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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-2 Organizational analysis- concerned with identifying and developing an organization’s resources and competencies

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-3 Core and Distinctive Competencies Resources- an organization’s assets Tangible Intangible Capabilities- a corporation’s ability to exploit its resources

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-4 Core and Distinctive Competencies Competency- a cross-functional integration and coordination of capabilities Core competency- a collection of competencies that cross divisional boundaries, is wide-spread throughout the corporation and is something the corporation does exceedingly well Distinctive competency- core competencies that are superior to those of the competition

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-5 Core and Distinctive Competencies VRIO framework (Barney) Value Rare Imitability Organization

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-6 Using Resources to Gain Competitive Advantage Identify and classify resources in terms of strengths and weaknesses Combine the firm’s strengths into specific capabilities and core competencies Appraise profit potential- Are there any distinctive competencies? Select the strategy that best exploits the firm’s capabilities and competencies relative to external opportunities Identify resource gaps and invest in upgrading weaknesses

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-7 Access to a Distinctive Competency Asset endowment Acquired from someone else Shared with another business Built and accumulated within the company

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-8 Access to a Distinctive Competency Clusters- geographic concentrations of interconnected companies and industries Access to: Employees Suppliers Information Complementary products

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-9 Imitability an Advantage Durability- the rate at which a firm’s underlying resources, capabilities, or core competencies depreciate or become obsolete Imitability- the rate at which a firm’s underlying resources, capabilities, or core competencies can be duplicated by others

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-10 Determining the Sustainability of an Advantage Transparency- the speed at which other firms under the relationship of resources and capabilities support a successful strategy Transferability- the ability of competitors to gather the resources and capabilities necessary to support a competitive challenge Replicability- the ability of competitors to use duplicated resources and capabilities to imitate the other firm’s success

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-11 Determining the Sustainability of an Advantage Explicit knowledge- knowledge that can be easily articulated and communicated Tacit knowledge- knowledge that is not easily communicated because it is deeply rooted in employee experience or in the company’s culture

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-13 Business models- a company’s method for making money in the current business environment Includes Who the company serves What the company provides How the company makes money How the company differentiates and sustains competitive advantage How the company provides its product/service

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-14 Business models Customer solutions model Profit pyramid model Multi-component system/installed model Advertising model Switchboard model

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-15 Business models (cont’d) Efficiency model Blockbuster model Profit multiplier model Entrepreneurial model De Facto industry standard model

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-16 Value chain- a linked set of value creating activities that begin with basic raw materials coming from suppliers, moving on to a series of value-added activities involved in producing and marking a product or service, and ending with distributors getting the final goods into the hands of the ultimate consumer

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-17 Industry Value Chain Analysis Value chain segments include: Upstream Downstream Center of gravity- the part of the chain that is most important to the company and the point where its core competencies lie Vertical integration

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-18 Corporate Value Chain Analysis Primary activities Inbound logistics Operations Outbound logistics Support activities Procurement Technology development Human resource management Firm infrastructure

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-20 Corporate Value Chain Analysis Examine each product line’s value chain in terms of the various activities involved in producing the product or service Examine the linkages within each product line’s value chain Examine the potential synergies among the value chains of different product lines or business units

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-21 Basic Organizational Structures Simple Functional Divisional Strategic Business Units Conglomerate

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-23 Corporate Culture: The Company Way Corporate culture- the collection of beliefs, expectations and values learned and shared by a corporation’s members and transmitted from one generation of employees to another.

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-24 Functions of Corporate Culture Conveys a sense of identity for employees Generates employee commitment Adds to the stability of the organization as a social system Serves as a frame of reference for employees to understand organizational activities and as a guide for behavior

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-25 Corporate Culture: The Company Way Cultural intensity- the degree of which members of a unit accept the norms, values and other cultural content associated with the unit Shows the depth of the culture Cultural integration- the extent of which units throughout the organization share a common culture Shows the breadth of the culture

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-26 Strategic Marketing Issues Market position- Who are our customers? Marketing Mix- the particular combination of key variables under a corporation’s control that can be used to affect demand and to gain competitive advantage

