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Slide 153

Site 1  Vernal PoolTues. March 29 Buckthorn bud           length ¼ inch                        width 0.2 cmSensitive fernsThurs 3/31ground temperature      46 degreesDepth                   7cmPool temp               37.2Depth                   7cm    Buckthorn bud .3cmChickadeesThurs 4/7Ground temp 47Depth 6 ½ cmVernal pool 32.7Depth 9 cmGround water 50.3Depth 6 ½ cmTues 4/18Cloudy day, light rainPool Temp 44.725 spotted salamander egg sacks2 redback salamanders4 clusters of 5-15 spermophoresincreased number of sedges5/3Fiddlehead ferns curled upCanada MayflowersExpansion of sedges

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Working hard to spread the word…friends don’t let friends contaminate!!!

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(XXIV) Joshua Converse, son of Zebulon Converse (23), was born in Rindge, New Hampshire, April 23, 1781. He was a farmer in his native town and a successful manufacturer of lumber and woodenware. He was frequently elected to public office. He was a representative in the state legislature of New Hampshire in1840 and 1841, a member of the state constitutional convention in 1850, and for seventeen years a selectman, a longer period that that of any other man in this office. His sons Zebulon and Omar D. were associated with him in the business during his later years. With generous foresight he engaged in several enterprises from which he neither hoped nor expected remunerative returns. One was a system of flowage, secured through his efforts and influence, and the capacious reservoirs for which were built largely at his expense. He helped other public improvements that affected the material interests of the whole town. He bought the mills at Converseville and started there in 1845.

Slide 198

"Betula Populifolia Gray Birch." Nov. 1993. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <http://hort.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/tree_fact_sheets/betpopa.pdf>.Brand, Mike. "Betula Populifolia." Untitled Document. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <http://www.hort.uconn.edu/plants/b/betpop/betpop1.html>.Seiler, John R. "Betula Populifolia Fact Sheet." College of Natural Resources and Environment | Virginia Tech. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=16>.

Slide 1

Welcome to the eTour of Campus Lands! At any time, click “Go to Master Map” to begin. Tips: Navigate through this project like an interactive website (it’s not a video). Move your cursor over underlined text or symbols to find the “hand tool” and navigate away! Keep in mind the organization shown below – all slides include “Back to Master Map” links and most include links to other topics that organize the site. Tip for finding information again: If you want to find your place again in the future, move your cursor to the bottom of the screen (try it now if you like) – it will show the slide number . . . keep track of the number for future use. Go to Master Map This project is a joint effort of the Environmental Science Department and the Monadnock Institute of Nature, Place and Culture. Click here for more about the eTour

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Topics to Explore Examples of Welcome to the Master Map for the eTour of Campus Lands! Click on one of the topic links to the right to explore. Trails on Topo Map Mountain Road University Drive “Bubble” DeGregorio Building About this Project Trail Maps Land History and Ecology Wildlife Sightings and More Class Projects Research Sites Natural Resources Trails on Aerial Photo Regional Projects Archaeology Public History Adventure Recreation Rindge Sites Sustainability at FP (Back to Site Map) This project is a joint effort of the Environmental Science Department and the Monadnock Institute of Nature, Place and Culture.

Slide 3

Sustainability at Franklin Pierce Click on one of the topic links or on one of the green circles on the campus map for more information. Mountain Road University Drive “Bubble” DeGregorio Building (Back to Master Map) Sustainability Center Sustainability Events Sustainability Efforts Eco-landscaping Projects Land conservation at FPU Rindge Wind Power

Slide 4

Public History in the Monadnock Region The Monadnock Region Pisgah State Park Hurricane of 1938 Rail Travel Textile Mills (Back to Master Map)

Slide 5

Documentary Films on the Monadnock Region: History and Environment Next Slide (Back to Public History Map) (Back to Master Map)

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Reflections: An Oral History of the Monadnock Region, 2007-09 5 films Total Hurricane 1938 Rail Travel Pisgah State Park County Complex Textile Mills Previous Slide Documentary Films on the Monadnock Region: History and Environment (Back to Public History Map) (Back to Master Map)

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Documentary Films on the Monadnock Region: History and Environment The Reflections Process Community Place Student research Production Team Public outcomes Community connections (Back to Public History Map) (Back to Master Map)

Slide 8

Documentary Films on the Monadnock Region: History and Environment Hurricane of 1938 Depression era America Climate/Weather Trauma & Community Memory Environmental impact Landscape Next Slide (Back to Public History Map) (Back to Master Map)

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Documentary Films on the Monadnock Region: History and Environment Previous Slide (Back to Public History Map) (Back to Master Map)

Slide 10

Documentary Films on the Monadnock Region: History and Environment Pisgah State Park Native/Settler History Logging/Lumber Community Conservation Film Project Friends of Pisgah Contested Site Next Slide (Back to Public History Map) (Back to Master Map)

Slide 11

Documentary Films on the Monadnock Region: History and Environment Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Public History Map) (Back to Master Map)

Slide 12

Documentary Films on the Monadnock Region: History and Environment Previous Slide (Back to Public History Map) (Back to Master Map) Next Slide

Slide 13

Documentary Films on the Monadnock Region: History and Environment Concluding thoughts Community Memory History Place Landscape & Environment Conservation & Historic preservation Documentation Community – a full circle Previous Slide (Back to Public History Map) (Back to Master Map)

Slide 14

Archaeology in the Monadnock Region The Monadnock Region Click on the red circles for information on archaeological sites. (Back to Master Map)

Slide 15

Discovered in 2009, some 12,000 years after it was occupied, over 200 stone tools and fragments of caribou bone marked the locations of four shelters occupied by Paleoindians at the end of the last ice age. Proximal phalangeal fragment of an immature (yearling) caribou Stone tools were made exclusively of cherts and rhyolites from far northern New England, reflecting social networks that extended for hundreds of miles across the northeast. Excavation of a Paleoindian House Floor, Locus 2 Tenant Swamp Site, Keene, New Hampshire (Back to Archaeology Map) (Back to Master Map)

Slide 16

Swanzey Fish Dam Site Fieldwork by Franklin Pierce University students showed this large, V-shaped stone structure on the Ashuelot River was constructed almost 4,000 years ago to harvest anadramous fish, and was used by the native Abenaki up until the 17th century. 4,000 year old stone tools and decorated pottery from the early 17th century were recovered next to the dam Mapping the east wing of the dam, 2010 Swanzey Fish Dam, Artists Rendition (Back to Archaeology Map) (Back to Master Map)

Slide 17

Wantastiquet Mountain Site,Hinsdale, NH Fieldwork in 2004-2005 helped save artifacts that was rapidly eroding into the Connecticut River. Stratified layers of flood soil preserved tools, ceramics, the remains of a hearth, and the bones of timber rattlesnakes, hunted by the sites inhabitants over a period of some 4,000 years. Stone hearth radiocarbon dated to 4,400 years ago Excavations on eroding river bank Stone projectile points Cord-impressed ceramics, c. 1000 AD (Back to Archaeology Map) (Back to Master Map)

Slide 18

Raft Bridge Site, Peterborough, NH The Franklin Pierce 2007 Field School excavated a small encampment at the headwaters of the Nubanusit River overlooking a large wetland. Occupied intermittently over 3,000 years, the site’s inhabitants used an array of wetland resources including beaver and three species of turtle. Stone tools, 1,000-3,000 BC Surveying and Excavation Painted turtle, eastern box turtle, and snapping turtle were all identified from small fragments of burned bone. (Back to Archaeology Map) (Back to Master Map)

Slide 19

Bellows Falls This area along the Connecticut River has a rich historical and archaeological record of 10,000 years of Native history. Spring fish runs at major waterfalls were a focus of the traditional Abenaki economy , but much of the evidence has been destroyed by the mills and industries drawn to the locations hydropower . Petroglyphs, Bellows Falls, Vermont Shovel Test Pit Excavation, Walpole, NH (Back to Archaeology Map) (Back to Master Map)

Slide 20

Fort Hinsdale, Hinsdale, NH Built in 1742 by Col. Ebenezer Hinsdale, the site was a fort during the French and Indian wars, a trading post frequented by Native Americans and run by Hinsdale’s African slave, and an outpost of English colonial power on the northern New England frontier. Testing by Franklin Pierce University collected mid-18th century artifacts confirming that this was the likely location of the fort. Decorated pipe bowls German-made Westerwald ceramics Gunflint Franklin Perce field crew, September 2009 (Back to Archaeology Map) (Back to Master Map)

Slide 21

Outdoor Adventure Recreation Click on one of the red circles, or, explore topics to the right. pre-orientation overview pre-orientation trips downriver kayaking Mountain bike touring backpacking (Back to Master Map)

Slide 22

Multi-Day backcountry trips through southwest New Hampshire and beyond Next Slide (Back to Adventure Recreation Map) (Back to Master Map) Pre-Orientation Wilderness Adventure

Slide 23

A program for new students with goals to: Connect with peers and upperclassmen. Leave behind technology and embrace positive social engagement. Take in the local environment and natural history of the backcountry areas near Franklin Pierce University. Previous Slide (Back to Adventure Recreation Map) (Back to Master Map) Pre-Orientation Wilderness Adventure

Slide 24

Programs: Downriver Kayaking Mountain Bike Touring Backpacking Next Slide (Back to Adventure Recreation Map) (Back to Master Map) Pre-Orientation Wilderness Adventure

Slide 25

Students who engage in this program are more likely to connect with new-found friends, the University and it’s natural surroundings. Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Adventure Recreation Map) (Back to Master Map) Pre-Orientation Wilderness Adventure

Slide 26

Participants can often be found joining on our Adventure Recreation trips to include rock climbing, kayaking, caving, mountain biking, sailing and more. The connections made within this program stay with these students throughout their four years at Franklin Pierce. Many of the trip leaders (who were initially participants) graduate and move on to careers within outdoor programming or environmental science. http://www.franklinpierce.edu/studentlife/powa/index.htm Previous Slide Pre-Orientation Wilderness Adventure (Back to Adventure Recreation Map) (Back to Master Map)

Slide 27

Kayaking Route: Pemigewasset River Woodstock to Bristol (Back to Adventure Recreation Map) (Back to Master Map)

Slide 28

Mountain Biking Route: 60 miles of connected Rail-Trail (Back to Adventure Recreation Map) (Back to Master Map)

Slide 29

Backpacking Route: Monadnock-Sunapee Greenway (Back to Adventure Recreation Map) (Back to Master Map)

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(Back to Master Map)

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(Back to Master Map)

Slide 32

This project is a joint effort of the Environmental Science Department and the Monadnock Institute of Nature, Place and Culture.  The information has been compiled by John Harris, Catherine Koning and Rhine Singleton with additional help from Michelle Comeau, Robert Goodby, Melinda Jette, and Doug Carty. This project has been designed with the help of Neel Patel, Graduate of the Class of 2008. Tom Tullio and Rich Berube provide technical support. We thank the many students who have been involved in helping us learn about the history and ecology of Campus Lands, and the Town of Rindge and Monadnock Region!   Questions, comments, corrections or additional wildlife sightings or other interesting discoveries on campus lands can be sent to any one of us via email:   John Harris, harrisjr@franklinpierce.edu Catherine Koning, koningc@franklinpierce.edu Rhine Singleton, singler@franklinpierce.edu eTour last updated: 3/11/2012 About the eTour of Campus Lands (Back to Master Map) (Back to Site Map)

Slide 33

This map shows the Natural Resources on the Franklin Pierce Rindge Campus. FPU owns 1200 acres, about 1/3 of which is wetland. The property connects two lakes, Pearly Pond and Pool Pond. Franklin Pierce Natural Resources Pearly Pond Pool Pond Wastewater Treatment Facility FPU Natural Communities map Map of Critical Wildlife Habitat, north FPU property Map of Critical Wildlife Habitat, south FPU property Map of Wetlands with Functional Assessments Land Conservation at FPU Plant List Vertebrate List (Back to Master Map)

Slide 34

Franklin Pierce is one of the few colleges or universities in the country that has permanently protected some of its land in a conservation easement (outlined in green below). The college is currently looking into the possibility of protecting more land in permanent easements and designating some of its outdoor classrooms as off limits to development. Land Conservation at FPU Map showing conservation land surrounding FP (Back to Master Map) (Back to Nat. Resources) (Back to Sustainability)

Slide 35

Conservation Land 1: Rindge and Jaffrey Conservation Land 2: Monadnock Region This map shows FPU property (yellow line) and surrounding land that is protected by conservation agreements (in green). An Independent Study by Conservation Biologist David Graham Wolfe that was sponsored by the Rindge Conservation Commission assigned high ecological value to the property south of Rt 119. The Rindge Conservation Commission has recommended that most if not all of that land be protected in a conservation easement. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Land Conservation)

Slide 36

Conservation Land 2: The Monadnock Region Conservation Land 1: Rindge and Jaffrey (Back to Master Map) (Back to Land Conservation)

Slide 37

Franklin Pierce University Natural Communities Northern Half of Map Southern Half of Map (Back to Master Map) (Back to Nat. Res.)

