, conscious control of mental activities. Metacognition includes knowledge and monitoring activities designed to ensure that tasks are completed successfully (Schunk, 2011). Cognitive Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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How does transfer occur? Transfer is not a unitary phenomenon but rather is complex. Transfer refers to knowledge being applied in new ways, in new situations, or in familiar situations with different content. When a learner understands how to apply knowledge in a different set of circumstances and when irrelevant information is eliminated, transfer occurs more easily (Ertmer & Newby, 1993). Specific instructional or relevant events will trigger responses. The learner needs to understand the connection between the usefulness of the information before accessing the knowledge. Humans select and pick out relevant information, they rehearse the information and start putting this gained information into context from previous acquired knowledge and constructing a meaning to the information being processed. Cognitive Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What types of learning are best explained by this theory? Complex forms of learning, such as problem solving or greater levels of critical thinking or analysis Feedback for results of knowledge, rather than observable behavior; to relate new information to existing information; analogies and metaphors are used (Ertmer & Newby, 1993). Problem solving involves the acquisition, retention, and use of production systems, which are networks of condition–action sequences (rules) in which the conditions are the sets of circumstances that activate the system and the actions are the sets of activities that occur (Anderson, 1990; Andre, 1986). Reasoning refers to the mental processes involved in generating and evaluating logical arguments(Anderson, 1990). Homework is a mechanism for transfer because students practice and refine, at home, skills learned in school. Cognitive Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Students increasingly are learning in computer-based environments. Functions of technology. Tool to support knowledge construction. Information vehicle for exploring knowledge to support learning by constructing Context to support learning by doing Social medium to support learning by conversing Intellectual partner to support learning by reflecting (Jonassen et al., 1999) Cognitive Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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Constructivist Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry?

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How does learning occur? The learning occurs in this theory through the interaction. The information is received through the guidance of a peer or instructor and the learner creates the knowledge through the exchange of knowledge with his peers. The engagement in applying existing knowledge and real world experience, learning to hypothesize and testing theories can result in developing conclusions from their findings and creating meaning through social engagement and collaboration. The individual creates knowledge and develops concepts – it recognizes a relationship between prior knowledge/experience and sensory input. The internal representation of knowledge is at all times open to change. Hence in order to understand a learning that has taken place within an individual, the actual experience must be examined (Bednar et a., 1991) Constructivist Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What factors influence learning? Situations co-produce knowledge along with cognition through activity. Every action is viewed as an interpretation of the current situation based on an entire history of previous interactions. The interaction between the learner and environmental factors „construct“ the knowledge. Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP) for any learner is this range of activities that are difficult but not impossible and which you can do if you have assisted by a peer or instructor. With this in mind it is critical that learning should occur in realistic settings and that the selected learning tasks are related to the learners lived experience. The social interactions contribute to the construction of knowledge it being cultural or social. Knowledge can be achieved by sharing and solving other defined tasks with other peers or under the guidance of an instructor. Constructivist Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What is the role of memory? Learning is not only about the learner’s knowledge about specific facts but rather an interpretation about the information, “Understanding is developed through continued, situated use… and does not crystallize into a categorical definition” that can be called up from memory. (Ertmer & Newby1993) Memory is always “under construction” as a continuous process of information which is cumulative history of interactions and representative experience. It is not a specific piece of knowledge of pre-packed information stored in the brain, but a flexible use of knowledge from pre-existing experiences as well as the interaction through peers that will construct new knowledge. According to Brown et al. there are three vital factors to facilitate a meaningful long-lasting learning: activity (practice), concept (knowledge) and culture (context). Constructivist Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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How does transfer occur? In the constructivist view the transfer occurs by the actual doing authentic activities anchored in meaningful contexts. (Ertmer & Newby1993) Students actively participate in problem-solving and critical thinking regarding a learning activity. They are "constructing" their own knowledge by testing ideas and approaches based on their prior knowledge and experience, applying these to a new situation, and integrating the new knowledge gained with pre-existing intellectual constructs. The social dimension of learning is also central to the idea of situated learning and communities of practice. The transfer in cognitive constructivism is about how the individual learner understands things, in terms of developmental stages and learning styles (Piaget) whereas the social constructivism, emphasizes how meanings and understandings evolve out of social interactions (Vygotsky). Constructivist Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What types of learning are best explained by this theory? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? Constructivism is most effective for advanced knowledge acquisition, where initial misconceptions and biases can be discovered, negotiated, modified or removed (Ertmer & Newby, 1993). While it is likely that introductory knowledge can be supported by the objectivist approaches, as learners acquire that knowledge they can begin to deal will complex and ill-structured problems, which can be addressed well with constructivists approaches to learning. Use of problem-solving skills that allow learners to go beyond what's given (developing pattern-recognition skills, presenting alternative ways of representing problems) Examples: group work, scaffolding, case studies, discovery learning Constructivist Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) The growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web, in particular, are attracting the attention of tertiary educational institutions worldwide. Constructivist distance education pedagogies moved distance learning beyond the narrow type of knowledge transmission that could be encapsulated easily in media through the use of synchronous and asynchronous, human communications-based learning. From an instructional point of view in regards to an educational setting the roots of the constructivist model most commonly applied today originate from the work of Vygotsky and Dewey, joined together in the broad category of social constructivism. Social-constructivist pedagogies, perhaps not coincidently, developed in conjunction with the development of two-way communication technologies. At this time, rather than transmitting information, technology became widely used to create opportunities for both synchronous and asynchronous interactions between and among students and teachers. (Bednar, et. A, 1991) E-learning environments should be Internet or web platform, learners can access the learning environment in their embedded and situated contexts – anywhere and anytime E-learning environments should be portable as far as possible so that they can be used in the context. E-learning environments can use the social communicative and collaborative dimensions E-learning environments should have scaffolding structures which contain the genres and common expressions used by the community. (Hung, D. W. L., & Der-Thanq, C. 2001). Constructivist Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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Social Learning Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry?

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How does learning occur? Learning occurs actively - by doing and vicariously - by observing, reading, and listening. Observational learning consists of four processes: attention, retention, production, and motivation. Social cognitive theory is its emphasis on learning from your social environment. Meaningful learning occurs when learners engage in social activities. (Ormrod, 1999) Social Learning Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What factors influence learning? Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional value. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in outcomes they value. Stages of cognitive development identified by Piaget are associated with characteristic age spans, they vary for every individual. Furthermore, each stage has many detailed structural forms. The information processing is influenced through imitating and modeling. Values reflect what persons find self-satisfying. There are two types of expectations. Outcome expectations refer to the expected outcomes of actions. Efficacy expectations, or self-efficacy, refer to one’s perceived capabilities for learning or performing tasks at specific levels. Social Learning Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What is the role of memory? The role of the memory has not been investigated in depth. Social cognitive theory assumes that memory includes information stored as images or symbols. The environment can reinforce modeling. Human activity and the environment in which one lives influence learning. Historical developments inherited by the learner in their culture. (Ormrod, 1999) One of the key components of Social Learning Theory is learning through modeling and/or observation.  Accordingly, memory has to do with the conditions necessary for effective modeling to occur or be repeated.  These conditions are reflective of the blending between behaviorist and cognitive theories: Attention, Retention through rehearsal, memory coding, motor reproduction strategy and Motivation (Ormrod, 2008)  Social Learning Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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How does transfer occur? Transfer is a cognitive process and depends on the assumption that certain actions in new or different situations are socially acceptable and will be met with favorable outcomes. The learner's self-efficacy also can facilitate transfer. (Schunk, D. H., 2011) Social cognitive principles also are reflected in worked examples, tutoring, and mentoring. Symbolic coding and rehearsal, mental images, and cognitive organization play a part in processing the information (Bandura, 1977). Social Learning Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What types of learning are best explained by this theory? We internalize some of the processes from a social environment, eventually use them independently, and then begin thinking of complex issues on our own. Structure is provided and a knowledgeable person helps a learner expand their Zone of Proximal Development into more challenging activities (Ormrod, 2008). Vygotsky's theory was an attempt to explain consciousness as the end product of socialization. For example, in the learning of language, our first utterances with peers or adults are for the purpose of communication but once mastered they become internalized. Attention - an individual’s characteristics such as sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement affect attention. Retention - Ways to increase attention is though symbolic coding, mental images, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, and motor rehearsal. Motor Reproduction or the ability to replicate a behavior. Motivation means having a good reason to imitate or learners must demonstrate what they have learned. Social Learning Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Interactive learning, collaborative learning, facilitating learning, authentic learning, learner-centered learning to achieve high quality learning. Utilizing Course Management Systems (CMS) tools to interact with other learners as well as monitoring learners own progress. Technology tools can extend memory and make thinking visible. Internet, web, and social media have given education in an e-learning setting a new tool to facilitate