ORGC 316 Hirokawa Part IV


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Hirokawa et al. Part IV: Group Processes By Sherri L. Ter Molen

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If you’ve got it, flaunt it! Once a group is formed, it usually tries to fulfill some sort of purpose. How does this work? This week, we’re thinking about how space impacts power as well as how feedback and influence works in groups. On the next slide, you’ll find this week’s learning objectives. As you work through this PowerPoint, think about your own experience. How is the work environment of your summer job in road construction different than your school year job in the library? 1

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Learning Objectives To identify different types of physical workspaces and to understand that these spaces are integral in relationship development, resource allocation, and small group communication overall To recognize the role of feedback and the affect of influence in small group communication To interpret influence processes in groups 2

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3 Last week, we looked at the ways that groups form and evolve. What happens next?

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It’s funny you should ask! 4 Other group processes begin to take shape, & group members negotiate for POWER! Korean food is awesome! Just FYI!

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Shotgun! Have you ever called shotgun when riding in a car? Calling shotgun means that you get to sit in the front seat next to the driver. The other passengers are relegated to the back seat. What’s the big deal? Why does it matter where passengers sit in a car? 5

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Spatial Relationships in Small Groups Believe it or not where you sit in any space matters. Workers in cubes might have less power than their boss who has a corner office. Sitting close to others often sparks conversations & relationships. Wow! I think I might want to sit right outside my boss’ office! Sitting close to others who have resources might also benefit me. Hmmmm! 6

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This Week’s Links Think about who you are. What kind of spatial arrangement in a workplace would be best for you? Why? Think about the section entitled “Comfort” on pp. 88-90, and look at the office styles on these links. Early Office Museum Vintage Photographs of Office Interiors 1930s-1950s -- Creative & Modern Office Designs Around the World These links are also posted on D2L! 7

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A Sherri Story Many years ago, I was the producer of the Grand Rapids, Michigan edition of The Bozo Show. I had access to free movie passes that we put in gift bags for the kids who appeared on the show. We had many more passes than we needed; and just before they expired, I gave them away to my co-workers. I gave some to people in other departments. However, the people in my office received the most! Because we sat near each other and had developed relationships, these co-workers benefited the most from the bounty! I wasn’t a manager, but I controlled a valuable resource! That’s how spatial relationships work! 8

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The Moral of the Story You might have a job you love but might hate sitting in a cube all day. Your co-worker might drive you nuts because she’s always in your cube gabbing at you. Your co-worker might get a promotion over you because the manager knows who she is because she sits right outside his door. You might never get a bagel because they’re gone by the time you trek across the entire office to get one. Your officemate might invite you to a private box at a basketball game. Spatial relationships matter! 9

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Another Group Process: Feedback 10 This is Carla. She’s a news producer at a broadcast TV affiliate in Indianapolis. She’s excellent at her job; she always meets deadlines, & she’s very well respected. One reason she’s respected is that she gives great feedback. She always points out the things that her team members do well, but she’s also good at addressing the things that others could do to improve in polite, professional, & encouraging ways!

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Feedback Shmeedback You might not think that feedback is important, but I ask you to reconsider. Feedback is the response that listeners/observers give to others about their performances. If we learn from feedback, we’re able to improve ourselves so that we can achieve our goals (e.g. earning a promotion)! 11

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Carla’s team values her feedback. Why? 12

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Carla also knows a few other important factors. There’s more to delivering feedback than having an awesome personality & reputation. The message characteristics are important too. Content (type of information) Timing (The feedback needs to occur ASAP!) Channel (f2f, written, etc.) Message Valence (whether the feedback is positive or negative) Read more about these factors on pp. 102-103! 13

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What are your personal qualities? The more self-esteem you have, the easier it will be to accept negative feedback. What is your mind-set? If a customer just upset you, you might not be able to accept negative feedback right now. How tough are you? It’s pretty easy to accept a compliment, but it’s not so easy to take constructive criticism. 14 Be confident in yourself & read more on p. 103!

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Giving Feedback If you’ve been in a leadership role, you know it’s just as hard to give feedback as it is to accept feedback. There is a fantastic table with recommendations for giving feedback on p. 105. Table 10.3 will not only help you become a better leader, but it will help you understand feedback when others offer it to you! 15

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My way or the highway, baby! Another group process is influence. Let’s say that you want to go to Hot Doug’s, but your 3 roommates would rather stay in & order Girodano’s. Let’s also say that your roommates concede, & the 4 of you traipse on over to Hot Doug’s for rattlesnake sausages. You won! Why? How? You were outnumbered! 16

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There are a few theories & models that might help us understand this scenario. Social Comparison Theory 17 Persuasive Argument Theory Distributed Valance Model Group Valance Model

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Social Comparison Theory Which one is which? Group members guess where others might stand on an issue & then choose their initial positions based on these assumptions. When the group meets, members reveal their positions, & group members compare these positions. Some group members may change their positions during this stage. 18

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Persuasive Argument Theory Which one is which? 19 Group members bring ideas to a meeting and assume that one of these ideas will be chosen. However, these ideas inspire a new novel idea. Group members change their initial positions and adopt the novel idea!

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Distributed Valance Model Which one is which? Group members end up choosing the idea or position that elicits the most positive & the least negative comments from the largest subgroup during discussion. Majority rules! 20

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Group Valance Model Which one is which? 21 Group members end up choosing the idea or position that elicits the most positive & the least negative comments from the whole group during discussion.

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Well, which one is it? You’re going to have to decide for yourself. How do you think you’d be able to persuade your roommates to go to the restaurant of your choice when everyone else wants to go somewhere else? What theory or model would come into play? The ability to persuade is a valuable skill! It’s not necessarily about manipulation. It’s about getting things done! Just keep thinking! 22

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It’s good advice in school & in the rest of your life too! 23 Have a good week!

Summary: ORGC 316 Hirokawa Part IV - Sherri Ter Molen

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