Slide 38

Back to full map Southern Half of Map (Back to Master Map) (Back to Nat. Res.)

Slide 39

Back to full map Northern Half of Map (Back to Master Map) (Back to Nat. Res.)

Slide 40

Based on study by David Graham Wolf, for Rindge Conservation Commission, 2006 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Nat. Resources) Critical Wildlife Habitat North of Rte. 119

Slide 41

Rte 119 FPU property south of Rte. 119 (French Farm) Critical Wildlife Habitat South of Rte. 119 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Nat. Resources)

Slide 42

Wetland Resources A study by Antioch University graduate student Christina Varnold evaluated the functions of 7 wetland areas on the FPU Rindge campus property. Click here for a summary of wetland functions Click here for a link to the full report (Back to Master Map) (Back to Nat. Resources) Coming Soon:

Slide 43

Summary of Wetland Functions This functional assessment was conducted in 2009 by Christina Varnold using theMethod for the Comparative Evaluation of Non-Tidal Wetlands in New Hampshire (Back to Master Map) (Back to Nat. Resources)

Slide 44

FPU Wetland Study Sites In Wetland Ecology, students conduct research at individual wetland sites, collecting data on plants, wildlife, hydrology, soils and water quality. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Nat. Resources)

Slide 45

Red Trail Spruce-Fir Swamp Site 20 By Jerry Breault 2007 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Nat. Resources)

Slide 46

Class Projects, page 1 Click any of the colored points on the map, or on the corresponding links to the right to learn more. Beech Bark Disease Lab Forest Ecology Chestnut Lab Permanent Plot to Monitor Forest Health Ecology Goldenrod Lab Ecology Salamander Lab Ecology Sugar Maple Leaf Cutter Lab Forest Ecology Succession Lab Forest Ecology Land Use History Lab Additional Topics >> ES210 Phenology Study Sites (Back to Master Map)

Slide 47

<< Previous Water Quality Lab Wetland Ecology Projects ES101 Lichen Lab Env. Impact Assessment Class Projects, page 2 Click any of the colored points on the map, or on the corresponding links to the right to learn more. (Back to Master Map)

Slide 48

Site for BI218 Ecology Beech Bark Disease lab. Every Fall Semester students sample the Beech trees in this forest in order to determine the overall infection rate and what factors might influence why some trees are more heavily infected than others. BI218 Ecology Beech Bark Disease Lab More >> Beech Bark Disease Lab Forest Ecology Chestnut Lab Permanent Plot to Monitor Forest Health Ecology Goldenrod Lab Ecology Salamander Lab Ecology Sugar Maple Leaf Cutter Lab Forest Ecology Succession Lab Forest Ecology Land Use History Lab Additional Topics >> (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 1)

Slide 49

BI218 Ecology Beech Bark Disease Lab << Previous In the fall of 2007, students used sampling grids placed on the bark of beech trees to quantify evidence of beech bark disease. In this study, the percent of cells in the sampling grids showing evidence of disease decreased with distance from two heavily infected beech trees. Regression analysis indicated that this relationship is statistically significant (p=0.00018, R2=0.28). (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 1)

Slide 50

BI218 Ecology Goldenrod Lab Believe it or not, there are at least four species of goldenrod in this meadow near the water-tower. This site is used for a lab that focuses on identifying goldenrod species and using the scientific method to investigate how these plants are distributed throughout the meadow. Beech Bark Disease Lab Forest Ecology Chestnut Lab Permanent Plot to Monitor Forest Health Ecology Goldenrod Lab Ecology Salamander Lab Ecology Sugar Maple Leaf Cutter Lab Forest Ecology Succession Lab Forest Ecology Land Use History Lab Additional Topics >> (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 1)

Slide 51

BI218 Ecology Salamander Lab In this lab, students compare tail shape in the Red-spotted Newt (shown below) and the Red-backed Salamander as adaptations to aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Beech Bark Disease Lab Forest Ecology Chestnut Lab Permanent Plot to Monitor Forest Health Ecology Goldenrod Lab Ecology Salamander Lab Ecology Sugar Maple Leaf Cutter Lab Forest Ecology Succession Lab Forest Ecology Land Use History Lab Additional Topics >> More >> (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 1)

Slide 52

BI218 Ecology Salamander Lab << Previous (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 1)

Slide 53

BI218 Ecology Sugar Maple Leaf Cutter Lab The caterpillars of Sugar Maple Leaf Cutters create shelter from predators by hiding under discs that they cut out of Sugar Maple Leaves. Students in BI218 have been collecting data to determine whether certain parts of the canopy are more prone to feeding damage by this caterpillar. Exit Beech Bark Disease Lab Forest Ecology Chestnut Lab Permanent Plot to Monitor Forest Health Ecology Goldenrod Lab Ecology Salamander Lab Ecology Sugar Maple Leaf Cutter Lab Forest Ecology Succession Lab Forest Ecology Land Use History Lab Additional Topics >> (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 1)

Slide 54

Permanent Plot to Monitor Forest Health (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 1) More >> In the fall of 2000, students in BI/ES430 Forest Ecology setup a permanent forest plot. All trees over 2m tall within a 30m x 60m plot were marked with metal tags, identified and measured (diameter at 1.3m above the ground). This plot is visited every two years to keep track of tree growth, mortality, and any tree saplings that have become large enough to be added to the study. Over time, this plot will help us to understand the health of the forest on Franklin Pierce property as climate changes and the presence of new tree diseases reach the area. The next slide shows the thirteen tree species present in the plot and how abundant they are at this field site. "Permanently“ tagged red spruce tree Beech Bark Disease Lab Forest Ecology Chestnut Lab Permanent Plot to Monitor Forest Health Ecology Goldenrod Lab Ecology Salamander Lab Ecology Sugar Maple Leaf Cutter Lab Forest Ecology Succession Lab Forest Ecology Land Use History Lab Additional Topics >>

Slide 55

(Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 1) Permanent Plot to Monitor Forest Health << Previous This permanent plot includes many of the more common species on the Franklin Pierce Campus.

Slide 56

Site for BI430 Forest Ecology Chestnut lab. On this hillside several dozen American Chestnut saplings are permanently tagged. Every two years students from the class Forest Ecology collect data on the progression of the Chestnut Blight. One goal of this study is to determine what environmental parameters may be influencing how large these sapling get before they die and new sprouts grow from the existing roots. BI/ES430 Forest Ecology Chestnut Lab Beech Bark Disease Lab Forest Ecology Chestnut Lab Permanent Plot to Monitor Forest Health Ecology Goldenrod Lab Ecology Salamander Lab Ecology Sugar Maple Leaf Cutter Lab Forest Ecology Succession Lab Forest Ecology Land Use History Lab Additional Topics >> (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 1)

Slide 57

Behind the site of the old "Serenity House" are several old-fields that were abandoned from farming at different times during the 20th Century. These sites provide the perfect opportunity for students to investigate how forests change through time as they colonize abandoned fields. BI/ES430 Forest Ecology Succession Lab Beech Bark Disease Lab Forest Ecology Chestnut Lab Permanent Plot to Monitor Forest Health Ecology Goldenrod Lab Ecology Salamander Lab Ecology Sugar Maple Leaf Cutter Lab Forest Ecology Succession Lab Forest Ecology Land Use History Lab Additional Topics >> More >> (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 1)

Slide 58

BI/ES430 Forest Ecology Succession Lab The relationship between tree density and forest age. Tree density was sampled in four 10m x 10m plots per forest site. In these forests, tree density goes down with increasing age, at least until seventy years. Why is density more variable in the ninety year old forest? << Previous (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 1)

Slide 59

BI/ES430 Forest Ecology Land Use History Lab At several locations on campus, stone walls separate sites that were formerly plowed and cultivated for growing crops from sites that were used as pasture, but never plowed. These agricultural practices in the past have different long-term effects on the forests of today in terms of plant composition and diversity. Beech Bark Disease Lab Forest Ecology Chestnut Lab Permanent Plot to Monitor Forest Health Ecology Goldenrod Lab Ecology Salamander Lab Ecology Sugar Maple Leaf Cutter Lab Forest Ecology Succession Lab Forest Ecology Land Use History Lab Additional Topics >> More >> (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 1)

Slide 60

Results of the 2002 Forest Ecology project comparing tree diversity and species composition in two forests with different land-use histories. As is often the case, tree diversity is greater in forests growing on former pastures than in forest growing on formerly cultivated land. Forest in former pasture Shannon diversity index = 1.84 # Tree species = 10 Forest in formerly cultivated site Shannon diversity index = 1.30 # Tree species = 6 << Previous BI/ES430 Forest Ecology Land Use History Lab (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 1)

Slide 61

Lichens are excellent indicators of air quality – if there is too much pollution, particularly sulfur oxides from industry and coal-burning, as well as nitrogen oxides from automobile exhaust, then there may be fewer different types of lichens, as well as a lower diversity of lichens. Students test this hypothesis by comparing lichens growing on trees at two different sites, one near a busy highway, and one in the middle of the Franklin Pierce forest. ES101 Lichen Lab Beech Bark Disease Lab Forest Ecology Chestnut Lab Permanent Plot to Monitor Forest Health Ecology Goldenrod Lab Ecology Salamander Lab Ecology Sugar Maple Leaf Cutter Lab Forest Ecology Succession Lab Forest Ecology Land Use History Lab Additional Topics >> (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 2)

Slide 62

Environmental impact assessment is a process to identify the advantages and disadvantages of a proposed project or idea. All environmental effects - water, soil, wildlife, ecosystems, etc. – as well as human effects the economics and social environment – must be considered. Students conduct research on a real-world project, such as the University’s expansion of its wastewater treatment facility, or a proposal to build residential housing on campus land, etc. Links to past projects: Rindge Wind Power Campus Village Initiative Athletic Field Development ES310 Environmental Impact Assessment Beech Bark Disease Lab Forest Ecology Chestnut Lab Permanent Plot to Monitor Forest Health Ecology Goldenrod Lab Ecology Salamander Lab Ecology Sugar Maple Leaf Cutter Lab Forest Ecology Succession Lab Forest Ecology Land Use History Lab Additional Topics >> (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 2) Coming Soon:

Slide 63

Rindge Wind: Impacts of a 900 kw turbine Go to closer look at potential sites for wind turbine Predicted Wind Speeds in the Town of Rindge Sites studied in class project Click here for a link to the full report FPU Water Tower FPU French Farm Todd Hill Griswold Hill (Back to Master Map) (Back to Envi. Imp. Assessment) (Back to Sustainability) Go to site for other Studies in Rindge Coming Soon:

Slide 64

Potential sites for 900 kw wind turbine Go to Site 2, FPU Water Tower Site 1: FPU French Farm property. Alternative with the most potential benefits, least potential costs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Wind)

Slide 65

Site 2: FPU Water Tower Hill Go to Site 3: Todd Hill Potential sites for 900 kw wind turbine (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Wind)

Slide 66

Site 3: Todd Hill Go to Site 4: Griswold Hill Potential sites for 900 kw wind turbine (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Wind)

Slide 67

Example Impacts Site 4: Griswold Hill Potential sites for 900 kw wind turbine (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Wind)

Slide 68

Rindge Wind Project: Impacts on Air Quality No build: Current state of air quality will remain. All potential turbine sites have an estimated reduction of 292.29 Metric tons of eCO2 for FPU and 99.43 Metric tons of eCO2 for the town of Rindge. This is just an example of the impacts identified by the Environmental Impact Assessment report of the Rindge Wind project. Click here for a link to the full report (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Wind) Coming Soon:

Slide 69

Franklin Pierce has its own wastewater treatment facility, which drains into Pearly Pond. Pearly Pond is a eutrophic (=nutrient-enriched) lake; too many nutrients can create an algae bloom, which eventually depletes the lake of oxygen, resulting in fish kills. Franklin Pierce has made huge efforts to reduce nutrient inputs. In the water quality lab, students study the water quality along a stream as it passes by the wastewater treatment facility, through some wetlands, and into the lake. We are always happy to see that the water quality is excellent before it gets to the lake! ES101 Water Quality Beech Bark Disease Lab Forest Ecology Chestnut Lab Permanent Plot to Monitor Forest Health Ecology Goldenrod Lab Ecology Salamander Lab Ecology Sugar Maple Leaf Cutter Lab Forest Ecology Succession Lab Forest Ecology Land Use History Lab Next >> (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 2)

Slide 70

In wetland ecology, each student studies a different wetland area on campus land – there are lots of wetlands to choose from! They collect data on plants, wildlife, soils, chemistry and hydrology, and write a report on the functions and values of the different natural communities. ES320 Wetland Ecology Beech Bark Disease Lab Forest Ecology Chestnut Lab Permanent Plot to Monitor Forest Health Ecology Goldenrod Lab Ecology Salamander Lab Ecology Sugar Maple Leaf Cutter Lab Forest Ecology Succession Lab Forest Ecology Land Use History Lab Additional Topics >> (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects 2)

Slide 71

Land History and Ecology Place Trail Red Trail Blue Trail The White House Instructions: Click on one of the topic links for further information. (Back to Master Map)

Slide 72

Place Trail Click on a point or description, to view details about particular areas along Franklin Pierce’s Place Trail. Symonds Farm Agricultural Products Apple Orchard Pasture and Field Succession Stone Walls Glacial Erratic Wolf Tree Maple Sugar Bush Forest Succession Barbed Wire and White Pines Slides related to the Place Trail were written by students and later edited by John Harris. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Land History and Ecology)

Slide 73

Symonds Farm Agricultural Products Apple Orchard Pasture and Field Succession Stone Walls Glacial Erratic Wolf Tree Maple Sugar Bush Forest Succession Barbed Wire and White Pines Place Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Place Trail)

Slide 74

Symonds Farm Agricultural Products Apple Orchard Pasture and Field Succession Stone Walls Glacial Erratic Wolf Tree Maple Sugar Bush Forest Succession Barbed Wire and White Pines Place Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Place Trail)

Slide 75

Symonds Farm Agricultural Products Apple Orchard Pasture and Field Succession Stone Walls Glacial Erratic Wolf Tree Maple Sugar Bush Forest Succession Barbed Wire and White Pines Place Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Place Trail)

Slide 76

Symonds Farm Agricultural Products Apple Orchard Pasture and Field Succession Stone Walls Glacial Erratic Wolf Tree Maple Sugar Bush Forest Succession Barbed Wire and White Pines Place Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Place Trail)

Slide 77

Symonds Farm Agricultural Products Apple Orchard Pasture and Field Succession Stone Walls Glacial Erratic Wolf Tree Maple Sugar Bush Forest Succession Barbed Wire and White Pines Place Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Place Trail)

Slide 78

Symonds Farm Agricultural Products Apple Orchard Pasture and Field Succession Stone Walls Glacial Erratic Wolf Tree Maple Sugar Bush Forest Succession Barbed Wire and White Pines Place Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Place Trail)

Slide 79

Symonds Farm Agricultural Products Apple Orchard Pasture and Field Succession Stone Walls Glacial Erratic Wolf Tree Maple Sugar Bush Forest Succession Barbed Wire and White Pines Place Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Place Trail)

Slide 80

Symonds Farm Agricultural Products Apple Orchard Pasture and Field Succession Stone Walls Glacial Erratic Wolf Tree Maple Sugar Bush Forest Succession Barbed Wire and White Pines Place Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Place Trail)

Slide 81

Symonds Farm Agricultural Products Apple Orchard Pasture and Field Succession Stone Walls Glacial Erratic Wolf Tree Maple Sugar Bush Forest Succession Barbed Wire and White Pines Place Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Place Trail)

Slide 82

Symonds Farm Agricultural Products Apple Orchard Pasture and Field Succession Stone Walls Glacial Erratic Wolf Tree Maple Sugar Bush Forest Succession Barbed Wire and White Pines Place Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Place Trail)

Slide 83

Serenity Hill Farm House Ash Tree Glossy Buckthorn A ‘Point’ to Barbed Wire Old Fashioned Bathtub The Ford Model A Sugar Maples New England Water Wells Pillow & Cradle Topography Stone Walls A Study of Stumps The Great Hurricane of 1938 Red Trail Click on a point or description, to view details about particular areas along Franklin Pierce’s Red Trail. Slides related to the Red Trail were written by students and later edited by John Harris. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Land History and Ecology)

Slide 84

Serenity Hill Farm House Ash Tree Glossy Buckthorn A ‘Point’ to Barbed Wire Old Fashioned Bathtub The Ford Model A Sugar Maples New England Water Wells Pillow & Cradle Topography Stone Walls A Study of Stumps The Great Hurricane of 1938 Red Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Red Trail)

Slide 85

Serenity Hill Farm House Ash Tree Glossy Buckthorn A ‘Point’ to Barbed Wire Old Fashioned Bathtub The Ford Model A Sugar Maples New England Water Wells Pillow & Cradle Topography Stone Walls A Study of Stumps The Great Hurricane of 1938 Red Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Red Trail)

Slide 86

Serenity Hill Farm House Ash Tree Glossy Buckthorn A ‘Point’ to Barbed Wire Old Fashioned Bathtub The Ford Model A Sugar Maples New England Water Wells Pillow & Cradle Topography Stone Walls A Study of Stumps The Great Hurricane of 1938 Red Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Red Trail)

Slide 87

Serenity Hill Farm House Ash Tree Glossy Buckthorn A ‘Point’ to Barbed Wire Old Fashioned Bathtub The Ford Model A Sugar Maples New England Water Wells Pillow & Cradle Topography Stone Walls A Study of Stumps The Great Hurricane of 1938 Red Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Red Trail)

Slide 88

Serenity Hill Farm House Ash Tree Glossy Buckthorn A ‘Point’ to Barbed Wire Old Fashioned Bathtub The Ford Model A Sugar Maples New England Water Wells Pillow & Cradle Topography Stone Walls A Study of Stumps The Great Hurricane of 1938 Red Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Red Trail)

Slide 89

Serenity Hill Farm House Ash Tree Glossy Buckthorn A ‘Point’ to Barbed Wire Old Fashioned Bathtub The Ford Model A Sugar Maples New England Water Wells Pillow & Cradle Topography Stone Walls A Study of Stumps The Great Hurricane of 1938 Red Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Red Trail)

Slide 90

Serenity Hill Farm House Ash Tree Glossy Buckthorn A ‘Point’ to Barbed Wire Old Fashioned Bathtub The Ford Model A Sugar Maples New England Water Wells Pillow & Cradle Topography Stone Walls A Study of Stumps The Great Hurricane of 1938 Red Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Red Trail)

Slide 91

Serenity Hill Farm House Ash Tree Glossy Buckthorn A ‘Point’ to Barbed Wire Old Fashioned Bathtub The Ford Model A Sugar Maples New England Water Wells Pillow & Cradle Topography Stone Walls A Study of Stumps The Great Hurricane of 1938 Red Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Red Trail)

Slide 92

Serenity Hill Farm House Ash Tree Glossy Buckthorn A ‘Point’ to Barbed Wire Old Fashioned Bathtub The Ford Model A Sugar Maples New England Water Wells Pillow & Cradle Topography Stone Walls A Study of Stumps The Great Hurricane of 1938 Red Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Red Trail)

Slide 93

Serenity Hill Farm House Ash Tree Glossy Buckthorn A ‘Point’ to Barbed Wire Old Fashioned Bathtub The Ford Model A Sugar Maples New England Water Wells Pillow & Cradle Topography Stone Walls A Study of Stumps The Great Hurricane of 1938 Red Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Red Trail)

Slide 94

Serenity Hill Farm House Ash Tree Glossy Buckthorn A ‘Point’ to Barbed Wire Old Fashioned Bathtub The Ford Model A Sugar Maples New England Water Wells Pillow & Cradle Topography Stone Walls A Study of Stumps The Great Hurricane of 1938 Red Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Red Trail)

Slide 95

Serenity Hill Farm House Ash Tree Glossy Buckthorn A ‘Point’ to Barbed Wire Old Fashioned Bathtub The Ford Model A Sugar Maples New England Water Wells Pillow & Cradle Topography Stone Walls A Study of Stumps The Great Hurricane of 1938 Red Trail Signs (Back to Master Map) (Back to Red Trail)

Slide 96

Stone Walls Stone Walls (2) Tree Stumps Multiple-trunked Trees American Beech Red Oak Click on a point or description, to view details about particular areas along Franklin Pierce’s Red Trail. Information related to the Blue Trail was written by students and later edited by John Harris. Blue Trail (Back to Master Map) (Back to Land History and Ecology)