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-28 Product life cycle- product monetary sales over time from introduction through growth and maturity to decline

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-29 Brand- a name given to a company’s product which identifies that item in the mind of the consumer Corporate brand- a type of brand in which the company’s name serves as the brand

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-30 Corporate reputation- a widely held perception of a company by the general public Stakeholders’ perceptions of quality Corporation’s prominence in the minds of stakeholders

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-31 Strategic Financial Issues Financial leverage- ratio of total debt to total assets Used to describe how debt is used to increase earnings available to common shareholders Capital budgeting- the analyzing and ranking of possible investments in fixed assets in terms of additional outlays and receipts that will result from each investment Hurdle point

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-32 Strategic Research and Development Issues R & D intensity- pending no R & D as a percentage of sales revenue Technology competence- the development and use of innovative technology Technology transfer- the process of taking new technology from the laboratory to the marketplace

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-33 Strategic Research and Development Issues R & D Mix- the mix of: Basic R & D- focuses on theoretical problems Product R & D- concentrates on marketing and is concerned with product or product packaging improvements Engineering R & D is concerned with engineering, concentrating on quality control, and the development of design specifications and improved production equipment

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-34 Strategic Research and Development Issues Technology discontinuity- when a new technology cannot be used to enhance current technology, but substitutes for the technology to yield better performance Moore’s Law

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-36 Strategic Operations Issues Intermittent Systems- item is normally processed sequentially, but the work and sequence of the process vary Continuous systems- work is laid out in lines on which products can be continuously assembled or processed Operating leverage- impact of a specific change in sales volume on net operation income

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-37 Strategic Operations Issues Experience curve- unit production costs decline by some fixed percentage each time the total accumulated volume of production units doubles

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-38 Strategic Operations Issues Flexible Manufacturing for Mass Customization Computer Assisted Design Computer Assisted Manufacturing Economies of Scale

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-39 Strategic Human Resource Issues Teams Autonomous (self-managed)- a group of people working together without a supervisor to plan, coordinate and evaluate their work Cross-functional work teams- various disciplines are involved in a project from the beginning Concurrent engineering- specialists work side-by-side and compare notes constantly to design cost-effective products with features customers want

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-40 Strategic Human Resource Issues Virtual Teams- groups of geographically or organizationally dispersed coworkers that are assembled using a combination of telecommunications and information technologies to accomplish organizational tasks- driven by 5 trends

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-41 Strategic Human Resource Issues Flatter organizational structures Turbulent environments Increased employee autonomy Higher knowledge requirements Increased globalization Increased employee decision making

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-42 Strategic Human Resource Issues Quality of work life- includes improvements in: Introducing participative problem solving Restructuring work Introducing innovative reward systems Improving the work environment

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-43 Strategic Human Resource Issues Human diversity- the mix in the workplace of people from different races, cultures and backgrounds Provides a sustainable competitive advantage

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-44 Strategic Information Systems/Technology Issues Information systems/technology contributions to performance: Automation of back office processes Automation of individual tasks Enhancement of key business functions Development of a competitive advantage

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-45 Strategic Information Systems/Technology Issues Current trends in Information systems/technology Internet include: Intranet Extranet Web 2.0

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-46 Strategic Information Systems/Technology Issues Supply chain management- networks for sourcing raw materials, manufacturing products or creating services, storing, and distributing goods, and delivering them to customers and consumers

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-48 What is the relevance of the resource-based view of the firm to strategic management in a global environment? How can value chain analysis help indentify a company’s strengths and weaknesses? In what ways can a corporation’s structure and culture be internal strengths and weaknesses? What are the pros and cons of management using the experience curve to determine strategy? How might a firm’s management decide whether it should continue to invest in current known technology or in new, but untested technology? What factors might encourage or discourage such a shift?

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Prentice Hall, Inc. ©2012 5-49 PowerPoint created by: Ronald Heimler Dowling College- MBA Georgetown University- BS Business Administration Adjunct Professor- LIM College, NY Adjunct Professor- Long Island University, NY Lecturer- California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA President- Walter Heimler, Inc.

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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

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