Part-II-Solutions-and-Policy

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Source: World Resources Institute, http://earthtrends.wri.org/images/GHG_emissions_by_sector2.jpg -Globally, most emissions come in the form of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, primarily from human activity. CO2 emissions from land use changes such as deforestation, decay of biomass, or wildfires also account for a high percentage of global greenhouse gas emissions. - Methane, or CH4, is the third highest greenhouse gas emission and this comes from both human-related and natural sources. Human-related activities include fossil fuel production, livestock and manure management, rice cultivation, biomass burning, and waste management. These activities release significant quantities of methane to the atmosphere. It is estimated that more than 50 percent of global methane emissions are related to human-related activities (U.S. EPA). Natural sources of methane include wetlands, gas hydrates, permafrost, termites, oceans, freshwater bodies, non-wetland soils, and other sources such as wildfires. (EPA, Sources and Emissions, http://www.epa.gov/outreach/sources.html). -Nitrous Oxide, or N2O, is also a greenhouse gas that is produced by both natural and human-related sources. Some human-related sources of N2O are agricultural soil management, animal manure management, sewage treatment, and combustion of fossil fuel. It is produced naturally from a wide variety of biological sources in soil and water, particularly microbial action in wet tropical forests (EPA, Sources and Emissions, http://www.epa.gov/nitrousoxide/sources.html). -F gases, or fluorocarbons, include the manmade, ozone depleting gases HFC’s, CFC’s, and HCFC’s and are banned or regulated by the Montreal Protocol and the Kyoto Protocol. The major applications that use F-gases are refrigeration, air conditioning, foam blowing agents, aerosols, fire protection and solvents.

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Source: IEA: http://www.iea.org/stats/pdf_graphs/29TPESPI.pdf

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Source: Greenpeace Energy [R]evolution report

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Source: Hansen, James, et al. Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?

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Source: Hansen, James, et al. Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?

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Source: IPCC

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Source: Greenpeace Energy [R]evolution report

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Source: Greenpeace Energy [R]evolution report

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Source: Greenpeace Energy [R]evolution report

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Source: Price Of Oil at http://priceofoil.org/fossil-fuel-subsidies/

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Source: IPCC -By 2008, renewable energy was 12.9% of global energy supply -In 2008 and 2009, investment in renewables was higher than investment in fossil fuels -And over 97% of global renewable potential is still untapped

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Source: Greenpeace Energy [R]evolution <reveal nuclear, coal, oil, gas segments> By 2050, we will no longer need any dirty, deadly nuclear energy, and we will have phased out coal almost completely. Our oil and natural gas consumption will be slashed. <reveal all renewable energy segments> To provide our energy needs – and keep in mind this is not only for electricity, but also for heating/cooling and transport – we will instead use a host of renewable energies... <reveal efficiency segment>... and we will use our energy in smarter, more efficient ways than we do today. The amount of saved energy via efficiency measures here is compared with the IEA (International Energy Agency) BAU (Business As Usual) scenario, which projects large growth rates. However, with an Energy [R]evolution, global energy demand can be stabilized on today's levels – even with a continued growth of energy demand in developing countries. ==== Source: Energy [R]evolution Figure 6.11, page 72 Note on limits: All of these technologies could be expanded to significantly greater capacity than shown here before reach absolute physical limits – unlike oil and coal which will simply run out one day. The amounts shown in this Energy [R]evolution scenario are determined based on considerations for cost, sustainability, and energy distribution, using currently available technologies. Important note on ‘energy’ versus ‘electricity’: This is the total energy demand – not only electricity. It also includes energy demand for heat and transport. For the ‘electricity demand’ graph on its own, see figure 6.6, page 68 of the Energy Revolution report.

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Source: International Energy Agency

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Source: Center for American Progress: http://thinkprogress.org/romm/2009/03/30/203888/global-warming-economics-low-cost-high-benefit

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Source: Center for American Progress: http://thinkprogress.org/romm/2009/03/30/203888/global-warming-economics-low-cost-high-benefit

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Source: IPCC

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Source: Economics of 350: http://www.e3network.org/papers/Economics_of_350.pdf

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Source: Greenpeace Energy [R]evolution report

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Photo from 350 flickr account

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-Big Oil and Big Coal will become a thing of the past as we turn towards renewable energy, which is why they’re spending billions to stop the Energy Revolution -In recent years, we have seen an exponential increase in fossil fuel industries funding smear campaigns against politicians who support renewable energy. Also, many climate denialist authors, scientists, and organizations get a great deal of funding from Big Oil and Big Coal companies. For example: -Coal and oil lobby groups have spent $69.5 million on television ads specifically targeted against Obama clean energy policies in the mid-term elections (Center for American Progress Action Fund) -ExxonMobil gave over $1.2 million to climate denial organizations in 2009 (Greenpeace).