Slide 97

In 1810 over 600,000 merino sheep were brought to New Hampshire from Portugal. This event caused 80% of New Hampshire's forested land to be cleared and used as either pasture land. Before sheep fever, the walls were usually made of wood fencing, but there was only 20% of forested land left so lumber was scarce. For this reason stone walls were built to enclose pieces of land. These walls were built around pasture land, cultivated land, used for property lines, and were built along roads. The particular wall that I am looking at is located on a piece of land that would most likely not have had any crops growing in it in the early 1800’s. On both sides of this wall the land is on an incline. In the plot of land to the right of the wall there are many large rocks that show that farmers never moved them. I have reason to believe that this land was used for pasture because the land is on a slope, also the land wasn’t cleared of large rocks. A wall with larger stones like the wall above will usually prove to be pasture land. A wall with fist sized stones will normally be surrounding a plot of land that was cultivated at one point. This is because a farmer will pull all the fist sized stones out of his land as he cultivated it and add them to his wall. A farmer could only build about 20-40 feet of wall a day, and they would usually look for an area with an abundance of large rocks already lying in a particular area so they could just build on top of them instead of starting with nothing. In 1840 sheep fever ended, and a good majority of these farms went belly up, however, these walls are still standing today. Stone Walls Stone Walls (2) Tree Stumps Multiple-trunked Trees American Beech Red Oak Blue Trail Information (Back to Master Map) (Back to Blue Trail)

Slide 98

Stonewalls, which were also called “stone fences,” started replacing split rail fencing in the 1800s to expand pastureland. Between 1810 and 1840, a number of stonewalls were constructed (Wessels). Upon a stonewall one can come to many conclusions. However, if there used to be a farm on or near this location there are three reasonable conclusions. First, one could assume pastureland for grazing, second cultivated land for crops, or, finally mowing to produce hay. To decide what the land could have possibly been used for, there are several clues. If the land was used for cultivation, then there would be several small fist size rocks. If the land was used for mowing and/or pastures then the stonewall would have been built with large rocks. When building a stonewall for pastures, the wall has to be about four-and-a-half feet tall with hay and/or wooden rails to add height to keep the animals in. Along with pastures, walls with large rocks are a sign of mowing and the production of hay. The removal of small rocks was not necessary for pastures or mowing (Wessels). Stone Walls Stone Walls (2) Tree Stumps Multiple-trunked Trees American Beech Red Oak Blue Trail Information (Back to Master Map) (Back to Blue Trail)

Slide 99

Tree stumps in a forested landscape usually represent logging or fire has occurred there. In the case of this stump, which was at one point a birch tree, logging is evident by the even cut of the tree. If fire were the factor, then the stump would be charred and staggered, and there could possibly be a basal scar on it. The green sprouts of moss growing on top hint that this birch had been cut quite some time ago. Also there is a dark, black area that looks like charcoal on the outer ring, but this is really a fungus, Ascomycetes,which is a normal part of the decay process. You can tell by the solid ring and rotted center that this tree is a species of hardwood. Most of the stumps in this area are hemlock, which are softwoods because they rot from the outside-in. Stumps can usually tell us a lot about the history of the land where they are located. They can give us clues about what the land was used for and how they became stumps in the first place. Logging was usually done in this area back in the 1800’s to create land for pasture, cultivation and mowing. By 1840, about 80% of New Hampshire had been logged for cultivation purposes. The uses of these woods were usually for lumber to build houses, fences, etc. These days most of the wood cut down in these surrounding forests is used for timber or fire wood. Usually birch tree lumber is used for purposes such as pulpwood and veneer. However, in this area, wood was not usually used for such things because building was a bigger business. Stone Walls Stone Walls (2) Tree Stumps Multiple-trunked Trees American Beech Red Oak Blue Trail Information (Back to Master Map) (Back to Blue Trail)

Slide 100

Multiple-Trunked Trees On this spot of land we see a few multiple trunked maple trees surrounded by smaller trees, mostly being pine. Multiple trunks are usually caused by either the past occurrence of fire or logging. In this case I believe that logging is responsible. You can see the even cut lines of where the saw cut down the original trees. If you observe closely you can determine the age of this tree. This is done by estimating a circle with the diameter being the centers of all the trees and imagining that this is the size of the original tree. Using this method I approximate this tree to be thirty years of age. Additionally supporting this theory, in the area there is evidence of past logging. This evidence is in the form of low basal scars. I feel that there was selective logging in the close area. The loggers took mostly hard wood trees. With the lack of hard wood trees, young pine trees grew in, but these were eventually shaded out by the fast growing hard wood trees that stump sprouted. This explains the large amount of deadfall in the area which mostly consists of pine trees. This can be determined by the still existent whorled limbs. I feel that all of this activity is fairly recent and has all occurred within the past forty to sixty years. Stone Walls Stone Walls (2) Tree Stumps Multiple-trunked Trees American Beech Red Oak Blue Trail Information (Back to Master Map) (Back to Blue Trail)

Slide 101

The American Beech tree, also known as Fagus grand folia, carries rather unique characteristics of the trees in New England. Its smooth bark reflects sunlight, protecting the bark from harsh temperature variations. Its edible nuts attract animals such as flying foxes, black bears, and several species of squirrels and birds. The wood holds high resistance to decay underwater and is also known to be quite resistant to breakage. Due to these qualities, the American Beech has been used for water wheels on mills during Colonial times. The wood has been, and may still be used for tools, furniture and charcoal as well. The trees are capable of growing up to 120 feet tall and 4 feet wide. These particular American Beech trees are growing in an area that was once most likely pasture land because of the many exposed boulders and the hilly terrain, though there may have been cultivated plots close by in the past. The two trees possess unique traits, in that they are multiple-trunked, and their gnarled, irregular growth indicates abnormalities from past land usage. There isn’t a sign of beech bark scale disease yet and past logging seems unlikely because of the lack of stumps within the area. Beech bark scale disease has been affecting beech trees around the nation. It’s related to the scale insect carrier and the fungus Nectria coccinea, capable of causing permanent damage to the bark, and possibly starting the process of beech snap, where the top of the trunk essentially fractures apart from its base. . The Beech tree’s odd growth may indicate that it was grazed early on. Another strange indicator is where they’re currently growing. The stone wall lies directly next to the trees. On one side of the stone wall are far more coniferous trees, such as hemlock, and the side it grows on contains little or no coniferous trees. Despite these oddities in their growth, condition, and location, they should still be here for quite some time. Stone Walls Stone Walls (2) Tree Stumps Multiple-trunked Trees American Beech Red Oak Blue Trail Information (Back to Master Map) (Back to Blue Trail)

Slide 102

Oaks in general are acorn-producing species. Different species of oak trees are told apart from their unique acorn characteristics. Red Oaks (or Northern Red Oaks) usually have relatively large acorns about one inch long and take roughly two years to mature. The inner shell of a red oak acorn is velvety-soft (as opposed to smooth and hairless). These acorns are yellowish on the inside and are rendered inedible for human consumption due to its high tannic acid content. Native Americans, however, simmered out the toxin and ate the acorns. They also used them for medicinal purposes, such as lung and sore throat problems, asthma, milky urine, indigestion as well as other ailments. The trees themselves are a common American lumber industry since they are reasonably resilient towards disease and insect. Red Oaks can grow to be as much as 150 feet in height and five feet in diameter. Judging by the size and shape of this red oak, it exhibits many of the typical traits of a tree who encountered little or no competition for sunlight when it germinated. That is, the branches of the trees grew outwards because there were no other trees in the area that may thwart the red oak’s effort to grow. It is well over 150 years old - much larger and older than the rest of the trees in the immediate area. There is also a pile of medium-size stones directly next to the tree. This may indicate some kind of past land use. One perception might be that the land was used for mowing. Since this activity fundamentally requires flat stone-less terrain, the medium-sized stones were probably removed and piled on top of a very large glacial erratic that involved too much labor to remove from the ground. This red oak may have then germinated between the safe haven of stones, free from competition, mowings, and grazings. Eventually, the landowner decided that mowing became unnecessary and the land was let go. Stone Walls Stone Walls (2) Tree Stumps Multiple-trunked Trees American Beech Red Oak Blue Trail Information (Back to Master Map) (Back to Blue Trail)

Slide 103

The White House The Oldest Building on Campus Built before 1800, the White House was first occupied by Captain Joshua Walker, a Revolutionary War veteran, along with his wife Mary Whitmore and their six children. In 1837 Asa Brewer moved into the house and farmed the adjoining 300 acres with his family until 1853, when he sold the home to Zachariah Whitney. Whitney became a prominent figure in Rindge, serving as a selectman from 1861 through 1863, In the 1900s the White House was owned by a number of wealthy individuals including Arthur Lowe and Alma Monaco. The property was used as a vacation get-away and summer resort. In 1948 Mr. Howard Musgrove bought the property, and his daughter Amy Raymond, the town historian in Rindge, grew up in the White House. It was sold to Franklin Pierce in 1964. Next >> Picture courtesy of… Slides related to the White House were composed by John Harris. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Land History and Ecology)

Slide 104

Franklin Pierce College has found a number of purposes over the years for the White House. In the early decades the building housed the security department, and was later used for student clubs and organizations. In the 1990s classes were held in one part of the building, and faculty offices were constructed in the older section. By 2000 the problems of age, repeated renovation, and the presence of asbestos began to spell the end of the White House. Next >> The Franklin Pierce College Years Picture courtesy of… << Previous (Back to Master Map) (Back to Land History and Ecology)

Slide 105

Slated for demolition to make room for a new academic building on campus, the White House was dismantled and its frame salvaged for future use by members of the Monadnock Institute of Nature, Place and Culture. Next >> White House Demolished in June 2007 Pictures courtesy of… << Previous (Back to Master Map) (Back to Land History and Ecology)

Slide 106

Next >> White House Reduced to a Pile of Debris Picture courtesy of… << Previous (Back to Master Map) (Back to Land History and Ecology)

Slide 107

The majority of the timber frame, held together by wooden pegs driven through mortise and tenon joints, was carefully removed and stored for future display at Franklin Pierce University. Most of the timbers were hewed out of White Pine, and the pegs used to secure them were carved from oak or ash. In the southeast corner of the building this child’s shoe was found between the first and second floors. According to tradition, a child’s shoe was often tucked away in a new building to provide luck and ensure a sense of permanence to the structure. The shoe is now on display in the new Petrocelli Hall. Back to ‘The White House’ Picture courtesy of… Timber Frame Salvaged and Saved for Future Use << Previous (Back to Master Map) (Back to Land History and Ecology)

Slide 108

Buckthorn Study Plots Student Research/ Theses Research Sites Click any point on the map, or on the corresponding links to the right, for additional information. Sediment impacts on wetlands Functional assessment of wetlands (Back to Master Map)

Slide 109

During the summer of 2002, a series of permanent research plots were established by Professors Catherine Koning and Rhine Singleton to study Buckthorn. Buckthorn is a non-native invasive shrub that can form dense thickets and potentially out-compete and take over native plant communities. Each triangle on the research sites map represents three permanent 20m x 20m plots that are being monitored to determine whether Buckthorn is spreading and whether it is causing a decline in the abundance of native plants. Preliminary results suggest that while Buckthorn is present in nearly every type of forest on the Rindge campus, it is only a threat under particularly wet and high light conditions. Buckthorn Study Plots Next >> Buckthorn Study Plots Student Research/ Theses Sediment impacts on wetlands Functional assessment of wetlands (Back to Master Map) (Back to Research Sites)

Slide 110

Yes, some forests on campus do have a lot of Buckthorn, an invasive non-native shrub. The picture on the left was taken within a control plot – no Buckthorn has been removed. The picture on the right was taken within a treatment plot – all Buckthorn has been removed. The main difference between these two sites is the amount of Buckthorn! << Previous Buckthorn Study Plots Student Research/ Theses Sediment impacts on wetlands Functional assessment of wetlands Buckthorn Study Plots (Back to Master Map) (Back to Research Sites)