learning. The virtual platform enables cross-cultural contacts as well as collaborative learning, apprenticeships, problem-based instruction, reciprocal teaching, and other learning that involves learners with others (Kim, 2001). The use of modeling is highly recommended in instruction. The key is to begin with social influences, such as models, and gradually shift to self-influence as the learner internalizes skills and strategies. (Schunk, 2011). Social Learning Theory How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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How does learning occur? The factor that influences learning in connectivism is the diversity of network, strength of ties and context of occurrence (Davis, Edmunds, & Kelly-Bateman, 2008). Learning is a process that occurs within nebulous environments of shifting core elements – not entirely under the control of the individual. Learning (defined as actionable knowledge) can reside outside of ourselves (within an organization or a database), is focused on connecting specialized information sets, and the connections that enable us to learn more are more important than our current state of knowing (Siemens, 2005). Connectivism How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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“George Siemens’ theory of Connectivism is the combined effect of three different components: chaos theory, importance of networks, and the interplay of complexity and self-organization” (Davis et al., 2008) Siemens principles of connectivism: Learning and knowledge rest in diversity of opinions. Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources. Learning may reside in non-human appliances. Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known. Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning. Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill and interpret them correctly Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all learning activities. Decision making will influence the learning process. What factors influence learning? Connectivism How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What is the role of memory? Adaptive patterns, representative of current state, existing in networks (Davis, et al., 2008). Essentially, there is more value in knowing how to acquire knowledge, interpret the value of knowledge, and distribution of knowledge than in maintaining knowledge facts that are continuously evolving and changing. Memory is defined by connection of nodes-networking. The nodes are endlessly dissolving and resolving, the connections are endlessly forming, and what is important is not the connection, the bridge or the node, but the ways, contexts, conditions in which they form, coalesce, emerge or disappear or are constructed. That is where the learning is. (Davis, Edmunds, & Kelly-Bateman, 2008). Connectivism How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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How does transfer occur? Transfer occurs through connecting to information (by adding nodes) and growing the network via social/conceptual/biological connections (Davis, et al., 2008) The brain does not hold chunks of information/knowledge, it is networked. Conceptual connections generate meanings. Internet, web, and social media have raised the profile of networks because we now experience them in our daily life. Connecting to adding nodes. The nodes are endlessly dissolving and resolving, the connections are endlessly forming, and what is important is not the connection, the bridge or the node, but the ways, contexts, conditions in which they form, coalesce, emerge or disappear or are constructed. Transfer per se, of isolated facts is unnecessary as long as the individual has the technological skills to find the information necessary (Davis, et al., 2008) Connectivism How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What types of learning are best explained by this theory? Complex learning, learning which has a rapid changing core and learning occurring from diverse knowledge sources (Davis, et al., 2008) Technology has impacted and evolved the education system and how instructions should be delivered. Today, our networks are explicit in tools like Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Email, and LinkedIn. These services provide users the ability to analyze how they are connected to others and share the information. Connectivism emphasizes on distribution and connectivity of knowledge and learning within a collaborative network. Social networks, technological and informational networks distribute the information. Connectivism How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Learning Management System (LMS) enable administrators and instructors in the corporate training world to track employee/staff learning progress, manage content, and roster students. These systems help learners take control of and manage their own learning. Socially-based tools comprise of blogs, wikis, social bookmarking sites, social networking sites, content aggregation through RSS and Atom, podcast and video cast tools, search engines, emails, and voice over IP. Technology tools provide the means through which individuals engage and manipulate both resources and their own ideas. Examples include brainstorming and concept mapping software. Others help to represent knowledge and facilitate communication. For instance, the Collaborative Visualization provides visualization software designed to help students collect, analyze data and visualize effects. Tools, like simulations enable learners to experiment with modeling complex ideas. Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE) is software that supports a networked, multimedia environment in which students collaborate on learning activities. They do this by creating “posts” to express their ideas or integrate outside information about a topic. This builds a communal database producing shared knowledge about the topic or problem.  CSILE also facilitates connections between schools and the scientific community, allowing practicing scientists to serve as mentors to students. The Horizon Report, “introduces six emerging technologies or practices that are likely to enter mainstream use in learning-focused organizations within three adoption horizons over the next one to five years” (Johnson, Levine, & Smith, 2009, p. 3) in the areas of “mobiles, cloud computing, geo-tagging, personal web, semantic aware applications and smart objects. Connectivism How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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Adult Learning How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry?