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Source: World Bank

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We know climate change is a huge problem. So how can we get to work solving it?

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Know the problem: where do our emissions come from? Know the solutions: What do we need to do, and what solutions exist? But won’t it be hard to make the transition? Know what you can do: how can we all drive the transition? Overview

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1. Know the problem: Where do our emissions come from?

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Our emissions come from… *Global emissions

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Our energy comes from…

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Some emissions come from deforestation, industrial agriculture, and other forms of land use change

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But over 80% of our energy comes from fossil fuels

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Fossil fuels that not only are warming our planet, but also Polluting our air, waterways and land Impacting our health with toxic spills and air pollution

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It doesn’t have to be that way “The stone age did not end for lack of stone, and the oil age will end long before the world runs out of oil.” Sheikh Zaki Yamani, Former Saudi Arabian Oil Minister

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2. So what do we need to do, and what solutions exist?

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Looking at the big picture, the three main things we need to do are: Stop coal use by 2030 Dramatically reduce the use of all other fossil fuels Improve agricultural and forestry practices

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This is what it would take to get to 350ppm by the end of this century Phaseout of coal by 2030 Improved forestry and soil Reduced oil/gas use year ppm (parts per million)

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That sounds tough – how do we move past fossil fuels and improve the way we live?

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It means putting up wind turbines instead of coal plants

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It means putting up wind turbines instead of coal plants Did you know that wind power is already cost competitive with new coal power plants in good wind locations?

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It means solar photovoltaic power on our homes, schools, and more

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It means solar photovoltaic power on our houses Did you know that solar photovoltaic will reach provide as much electricity as fossil fuels in many developed countries in the next 3 years?

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It means cutting energy use and living more efficiently

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It means planting trees instead of clear-cutting rainforests

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It means eating more local foods and less meat

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It means better urban planning

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It means better urban planning Such as… Higher density living Public transportation Bicycle paths High-speed rail Community gardens

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It means fuel efficiency, hybrids, and electric cars

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A grid that stores power when renewables like wind and solar are at their peak A grid that allows you to track your own energy usage and cut costs It means solutions like a smart grid... Offices with Solar Panels Wind Farm Industrial Plant Houses with Solar Panels Isolated Microgrid Central Power Plant

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It does not mean… Nuclear Unsustainable biofuels “Clean coal”

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It does mean ending taxpayer handouts to coal, oil and gas corporations Globally, the fossil fuel industry received approximately $600 billion in subsidies a year Meanwhile, renewables received less than $46 billion

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and implementing a thousand more solutions

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This isn’t futuristic; All of these technologies are available now

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According to a new report (and many like it), we already have the technology we need to move past fossil fuels Efficiency compared to ‘BAU’ Ocean Energy Solar Thermal Geothermal Biomass Wind Hydro Natural Gas Oil Coal Nuclear Advanced Energy [R]evolution Scenario 2010 from Greenpeace

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3. But won’t it be hard to make the transition? (no!)

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$45 Trillion A Clean Energy Revolution Costs Real Money… …spread out over 40 years

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$1 billion a day = $365 billion a year

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(Or the same amount we currently spend per day on foreign oil)

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And every year we delay ambitious action costs billions $500 billion more with every year’s delay

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A clean energy revolution to get to 350ppm, in the end, will cost far less than the costs of climate impacts like floods, droughts, and extreme weather.

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A Clean Energy Revolution has a lot of other benefits as well - it will create millions of new jobs E[R] Without E[R] Renewables Conventional Power Plants employment in 2030 Source: Energy [R]evolution, p69-70

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Moving beyond fossil fuels will make our communities healthier

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And protect the planet for future generations

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It’s true, there will be losers… Big Oil and Big Coal will become a thing of the past

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4. So how can we all be part of the solution?

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Educate our communities Organize for solutions locally Pressure our governments for better policies

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DISCUSS: What solutions exist (or could exist) in our community?

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So we understand the problem. We know that we have the solutions to solve it.

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So, why aren’t we doing enough to stop the biggest problem facing humanity?

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Who is most responsible? What is a fair response to climate change? What are we already doing? How can we work together to solve the crisis? Overview

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1. Who is most responsible for climate change?

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Answer: Rich countries, especially the U.S.