Slide 111

Here are some examples of the many student thesis projects that have taken place on campus lands. Neel Patel 08’ Senior Thesis – Development of a Geographic Information Systems Map and Database on Stone Walls and Historical Land Use Coming Soon: link to thesis presentation Student Research Sites/Theses Janice Kelly 06’ Senior Thesis – Investigation of Wintering Bird Populations Amanda Ege ’07 Wetland effects on water quality in Pearly Pond Kelly Henry ’03 Phosphorus inputs to Pearly Pond Kyoko Makishi ’07 Carbon sequestration in forest soils Aubin Maynard '00 Under-ice dissolved oxygen in Pearly Pond Kathy Walborn ’98 Frog and toad habitat in campus wetlands Kurt Workman ’01 Impacts of wastewater treatment facility on forested wetlands Kozue Nogami ‘02 Wildlife habitat in winter Kaz Shiono ‘05 Mapping indicators of wetland areas Buckthorn Study Plots Student Research/ Theses Sediment impacts on wetlands Functional assessment of wetlands (Back to Master Map) (Back to Research Sites) Hannah Irving ’10 Differences in Canopy Openness on the Franklin Pierce University Rindge Campus Following the 2008 Ice Storm Maegan McGone ‘11 Assessing nutrient and bacteria levels in the stream and wetlands near the Lakeview Townhouses Stephanie Manning ‘11 Environmental Impacts While Living at the Lakeview Townhouses on the Franklin Pierce University Campus and the Simple Changes that can be Made to Lower those Impacts Aaron Loller ‘12 Effects of Invasive Rhamnus frangula and Native Alnus incana on Understory Biodiversity

Slide 112

Plots covered through the duration of the study Next >> Investigation of Wintering Bird Populations Indicates a wildlife sighting captured during this study (Back to Master Map) (Back to Student Research)

Slide 113

Investigation of Wintering Bird Populations Throughout these three areas on campus several transects were used for student thesis research investigating wintering bird populations in wetlands, deciduous forests and coniferous forests. When all species were combined for data analysis, there was a general preference for coniferous forest compared to the other two habitats. The list below includes all species encountered on campus in this study that took place between December 2005 and February 2006. << Previous (Back to Master Map) (Back to Student Research)

Slide 114

Erosion from construction sites and natural sources washes into wetland areas, and large amounts can have negative effects. A five-year study by Prof. Catherine Koning, with over a dozen Franklin Pierce students, investigated the effects of adding small amounts of sediment to the “beaver dam” marsh; the study showed significant impacts on the soil, but no effects on the plant life. Sediment Impacts Study Buckthorn Study Plots Student Research/ Theses Sediment impacts on wetlands Functional assessment of wetlands (Back to Master Map) (Back to Research Sites)

Slide 115

Wetlands perform many important ecological functions – such as providing wildlife habitat, stabilizing shorelines, preventing floods, creating pathways for groundwater flow, improving water quality, etc. But not all wetlands are good at all of these functions! Long-term research in Franklin Pierce’s many wetland areas has established which wetlands are important for these different functions, and has documented changes in the wetlands from human activities, beavers, and climate change. Research on Wetland Functions Buckthorn Study Plots Student Research/ Theses Sediment impacts on wetlands Functional assessment of wetlands (Back to Master Map) (Back to Research Sites)

Slide 116

Kelly Henry (2003) tested the many streams that drain into Pearly Pond. She was interested in finding out which streams were contributing the most phosphorus to the lake. Phosphorus is a nutrient that leads to a pollution problem called eutrophication, which can cause low oxygen levels. Kelly found out that the stream draining from the wastewater treatment plant was highest in phosphorus, and other streams did not contribute much phosphorus. Phosphorus Inputs to Pearly Pond Buckthorn Study Plots Student Research/ Theses Sediment impacts on wetlands Functional assessment of wetlands (Back to Master Map) (Back to Student Research)

Slide 117

Aubin Maynard (2000) studied the levels of dissolved oxygen in Pearly Pond in the winter. Winter DO levels can be critical to fish survival; he found that DO levels were sufficient for the resident fish populations. Under-Ice Dissolved Oxygen Buckthorn Study Plots Student Research/ Theses Sediment impacts on wetlands Functional assessment of wetlands (Back to Master Map) (Back to Student Research)

Slide 118

Amanda Ege (2007) asked the question, do wetlands improve water quality? She studied a stream that runs from the University wastewater treatment plant, carrying nutrients such as phosphorus, through a large series of wetlands, including the Beaver Dam marsh. She found that the levels of phosphorus were higher before the stream went through the wetland. It is not clear if this pattern would be true all year long, however! Wetland Effects on Water Quality in Pearly Pond Buckthorn Study Plots Student Research/ Theses Sediment impacts on wetlands Functional assessment of wetlands (Back to Master Map) (Back to Student Research)

Slide 119

Kyoko Makishi (2007) studied the Carbon content of the soil in various forested areas on FP campus lands. Soils are a very important storage for carbon, which may be released as carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. She found that coniferous forest soils had greater loss-on-ignition (a measure of soil carbon) than soils in the deciduous forest areas. Carbon Sequestration in Forest Soils Buckthorn Study Plots Student Research/ Theses Sediment impacts on wetlands Functional assessment of wetlands (Back to Master Map) (Back to Student Research)

Slide 120

Kathy Walborn (1998) used the different mating calls of our local frog species to find out which species used the various habitats on campus. Here are some of the frogs she found in the wetlands, streams and vernal pools on University property: Wood frog American toad Spring peeper Green frog Gray tree frog Photos from: enature.com Frog Habitat in Campus Wetlands Buckthorn Study Plots Student Research/ Theses Sediment impacts on wetlands Functional assessment of wetlands (Back to Master Map) (Back to Student Research)

Slide 121

Kurt Workman (2001) studied the effects of water from the University wastewater treatment plant on the wetlands where the water is released. He found that the forested wetland had been converted to a more open water wetland, favoring herbaceous species over woody species, largely because of the increase in water levels. Increased water temperature also resulted in earlier, greener growth in spring. Impacts of Wasterwater Treatment Plant on Forested Wetlands Buckthorn Study Plots Student Research/ Theses Sediment impacts on wetlands Functional assessment of wetlands (Back to Master Map) (Back to Student Research)

Slide 122

Kozue Nogami (2002) tracked winter use of University forests by large mammals. She established three transects and visited them twice per month through the winter. She found lots of sign of deer, but no other evidence of large mammal use during the winter. During the fall prior to her main study, she did find one bear track! Mammal Habitat Use in Winter Buckthorn Study Plots Student Research/ Theses Sediment impacts on wetlands Functional assessment of wetlands (Back to Master Map) (Back to Student Research)

Slide 123

Kaz Shiono (2005) asked the question, are National Wetland Inventory maps or hydric soil maps a better indicator of where wetlands really are on the ground? He used a GPS and a Geographic Information System to find areas where the maps didn’t agree. He found that in most cases, the hydric soils maps showed the wetlands more accurately, but using both maps together was the best way to show the wetlands accurately. Map Indicators of Wetland Areas Buckthorn Study Plots Student Research/ Theses Sediment impacts on wetlands Functional assessment of wetlands (Back to Master Map) (Back to Student Research)

Slide 124

Differences in Canopy Openness on the Franklin Pierce University Rindge Campus Following the 2008 Ice Storm, Hannah Irving (2010) Canopy photos and Hemisfer digital software analysis were used to assess changes in canopy cover at several forest sites on the Franklin Pierce Rindge Campus. Photos taken in June of 2009 were compared with those taken in 2008 to assess the change in openness as the result of the December, 2008 ice storm. Different forest types experienced different levels of damage as shown in the figure below. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Student Research)

Slide 125

Assessing nutrient and bacteria levels in the stream and wetlands near the Lakeview Townhouses, Maegan McGlone (2011) A measurable increase in nutrients and bacteria was detected in the wetlands that are adjacent to the Lakeview Townhouse leach field. Levels should be monitored in the future to ensure that the stream connecting the wetlands to Pearly Pond is not a significant source of nutrient and bacterial inputs. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Student Research)

Slide 126

Environmental Impacts While Living at the Lakeview Townhouses on the Franklin Pierce University Campus and the Simple Changes that can be Made to Lower those Impacts, Stephanie Manning (2011) Students living in one apartment unit in Lakeview Townhouses measured their environmental impact (water, electricity, amount of trash, goods recycled, choice of foods) in order to assess how much they could reduce their ecological footprints. Reductions in all categories were achieved by making simple lifestyle changes. It was estimated that the overall reduction in the ecological footprint per person as a result of the changes made was 1.9 acres. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Student Research)

Slide 127

Effects of Invasive Rhamnus frangula and Native Alnus incana on Understory Biodiversity, Aaron Loller (2012) The effects of buckthorn and alder on native plant cover and diversity were measured at a study site next to Pearly Pond. There was evidence that both species can negatively affect the percent cover of native species, though the effect of buckthorn appeared to be stronger. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Student Research) next>>

Slide 128

Effects of Invasive Rhamnus frangula and Native Alnus incana on Understory Biodiversity, Aaron Loller (2012) The effects of buckthorn and alder on native plant cover and diversity were measured at a study site next to Pearly Pond. There was evidence that both species can negatively affect the percent cover of native species, though the effect of buckthorn appeared to be stronger. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Student Research) <<previous

Slide 129

Wildlife Sightings and More Click any point on the map, or on the corresponding links to the right, for additional information. Bobcat Fisher Sighting Black Bear Wooly Beech Aphid Treefall Sighting Wolf Tree Old Model A Crows Photo of Fisher FP Plant Species List FP Vertebrate Species List (Back to Master Map)

Slide 130

Bobcat tracks in the snow seen by Janice Kelly and Rhine Singleton, January 2004. Bobcat Tracks Bobcat Black Bear Wooly Beech Aphid Treefall Sighting Wolf Tree Old Model A Crows Picture from Tracking and the Art of Seeing, Paul Rezendes, Harper Perennial, 1999 Fisher Sighting Photo of Fisher (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More)

Slide 131

Fisher seen crossing Mountain Rd, September 2003. Fisher Sighting Bobcat Black Bear Wooly Beech Aphid Treefall Sighting Wolf Tree Old Model A Crows Picture from Tracking and the Art of Seeing, Paul Rezendes, Harper Perennial, 1999 Fisher Sighting Photo of Fisher (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More)

Slide 132

Black Bear seen, October 2005. Black Bear Sighting Bobcat Black Bear Wooly Beech Aphid Treefall Sighting Wolf Tree Old Model A Crows DO NOT ATTEMPT TO GET CLOSE TO WIDLIFE FOR PHOTOS! Picture from Tracking and the Art of Seeing, Paul Rezendes, Harper Perennial, 1999 Fisher Sighting Photo of Fisher (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More)

Slide 133

Wooly Beech Aphid Here's a link for more information on this insect: During the Fall of 2002, students in BI/ES430, Forest Ecology encountered a small outbreak of the Wooly Beech Aphid. There have been no reported sightings on campus since 2002. http://www.umassgreeninfo.org/fact_sheets/piercing_sucking/beech_blight_aphid.pdf Bobcat Black Bear Wooly Beech Aphid Treefall Sighting Wolf Tree Old Model A Crows Fisher Sighting Photo of Fisher (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More)

Slide 134

Treefall Occasionally students encounter a very recent treefall! This one was found south along the red trail. Bobcat Black Bear Wooly Beech Aphid Treefall Sighting Wolf Tree Old Model A Crows Fisher Sighting Photo of Fisher (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More)