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How does learning occur? The term andragogy was originally formulated by a German teacher, Alexander Kapp, in 1833 (Nottingham Andragogy Group 1983: v). He used it to describe elements of Plato's education theory. Andragogy (andr- meaning 'man') could be contrasted with pedagogy (paid- meaning 'child' and agogos meaning 'leading') (Davenport, 1993).  The term was later used by the American educator Malcom Knowles in the mid 20th century. Knowles’ research had an emphasis on the difference between the education of adults and children. While pedagogy defined the science of teaching children, the science of teaching adults was not highly researched until Knowles. Knowles' term andragogy defines a philosophy of adult learning processes rather than an entire theory. Andragogy holds a set of assumptions about how adults learn. Andragogy emphasizes the value of the process of learning. Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented. Adult Learning How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What factors influence learning? Life-Experience - Adult have experiences that they bring with them into new learning situations. This enables a rich contribution of how the information will be acknowledged and interpreted. Unfortunately this may cause misinformation or biases related to the new learning and can be counterproductive. Readiness to learn - As a person matures his readiness to learn becomes oriented increasingly to the developmental tasks of his social roles. Whether or not an adult is ready to learn depends on what they need to know in order to deal with life situations.  Problem centered focus - As a person grows older the time perspective changes from one of postponed application of knowledge to immediacy of application. Adults need to see the immediate application of learning.  The learning opportunities will enable them to solve problems. We assume that maturity leads to a shift from subject centre learning towards problem solving learning. Internal motivation.  Adults will seek learning opportunities due to some external motivators (teachers, applications), but the motivators such as self-esteem, quality of life, self-actualization, etc. are internal. Adults need to know why they need to learn something.  Adults need to know what’s in it for them – how this new knowledge will solve a problem or how it can be applied. Adult Learning How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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Adults integrate new knowledge with existing related knowledge, ensuring high levels of recall. The activation of existing knowledge in the long-term-memory enable the retrieval of meaningful information enabling the learner to elaborate and integrate the new information into a memorable whole thus creating new knowledge. Memory is a function of cognition, encoding and retrieval.  Adults face additional challenges as they get older resulting in memory decay and retrieval issues. Older adults may face processing deficits. This may lead to inaccurate processing of the information that is being recognized or interpreted. Structural deficit in adults leads to speed and capacity limitations associated with age-related changes in the central nervous system. What is the role of memory? Adult Learning How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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How does transfer occur? Adult learners are most interested in immediate application of their learning (Conlan, Graboswski, & Smith, 2003). Adults observe and grasp information from their educational setting and use previous knowledge to process the new information. They apply it immediately to everyday situations on the job, at home, or in a different educational setting from where the information was obtained. Transfer for adults is not automatic and must be facilitated in the form of coaching, revision exercises. This assists the adult learners to transfer learning into daily practice so that it is sustained. Transference is most likely to occur in the following situations: Association — participants can associate the new information with something that they already know. Similarity — the information is similar to material that participants already know; that is, it revisits a logical framework or pattern. Critical attribute element — the information learned contains elements that are extremely beneficial (critical) on the job” (Lieb, 1991). Adult Learning How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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What types of learning are best explained by this theory? I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. (Confucius, 551BC - 479BC) Action Learning: Learners work in small groups on a given scenario and create new knowledge through activities and tasks. Experiential learning: Experiential learning is a learning theory that is learner-centered and operates on the premise that individuals learn best by experience. A good way to describe this theory is “learning by doing”. Experiential learning thus has the learner directly involved with the material being studied instead of just thinking and talking about that material (Conlan, et al., 2003). Project Based learning: In Project Based Learning, students work in groups to solve challenging problems that are authentic and often interdisciplinary. Learners decide how to approach a problem and what activities to pursue (Conlan, et al., 2003). Self-Directed Learning: Defined as the process in which individuals take on the responsibility for their own learning process by diagnosing their personal learning needs, setting