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Rich countries emit far more CO2 total, and per capita than poor countries Territory size shows the proportion of carbon dioxide emissions in 2000 that were directly from there.

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Injustice So far, rich countries have emitted by far the most, while experiencing the least impacts from climate change.

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However, developing countries’ emissions are growing rapidly and are projected to keep growing

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There are two options for poor countries: Follow the dirty development path of rich countries, and put their citizens at risk of dangerous climate change OR 2. Invest in a clean energy economy, creating jobs in new industries and averting the worst impacts of climate change

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2. What is a fair response to climate change? Given rich countries’ historic responsibility for climate change, and poor countries’ need to solve poverty, how can we solve the climate crisis?

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A fair response to climate change must… Bind rich countries to ambitious and deep cuts in their emissions Provide financial support for the poor to adapt to climate change and reduce emissions Safeguard the right to (just & sustainable) development

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How much should countries be aiming to reduce emissions by? • Technically, in a world above 350ppm, we must reduce emissions to zero as quickly as possible to avert the worst impacts • AOSIS, the Alliance of Small Island States currently calls for the most ambitious targets for rich countries: • 45% by 2020 • 95% by 2050

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What have the biggest emitters committed to? U.S. 17% below 2005 levels by 2020 83% below 2005 levels by 2050 China 40-45% below 2005 intensity levels by 2020 Emissions parallel China’s GDP

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Many developing countries are taking far more ambitious steps (even though they didn’t cause the problem)

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Countries committed to carbon neutrality: • Bhutan • Costa Rica • Ethiopia • Maldives • Niue • Papua New Guinea • Samoa These countries are showing incredible leadership – but they aren’t the biggest emitters.

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“After all, it is not carbon we want but development, it is not coal we want but electricity, it is not oil we want but transport.” - President Nasheed of the Maldives

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Unfortunately, developed countries’ pledges don’t reflect the same attitude:

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We’ve seen what we need to do. We’ve seen what we’re actually doing.

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“In the end, cutting emissions isn’t about who does the most, but whether the total efforts are enough to avoid devastating levels of global warming – we will either sink or swim together. The pledges currently on the table mean we are sinking.” -Al Gore

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3. How can we work together to solve the problem?

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1992: UNFCCC, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was created at the Rio Earth Summit Rio

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An institution to develop an international, equitable solution to climate change: Climate negotiations founding text: “The Parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.”

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A legally binding treaty, Kyoto Protocol was passed in 1997; US only developed country to not sign on Ratified Treaty Didn’t Ratify Signed, Ratification Pending No Position

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Each year there is a two-week Conference of the Parties (COP) to discuss the Kyoto Protocol and negotiate the next treaty COP 12 Montreal, Canada 2005

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Climate negotiations timeline 1992: Rio Earth Summit established UNFCCC 1995: First annual UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP) 1997: Kyoto Protocol signed at COP-3 2005: Kyoto Protocol takes effect after Russia’s ratification 2007: COP-13 produces the Bali Roadmap for what should happen at the end of the Kyoto Protocol’s first commitment period 2009: COP-15 fails to fulfill the Bali Roadmap; results in Copenhagen Accord 2010-2011: Negotiations continue without major shifts or progress 2012: First commitment period of Kyoto Protocol to end

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The COP in 2009 in Copenhagen was important because governments were supposed to agree to new terms for a treaty once the first round of the Kyoto Protocol ended in 2012

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117 of the most vulnerable island and African nations were calling for a 350ppm treaty in Copenhagen, saying it is 'necessary for their survival’,

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…yet they were not the 117 that have the power. The biggest, most powerful emitters were not ready to really take action.

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The single biggest problem country is the US, which is the largest cumulative emitter in the world

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Other key “blocking” countries include: - Russia - Canada - Saudi Arabia & other OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)

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Instead of a new treaty, we got the “Copenhagen Accord” – a political document with no binding goals

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Why can’t we agree? • Fossil fuel companies have too much power and influence • U.S. has the most responsibility to act, but little political will to do so • Major developing economies like China and India are reluctant to commit to binding targets

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4. What are some possible solutions?

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We must: • Fight for ambitious climate action at all scales of government Stop the influence of fossil fuel corporations in government • Continue to fight for a binding global treaty

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and be part of a growing global climate movement

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More information IPCC EPA UNEP Oxfam International Climate Progress Environmental Law Institute International Energy Agency U.S. Department of Energy UNFCCC Greenpeace Energy Revolution Report Institute for Climate and Sustainable Cities Price of Oil Center for American Progress World Energy Outlook

Tags: 350ppm climate change global warming

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