Slide 135

Wolf Tree This tree along the "place trail" is one of the more charismatic "wolf trees" on campus. For more information: Bobcat Black Bear Wooly Beech Aphid Treefall Sighting Wolf Tree Old Model A Crows Fisher Sighting Photo of Fisher Land History and Ecology (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More)

Slide 136

Old Model A An Old Car…sometimes there is very clear evidence that roads used to cut through land that is now unbroken forest! This car is along the “red trail" on campus. For more information, see ‘Red Trail’, after following this link: Bobcat Black Bear Wooly Beech Aphid Treefall Sighting Wolf Tree Old Model A Crows Fisher Sighting Photo of Fisher Land History and Ecology (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More)

Slide 137

Photo of Fisher Bobcat Black Bear Wooly Beech Aphid Wolf Tree Old Model A Crows Treefall Sighting This slide displays a picture taken at a site that was the focus of a study on scavenging of carcasses by terrestrial vertebrates. A motion triggered hidden camera was used to take this picture! Study performed by Reid Lichwell Fisher Sighting Photo of Fisher (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More)

Slide 138

Crows Bobcat Black Bear Wooly Beech Aphid Wolf Tree Old Model A Crows Treefall Sighting This slide displays a picture taken at a site that was the focus of a study on scavenging of carcasses by terrestrial vertebrates. A motion triggered hidden camera was used to take this picture! Study performed by Reid Lichwell Fisher Sighting Photo of Fisher (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More)

Slide 139

Franklin Pierce Plant List, pg 1 Plant List, pg 1 Plant List, pg 2 Plant List, pg 3 Plant List, pg 4 Plant List, pg 5 Plant List, pg 6 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More) (Back to Nat. Res.)

Slide 140

Plant List, pg 1 Plant List, pg 2 Plant List, pg 3 Plant List, pg 4 Plant List, pg 5 Plant List, pg 6 Franklin Pierce Plant List, pg 2 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More) (Back to Nat. Res.)

Slide 141

Plant List, pg 1 Plant List, pg 2 Plant List, pg 3 Plant List, pg 4 Plant List, pg 5 Plant List, pg 6 Franklin Pierce Plant List, pg 3 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More) (Back to Nat. Res.)

Slide 142

Plant List, pg 1 Plant List, pg 2 Plant List, pg 3 Plant List, pg 4 Plant List, pg 5 Plant List, pg 6 Franklin Pierce Plant List, pg 4 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More) (Back to Nat. Res.)

Slide 143

Plant List, pg 1 Plant List, pg 2 Plant List, pg 3 Plant List, pg 4 Plant List, pg 5 Plant List, pg 6 Franklin Pierce Plant List, pg 5 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More) (Back to Nat. Res.)

Slide 144

Plant List, pg 1 Plant List, pg 2 Plant List, pg 3 Plant List, pg 4 Plant List, pg 5 Plant List, pg 6 Franklin Pierce Plant List, pg 6 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More) (Back to Nat. Res.)

Slide 145

Vert List, pg 1 Vert List, pg 2 Vert List, pg 3 Vert List, pg 4 Vert List, pg 5 Vert List, pg 6 Link to 2011 updated report by Kristen Veinotte Franklin Pierce Vert List, pg 1 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More) (Back to Nat. Res.) Coming Soon:

Slide 146

Vert List, pg 1 Vert List, pg 2 Vert List, pg 3 Vert List, pg 4 Vert List, pg 5 Ver. List, pg 6 Franklin Pierce Vert List, pg 1 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More) (Back to Nat. Res.)

Slide 147

Vert List, pg 1 Vert List, pg 2 Vert List, pg 3 Vert List, pg 4 Vert List, pg 5 Ver. List, pg 6 Franklin Pierce Vert List, pg 3 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More) (Back to Nat. Res.)

Slide 148

Vert List, pg 1 Vert List, pg 2 Vert List, pg 3 Vert List, pg 4 Vert List, pg 5 Ver. List, pg 6 Franklin Pierce Vert List, pg 4 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More) (Back to Nat. Res.)

Slide 149

Vert List, pg 1 Vert List, pg 2 Vert List, pg 3 Vert List, pg 4 Vert List, pg 5 Ver. List, pg 6 Franklin Pierce Vert List, pg 5 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More) (Back to Nat. Res.)

Slide 150

Vert List, pg 1 Vert List, pg 2 Vert List, pg 3 Vert List, pg 4 Vert List, pg 5 Ver. List, pg 6 Franklin Pierce Vert List, pg 6 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Wildlife Sightings & More) (Back to Nat. Res.)

Slide 151

Phenology The Study of Seasonal Change 2011 Evolution of Environmental Thought Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 152

Vernal Pool—What is It? Vernal pools form every spring with the melting of the snow and heavy rains. They are depressions in the landscape where water collects. Some dry up before spring ends, some dry up later in the year, but to be a vernal pool they have to dry up for at least part of the year. This is an excellent environment for salamanders to breed as there are no predatory fish to eat their eggs or young. Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 153

Depth and Temperature Thurs 3/31 Depth – 7cm and 7cm Temp 37.2F Thurs 4/7 Depth 6.5cm and 9cm Temp 32.7 Tues 4/18 Temp 44.7 Egg masses Spotted salamanders can be opaque or transparent 25 identified Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 154

Adult Spotted Salamander Four clusters of 5-15 spermatophores left by male spotted salamanders April 7 Six male spotted salamanders observed and recorded Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 155

The Hemlock Forest: Site 2 Measurements: 3/29/11 Ash= L 1.2cm W .7cm Beech= L 2.6cm W .7cm Sugar Maple= L 1.7cm W .7cm Forsythia= L 1.3cm W .9cm Lilac= L 1.5cm W 1.3cm Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 156

Total growth: Ash = L .8cm W .2cm Beech= L .6cm W .5cm Sugar maple= L 1.0cm W .5cm Forsythia= L .6cm W .7cm Lilac= L .8cm W .9cm Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 157

Eastern Phoebe: April 7th- A single Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe) is heard in the distance, singing “fee-bee.” It is one of the first migratory birds to arrive in the spring. April 12th – We observed a chickadee perched upon a branch high in a hemlock tree. April 12th – Two Eastern Phoebes are observed. They both have an olive coloring and yellowish underbelly. Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 158

Site 3: DiGregorio Wetland Data Recorded 4/12- Red-backed salamander 5.2cm Eastern Spotted Newt 7.6 cm Water temperature: 55.4 F Soil 49.6 F 4/19- E. Spotted Newt Spotted salamander eggs Newt orgy (5 newts mating in trap) Water Temperature: 50.1 F Soil temperature 46.5 F Photo By: Heather Oinonen Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 159

Wood Frog Rana sylvatica Small sized frog – 2-2.5 inches long Light brown with “robber’s mask” over eyes Has a “quack” sounding mating call We heard and saw many wood frogs in wetland area, and found approx. 38 egg masses Photo Credit: GSWA Photo Credit: Jim Harding Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 160

Spring Peeper Pseudacris crucifer Tiny frog that moves into breeding pools at the same time as spotted salamanders and wood frogs Has a shrill, high-pitched mating call We found one individual in wetland area Photo Credit: Kristen Veinotte Photo Credit: Wikipedia Mon. April 4, 1964--This entry by Hal Borland describes the importance of the spring peeper in indicating the coming of spring. He describes how the peeper’s voice sounds, and its common nicknames due to its calls. He also talks about how the peeper got its scientific name, Hyla crucifer, from a Greek legend. Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 161

The weather got warmer The snow melted 3/29 Ground dried 4/5 Spiders inhabited the grass Bird sounds: woodpecker, crows, peewee, chickadee Mammals: White tailed deer, chipmunk, meadow vole, fox Sun. April 5, 1857--Thoreau describes someone named Arthur who saw 20 toads jump out from underneath his house. Thoreau heard the frogs croaking in a meadow at dusk. He also mentions seeing and hearing a woodcock. The Field Site 4 Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 162

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Slide 163

Apple Tree Buds March 29 Length 0.12cm Width .01cm April 7 Length .45cm width 0.4cm April 12 Length 0.7cm Width 0.55cm Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 164

Pearly Pond Site #5 Water Temperature April 7 36.5 degrees Paper thin ice cover, reaching about 15 ft out, remaining ice pretty thick Oozeball Court 61.7 degrees - 1-2 in of water May 3 65.2 degrees, ice out for over a week, 30 degrees warmer than our first temp reading! Oozeball Court 76.4 degrees- less than 1inch water, 15 degrees warmer than our first reading Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 165

Ice Out Pearly Pond April 10, 2011 Henry David Thoreau Journal-- Walden Pond 1845 April 1 1846 March 25 1847 April 8 1851 March 28 1853 March 23 1854 April 7 Walden Recent Records 1995 March 18 1996 March 23 1997 February 22 1998 February 26 1999 March 1 2000 March 9 Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 166

April 7 Alder catkin bud: 1cm length X 0.4cm diameter Buckthorn bud: 0.3 cm length X 0.4cm width April 12 Catkin Bud: 6 cm Buckthorn: 0.5cm length April 19 Catkin Bud: 6.1 cm Buckthorn bud: 0.6 cm length Measurements Previous Slide Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 167

Red-Winged Black Bird April 7 Spotted male on cattail March 21, 1851 Thoreau spotted his first red-winged blackbird of season Northern Mockingbird May 3 Spotted male in tree August 12, 1852 Thoreau saw the only mockingbird recorded in his journal Previous Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Class Projects)

Slide 168

AASHE 2010, Denver, CO: Morsoul (Eco-band) describes how their veggie-grease bus operates! The new Sustainability Center provides a hub for all sustainability actions on campus. Actions include, but are not limited to, tracking and recording all greenhouse gas emissions from campus operations, research and development of sustainable energy systems, public outreach programs, campus wide recycling-education efforts, and implementation of the new Sustainability Certificate. Working hard to spread the word…friends don’t let friends contaminate!!! Next Slide Sustainability Center (Back to Master Map) (Back to Sustainability at FP)

Slide 169

Sustainability Center New Certificate Program LAKEVIEW AND E-TOWER Sustainability Certificate (ES202) Student Project: FPU’s first Sustainable Housing Option, Fall 2011 Sustainability Seminar (ES202) field trip to LEED-Platinum Certified- Sullivan Construction Company in Bedford, NH Sustainability Certificate (ES302) Student Project: 5K Eco-thon to benefit student interns accepted by the Will Steger Foundation~ Sustainability Internship, Summer 2011 Previous Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Sustainability at FP)

Slide 170

Sustainability Events Outreach Programs Earth Day Celebration: Rindge Energy Commission (REC) and local grade schools held a competition to create the best poster for the Rindge Carbon Challenge, the winner was announced at the 2011 FPU Earth Day Celebration. 2009, Climate Action Day The Monadnock Institute sponsored the 2010 Climate Action Day! (Back to Master Map) (Back to Sustainability at FP)

Slide 171

Sustainability Efforts New Pellet Boilers have been installed at the athletic center and undergraduate dormitories, contributing the reduction of more than 1400 metric tonnes of carbon emissions! For more information on our Climate Action Plan, please visit us @ www.franklinpierce.edu/about/sustainability/index.htm Next Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Sustainability at FP)