goals, identifying resources, implementing strategies and evaluating the outcomes(Conlan, et al., 2003). Transformational Learning: Transformative, or transformational, learning occurs when the individual is forced to encounter an event or situation that is inconsistent with his or her existing perspective. This shift in perspective can be gradual or sudden, and the individual moves through a series of stages in the cognitive restructuring and reconciliation of experience and action (Stansberry & Kymes, 2007). Adult Learning How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) In the respective of instructional design and concept of adult learning many factors play key roles. Prensky defines generational differences in how people learn and differentiates between the "digital immigrant," and the "digital natives". The first group takes to technology as a means of survival in the business world but did not grow up with technology as a primary source of production or information. The latter have an advanced technological skill set and always connected. Learning Management System (LMS), training coordinators and learning facilitators enable collaborative learning through a learning platform. Individual learning plans and learning assessments, linked to the overall development of any learner. Web based trainings for personal development. Courses can be accessed through a learning platform or a LMS. Resources can be used online and can be downloaded as an offline resource. Social networking, such as Facebook, Blogs, Podcasts, etc allows learners to collaborate, converse, provide input, create content and share it. Adult learners will be successful in online courses when instructors utilize the tools available to create effective online learning communities that promote dialogue, discussion, and reflection, all of which allow learners to develop deeper understandings and to gain knowledge. Adult Learning How does learning occur? What factors influence learning? What is the role of memory? How does transfer occur? What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? (I am at an educational institution.) Go to: >>Behaviorist Theory >>Cognitive Theory >>Constructivist Theory >>Social Learning Theory >>Connectivism >>Adult Learning Return to Main Menu Matrix Summary References

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References Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy. International, Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12.3 Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press. Bednar, A.K., Cunningham, D., Duffy, T.M., & Perry, J.D. (1991). Theory into practice: How do we link? In G.L. Anglin (Ed.), Instructional technology: Past, present, and future (pp. 88-101). Englewood Cercone, K. (2008, April). Characteristics of adult learners with implications for online learning design. AACE Journal, 16(2), 137-159. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ805727). Retrieved April 4, 2009, from Education Research Complete database. Ertmer, P. A., Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly. Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34 Good, T. L., Brophy, J. E. (1990). Educational psychology: A realistic approach. (4th ed.).White Plains, NY: Longman Hung, D. W. L., & Der-Thanq, C. (2001). Situated Cognition, Vygotskian Thought and Learning from the Communities of Practice Perspective: Implications for the Design of Web-Based E-Learning. Educational Media International, 38(1), p. 3-12. Jonassen, D., Tessmer, M., & Hannum, W. H. (1999). Task analysis methods for instructional design. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Keller, F. S., and Sherman, J. G. (1974). The Keller Plan Handbook. Menlo Park, CA.: W. A. Benjamin. Ormrod, J. (2008). Human Learning (5th ed.). New Jersey, NY: Pearson Education, Inc. Schunk, D. H. (2011). Learning Theories an Educational Perspective. (Publishing as A. & B. Pearson Education, Inc., Ed.)Learning (6th ed.). Boston Stansberry, S. & Kymes, A.  (2007).  Transformative learning through “Teaching with technology” electronic portfolios. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literature, 50(6), (pp. 488-496). References continued  Matrix Summary Main Menu

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References - Web articles Davis, C., Edmunds, E., & Kelly-Bateman, V. (2008). Connectivism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology (p. ). Retrieved from Retrieved from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Connectivism Johnson, L., Levine, A., & Smith, R. (2009). The Horizon Report (2009 ed.). Retrieved from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/CSD5612.pdf Kim, B. (2001). Social Constructivism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/ Lieb, S. (1991, Fall). Principles of adult learning. Vision. Retrieved from http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/adults-2.htm Conlan, J., Grabowski, S., & Smith, K. (2003). Adult learning. In M. Orey (Ed.),Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology.  Retrieved December 2, 2010, Retrieved from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Adult_Learning Emerging theories and online learning environments for adults. (2002). In Theories of Educational Technology. Retrieved November 24l, 2010, Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/a/boisestate.edu/edtechtheories/ Lieb, S. (1991, Fall). Principles of adult learning. Vision. Retrieved from http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/adults-2.htm  Back to References Main Menu Matrix Summary

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Matrix Summary

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