Slide 172

Sustainability Efforts The founders of SpiralAirFoil were on campus for the 2011 Earth Day celebration to demonstrate their wind turbine. The turbine is geared toward home owners at an affordable price. The small start-up company has developed a prototype that has competitive advantages over other turbines, including the ability to generate electricity with minimum wind speeds (Press Release, 2011). Throughout the academic year, a team of business students has worked closely with SpiralAirFoil in developing marketing and business development initiatives. The Small Business Advisory Group (SBA), facilitated by Jason Little, Associate Professor of Marketing, works in partnership with the Small Business Development Center of NH. The SBA is actively involved with consulting small businesses and start-up companies throughout the Monadnock Region (Press Release, 2011). Previous Slide (Back to Master Map) (Back to Sustainability at FP)

Slide 173

Landscaping projects designed to reduce production of greenhouse gases, surface runoff, erosion, water pollution and water use, while increase biodiversity and providing opportunities for enjoyable outdoor recreation. Eco-Landscaping Eco-educational garden Water quality improvement Trails connections Goose management Campus Mini-Farm (Back to Master Map) (Back to Sustainability at FP)

Slide 174

Improve Water Quality Our idea is to build a bio-swale, or an artificial wetland designed to remove road salt, fertilizer and other pollutants before they get into Pearly Pond. Eco-Landscaping Project Ideas (Back to Master Map) (Back to Eco-Landscaping)

Slide 175

Eco-Educational Garden The Eco-educational garden will provide an area for students to socialize and connect with nature, and professors can use it as a learning tool for classes. The FPU mission statement commits the University to “Promote an expectation of civic engagement, environmental responsibility and global awareness.” This garden will help students visually connect to nature so then become active in environmental issues. Eco-Landscaping Project Ideas (Back to Master Map) (Back to Eco-Landscaping)

Slide 176

Increase Trail Visibility and Access The plan itself involves making a trail map of campus and the trails surrounding it with clear markings of which trails are which, on the eco kiosk. The trails are all marked on figure 3, and these trails are the pond trail, the place trail, the red trail, the blue trail, the educational trail, and the boundary trail. The map on the eco kiosk is going to be a semi-permanent map with the names, and color marks of all the trails surrounding campus, and the pathway leading from the kiosk on campus, to the trails off campus. The idea itself is meant to help navigation through the trail, make the trails more accessible to students and give a clear view of the trails existence, and to help lead anyone willing to hike to the entrances of the trails. Eco-Landscaping Project Ideas (Back to Master Map) (Back to Eco-Landscaping)

Slide 177

Management of the Goose Population Because the breeding population of geese on the Rindge campus has increased and has triggered the growth of harmful algae in the lake, the goal of this proposed project is to alter the Franklin Pierce landscape so that geese will be less interested in creating their feeding and resting habitat and nesting sites on campus Trained “goose-chasing” dogs would also deter geese Eco-Landscaping Project Ideas (Back to Master Map) (Back to Eco-Landscaping)

Slide 178

Campus Mini-Farm A farm on campus would allow FPU to grow some of its own food, organically. This is important to us because the average distance that our food comes from is around 1300 miles. It would also provide great opportunities for students to conduct hands-on research on plant growth, farming, business management, etc. More research must be conducted in order to choose a suitable site. Water Tower Hill – open field Gates Farm - open field Symonds Farm – young forest/shrubs Eco-Landscaping Project Ideas (Back to Master Map) (Back to Eco-Landscaping)

Slide 179

Rindge Sites Todd Hill French Farm Converse Meadow To view Interpretive Trail Signs at Converse Meadows, Click here (Back to Master Map) To view Study of Potential Sites for Wind Turbine, Click here

Slide 180

Community Project: Interpretive Trail for Converse Meadows IC101 Wilderness or Walmart? Public and Private Conflicts over Land Use, and IC105 College Writing I Profs. Catherine Owen Koning, John Harris Alisha Cole, Drew Clark, Shawn Teal, Tyler Russell, Kassie Nadeau, Michelle Gravius, Kevin Nugent, Zach Mathieu, Josh Rouse, Harry Caldwell, Jennifer Williams, Kristen Veinotte, Nick Juselis, Matt O’Blenes, Mike Taylor, Nicole White, Erin Mallory Scroll through the slides to walk the trail! (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 181

Converse Meadows Trail (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Previous Next

Slide 182

Converse Meadows is a protected land area of about 260 acres . The land was protected for many reasons which include its aesthetic value, the habitat it provides for many different species of wildlife, and most importantly because it is a large aquifer that provides water for the town of Rindge. Before the conservation commission of Rindge moved to get the land protected, a plan was proposed to develop the area with 55 houses . In order to prevent this from occurring, and to prevent any future attempt at harming the natural land at the meadows, the conservation commission used all of the funds allotted to them ($100,000), along with the passage of a $220,000 town bond, and various other fundraisers (including the raffle of a hybrid car) in order to purchase the land. After the necessary funds were raised a conservation easement was signed in order to protect the meadows. The easement allows for people to come and walk the trails through the area, but it restricts any form of commercial development of the land or any commercial forestry. This ensures the protection of the natural land, the organisms that inhabit it, and prevents further destruction of important natural regions. The Protection of Converse Meadows (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 183

Converse Mill Around the 1800s Saw Mills became popular in New England. Saw mills were used to cut wood down into planks to make things such as boxes, or furniture. In Converseville there were a few different mills, most of which were at different time periods. The mill here at Converse Meadows was a saw and grist mill. A grist mill is a mill that grinds grain into flour. The Mill at its peak would turn out 300,000 feet per year. The mill manufactured things such as staves for pails, and woodenware. The mill also did custom grinding. A water wheel was used to power the mill. A water wheel works by having water flow either over or under the wheel making it turn. As the wheel turns it powers the blade in the mill. The mill was passed down through the Converse family. It was started by Z. and O.D. Converse in 1862. This is not the mill at Converse, but this is close to what it would have looked like (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 184

In 1837, Morton E. Converse was born into Rindge NH. He was the first of four children from Ebenezer Converse. Ebenezer was a military man, lumber worker, blacksmith, and a farmer throughout his life. In 1867, Morton started work in Converseville making pytoligneous acid, iron liquor, acetic acid, and wood acid products. In 1869 he married Hattie M. Atherton and had two children before she died in 1886. During his marriage, Converse bought a mill in Converseville and used it to make woodenware. In 1887, after the death of his wife, Morton’s mill became “Morton E. Converse & Company. He then built a new mill that was forty by one hundred feet and four stories high. In his new mill, he made reed and rattan chairs. Morton Converse was also enlisted into the military during the civil war. The regiment that he was a part of was led by Morton’s own father, Ebenezer Converse. In the war, they participated in the Battle of Bull Run, The battle of Chantilly, the Battle of South Mountain, and the Battle of Anietam. Morton Converse died in the year 1892. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~converse/bios/mor-bio.html http://01475.us/ (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 185

The Millers River originates from the area above Converse Pond, flows south into Winchendon, and eventually empties into the Connecticut River near Wendell, Massachusetts. The river itself is about 44 miles long, and branches out into about 50 lakes or streams. This river once had mills on it, and had very polluted waters. Even here on this site there is the old Converse saw and grist mill, which may have added to that pollution. Since the mills have disappeared, the river has undergone an amazing recovery, with its waters almost completely purified. The river is important for its connection to the Converse Meadow reserve, and its fishing value. With the fish surviving the pollution, it is once again a very popular fishing river. The river and lakes within its course are abundant with fish, birds, and many species that are amazing to see and an important part of the ecosystem as a whole. Here at the Converse Meadows, the North Branch of the Millers River extends between Converse pond and Lake Monomonac. This small section of the river connects two lakes, is the site of an old grist mill, and it has natural and artificial dams made by humans and our friends the beavers. The Millers River (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 186

Banded Sunfish Family: Centrarchidae Species: Enneacanthus obesus This beaver pond is home to a small fish known as the banded sunfish. The banded sunfish is vulnerable in many states and even extirpated in others. Description: The banded sunfish, which is critically imperiled in New York and vulnerable in New Hampshire, is one of the smallest species of sunfish only averaging two inches in length. The banded sunfish is one of two sunfish that has three anal fin spines and a rounded tail. Most sunfish such as the popular pumpkinseed sunfish have forked tails. The olive colored body of the banded sunfish shows speckles of gold, purple and can be distinguished by its six to seven vertical dark stripes on its body. A large black gill cover spot is Located near the top of the gill. Habitat: The banded sunfish is located in states close to the Atlantic coast from New Hampshire, Vermont and New York all the way down to Florida. This fish prefers slow moving water such as beaver ponds and other heavily vegetated ponds. It uses vegetation such as lily pads and pickerel weeds as its home. Diet: The diet of the banded sunfish is vary similar to the blue-spotted and black-banded sunfish which consists of small insects, small larva, and microcrustaceans. Behavior: The banded sunfish spawns in mid-April through July. The males will construct a nest out of pebbles, gravel and sand to protect the eggs while being laid. Neither the male nor the female protect the eggs. The eggs are buoyant and will drift with the current of the water. Fishing: The fish is too small to be caught by recreational fishers unless they are very lucky. At only two inches in length, this fish is caught with a minnow trap or some kind of fishing net such as a cast net. By Tyler Russell 10/28/10 (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 187

Chain Pickerel The chain pickerel is an Atlantic coast freshwater fish which is found in a variety of bodies of water such as streams, lakes, ponds and rivers. This member of the Pike family tends to stay in weedy areas that provide cover which enables them to surprise their food targets in an efficient and speedy manner. Their main food targets consist of insects, crayfish, small fish, frogs and newts with occasional mice. The chain pickerel is the smallest fish in the Pike family. They are slender in width and can reach about 3 feet as adults; weighing up to 7lbs. Chain pickerel are primarily attracted to quick movement and flash and when fishing in a high vegetated area makes using spinner baits very effective. Chain pickerel become more active in 55° to 70°F temperatures and are also active under the ice, making them a target for a lot of ice fisherman. The best gear for catching pickerel in Converse Meadows is a spinning outfit with 4- or 6-pound line, as the average pickerel weighs no more than 1 1/2 pounds. No cloth or glove should be worn when unhooking and releasing the chain pickerel because of a slimy layer on the fish which protects them from parasites and infections. Pickerel are a very common and essential part of a freshwater ecosystem, and are a strong and a predator fish. AKA:  chainsides, jackpike, jackfish, grass pike Species: Esox niger Family: Esocidae (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 188

The American Black Duck The American Black Duck is commonly found in eastern parts of North America. The Black Duck looks very similar to the Mallard though it has a different colored feathers for warmth. The male and female black ducks look almost identical in size and coloration except for their beaks. The male has a yellow beak while the female has a dull green beak. The birds typically mate in the North Eastern part of North America, with the primary hot spots ranging from Maine to Nova Scotia. In the state of New Hampshire the ducks are the 3rd most commonly breeding bird species. The over all total population of the ducks fluctuates with the changing habitats and hunting and an exact population size is near impossible to record. They utilize habitats such as small lakes, ponds, and marshes to lay and protect their eggs and raise their young. The ducks dabble or dive in shallow waters and feed on aquatic plants and small animals such as insects and amphibians. The duck’s body shape makes it much easier to use the dabble technique to acquire its food under water and then float on the waters surface using little to no energy. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 189

Least Weasel, Mustela nivalis One of the small mammals found in Converse Meadows is the least weasel. The least weasel, also known as the mouse weasel or the Mustela nivalis, is the smallest true carnivore on earth. The least weasel can grow up to ten inches, with a tail length of almost two inches and an average weight of 1.8 to 2 ounces. The body of a weasel is long and skinny, with a long neck. In summer, the fur colors are light brown on the top and back of the animal with white fur on the undergarments of the body. The fur length tends to be 1 cm during the summer and 1.5 cm during the winter. The least weasel can be found in Alaska, Canada and Northern United States. This species resides in meadows and marshes but tends to avoid wooded areas. It stays active all year long and sleeps, hunts and feeds during both day and night. Few least weasels make it to adulthood. These animals live a solitary life only being around one another during breeding season. When hunting, the weasel will stalk its prey for a while, then the weasel will dart at its prey wrapping itself around the prey, killing it with one distinct bite to the base of the skull. The long slender weasel follows its prey into small burrows. A weasel will kill more than it needs for food and store it for future meals. Their diet consists of small animals, mostly rodents such as rats and, mice, and even birds if necessary. Predators of the least weasel include snakes and large birds like hawks and owls. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 190

Log Cabin Local legend tells of an escaped convict who was hiding out in Converse Meadows. He may have been in the process of building a log cabin here on the high ground. The story is told that he was making trips to a local store for supplies and was eventually caught. He never got to finish building the cabin. If this is his cabin, the convict picked a good spot to build the cabin on high ground and near water. However he only got one course of the cabin built before he was caught. The logs he was using were pine and hemlock and approximately 12ft in length. Evidence shows that he cut logs most likely with a saw and used a rope harness to get the logs back to the building site. When building a log cabin for survival, location is a key factor. The ideal place for building a log cabin is up on high ground where it is level, away from riverbeds to avoid flooding and animal trails. A sufficient survival cabin is only about 8 ft. x 8 ft. with an entrance. No foundation is needed to make this type of cabin. The way to build a log cabin is in courses, which are sets of four logs, with notched corners to hold them in place. The roof can be constructed from saplings and then covered with mud on top of the saplings. A very important thing to remember at the end of building the cabin is to chink or stuff mud and wood chips in between the logs to prevent drafts and water from coming inside the cabin. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 191

They hang out in the tops of trees and perch in the canopy, then drop on their prey. The broad-winged hawk eats a wide range of prey. Their prey include large insects, small mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. The broad-winged hawk can also be found in tropical habitats. During the broad-winged hawk’s migration thousands of birds can be seen flying in groups. These large groups form what are called kettles. The broad-winged hawk’s population is very stable. The mixed deciduous forest of Converse Meadows, adjacent to the wetland areas, is excellent habitat for the broad-winged hawk. The wingspan of the broad-winged hawk ranges anywhere from 31.9 in. to 39.4 in. The weight of this hawk usually ranges from 9.3 oz. to 19.8 oz. This hawk’s body length can be from 13.4 in. to 17.3 in. When identifying the broad-winged hawk in the perched position look for a red or brown crest and a dark black back. When they are flying above you look for black and white stripes of the tail. The mother will lay 1-4 eggs. Both adult hawks help tend the young in the fledgling process. They don’t like to build their nest near or on anything involving humans. Broad-winged Hawk Buteo Platypterus (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 192

Beavers A beaver’s home is called a lodge and where their lodge is built depends on the water levels of the river or lake and the water speed. There are two types of lodges that beavers build the first is a bank den, and it is built when the water is moving too fast but the water levels are high enough throughout the year. The second type is a conical lodge, which is built on a pond or lake with slower-moving water,it is also better suited for protection from predators. Both lodges are made with mud, sticks , bark, grass, and rocks. Beavers build dams to raise the water level and to protect themselves; when the water level is higher it’s easier for them to leave the lodge and go searching for food without being spotted by a predator. The higher water level also makes their favorite trees more accessible because they can get to the tree and then move to water quickly if a predator approaches; beavers swim better than they walk. Predators of the beaver are humans, wolves, red foxes, dogs, wolverines, otter, and lynxes. Beavers like to eat the bark off trees especially from aspen, cottonwood, willow, maple, and birch trees. Ahead are two beaver lodges and a beaver dam (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 193

The Wood can freeze itself during the cold winter months, and then thaw itself out in the spring. In cold weather, it drifts into a deep sleep, its heart and breathing stop, and most of the water in its body turns to ice. If the frog’s body temperature were to drop too quickly, it wouldn't have time to secrete glucose that protects its internal organs from dehydration while frozen. The more water that collects in the hollow cavities within the abdomen, the more room there is for the water to expand as it freezes. If too much water remains in the organs, its blood vessels will rupture as the temperature drops, and the frog will die. Come springtime, as the frog thaws out, its heart rate and breathing resumes, and the frog hops away. Wood Frog Rana sylvatica Frog in the Freezer? This small frog’s adult size is up to 3 ¼ inches long, and it is usually a tan, pinkish, or brown color with a white belly. It has a “robber mask,” which is a black band over its eyes that stretches to its eardrums. This frog ventures far from water during summer, and hibernates in forest debris during winter. It ranges across North America; it is the only frog found north of the Arctic Circle. The frogs use amplexus in their mating rituals, which is where the male frog grips the female behind her front legs, to squeeze the eggs out of the females to be fertilized. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 194

Mountain holly wooded Fen The area in which the Highbush Blueberry- Mountain Holly Wooded Fen is located is off of this trail further into the woods approximately 600 feet ahead. This area is protected and prohibits the use of any recreation, animal removal, native plant removal, hunting, and trapping. Allowable uses include conducting ecological research and the improvement of wildlife and habitat if necessary. Fens are wetlands that receive nutrients from sources other than precipitation; usually from slope sources like hills through drainage from the surrounding soils and from ground water movement. The area here that is protected ranges from 0.9 to 1.8 acres located in a series of three small fens that are headwaters of a smaller river at the beginning of the property. The Highbush Blueberry- Mountain Holly Wooded Fen occurs mostly as a border or surrounding around more open dwarf peatlands or wetlands in southern and central parts of the state. This area is important because it provides shelter and refuge and nutrients for many organisms and animals such as common yellowthroat, Wilson's warbler, Lincoln's sparrow, spotted salamander, wood frog, and northern waterthrush. The wetland provides and enriches the land so that a variety of plants and animals benefit from its existence. Nick Juselis (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 195

Hair Cap Moss Hair cap moss (Polytrichum commune) receives its name from the tiny hairs that cover the calyptra, where each spore case is held. If you look more closely, you’ll discover that the Hair cap moss is star shaped, due to the pointed leaves arranged spirally at right angles around a stiff stem. Like most moss, hair cap moss is dark green and only grows to be 4-20 cm long. If you look down on the moss, it looks like a fertile green carpet. The average life of the hair cap moss is usually between three to five years, although even when the moss appears to be dead, it’s still intact, making up what is the lower portion of the organism. Hair cap moss can be found all over the world in both the wild or in home decorative gardens. Although preferring to live in more lightly shaded areas, with mostly acidic soil, this moss can also survive in fully lit areas with moist soil. Hair cap moss was used in certain teas that help dissolve kidney and gall bladder stones. Women also have been known to use the tea to rinse their hair and to strengthen roots. The leaves from the moss are used to make brooms, brushes, mats, rugs, and baskets. One basket made of hair cap moss from a Roman fort in Newstead England, dates back to 86 AD. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 196

Lycopodium clavatum “Running clubmoss” When walking through the trails here at Converse Meadows, visitors will see a vibrant green moss scattered along the trail, and throughout the forest. The running club moss thrives in many habitats, including moist shaded woodland, open thickets, rocky slopes, pine forests, mixed woods and occasionally swamp and bog edges. It grows primarily in undisturbed areas. Lycopodium clavatum which seems to be everywhere now, was once over-collected and used frequently for Christmas decorations. This plant was once used to treat small wounds and rashes. It can help stop small amounts of bleeding. It was used to prevent rashes and chafing, primarily with young children and babies. In mainly all cases where this is used for a remedy of any sort, the main side effects are disturbances in the digestive system. Lycopodium clavatum has been used in folk medicine to treat bladder and kidney disorders and as a diuretic. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 197

The most common species of bear in North America is the American Black Bear. This large mammal can be black with a brown muzzle, but occasionally it is found to be gray, brown, or cinnamon, and sometimes with a rare white patch on its chest. The weight of the black bear ranges from 150-600 pounds, and its maximum life span is 20-25 years. These mammals are great tree climbers, and can be found in swamps and on mountains. The black bear lives in coniferous, deciduous, and largely forested areas. The black bear is found throughout North America, where its population has been estimated at 600,000. New Hampshire has an estimated population of 4,000 black bears, with most of them in the northern part of the state. This mammal is omnivorous. Its diet consists of berries, grass, fish, insects, nuts, honey, and plants, and small mammals and human food. The black bear tends to be attracted to human communities because they are a good source of fast food. Depending on the available food for the winter months, the black bear will hibernate. Females will usually give birth during the winter months, and will remain in the den until winter is over. Males, and females without young, will travel out of the den in search of food throughout the winter months. Black bear (Ursus americanus) (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 198

Grey Birch (Betula populifolia) The grey birch is a fast growing, short lived small tree. They are often used for fuel and popularly used for woodenware like spools and spindles. Grey birches sprout flowers called catkins. The male catkins are yellow elongated flower clusters and the female catkins are stouter and they resemble cones. The flowering takes place between April and May, and the seeds are wind dispersed during late fall and winter. They can grow in sites that are wet or have poor soils. The Grey birches at Converse Meadows are grown in a circle of sandy soil. The reason for the circle is a mystery. Some theories behind the appearance of the circle could be one of a few things like a ATV disturbing the soil to create poor conditions for the trees to grow. Since grey birch grows difficult sites it would make sense that this dry dirt circle is the site of several of the grey birches that are growing in Converse Meadows. The grey birches that you see here are clustered together in this circle, some are small and some are about 6 feet tall. There are some trunks in the middle of the clump the tree’s that are larger than the others. Notice the circle is on a slight hill. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) Next Previous

Slide 199

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Behind these bushes is a small, out of the ordinary cranberry bog. A bog is a wetland that has acidic ground and gathers peat moss (Sphagnum cuspidatum). The conditions of this area must be specific otherwise the plant will not grow. Cranberries need a pH between 3- 4.5, little standing water, and sandy soil. One cranberry plant covers about 3 feet of area and grows to be about an inch or so high. The vines are green with buds and red shiny leaves on the woody stems in early spring. Throughout the summer they grow and by October the plants are covered in the tart red berries and are ready to be picked. Cranberries can be found in select areas throughout the northern hemisphere, mainly in Massachusetts, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Oregon, Washington and Canada. The most abundant area is in Massachusetts on Cape Cod, where wet sandy soils provide perfect growing conditions. Cranberry bogs in New Hampshire are in moss-like communities, formed in sandy bowl areas adjacent to uplands. At Converse Meadow the cranberry bog is also a vernal pool. A vernal pool is another type of wetland that contains a little water from late fall to early spring and dries up throughout the summer. (Back to Master Map) (Back to Rindge Sites) This is the last slide on the Converse Meadow Trail Tour Previous

Slide 200

Topics to Explore Examples of We hope you enjoyed the eTour of Campus Lands. Come back and visit again soon! Trails on Topo Map Mountain Road University Drive “Bubble” DeGregorio Building About this Project Trail Maps Land History and Ecology Wildlife Sightings and More Class Projects Research Sites Natural Resources Trails on Aerial Photo Regional Projects Archaeology Public History Adventure Recreation Rindge Sites Sustainability at FP Franklin Pierce University – College at Rindge (Back to Site Map)

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