Egyptian, map of ancient sites
Egyptian, Neolithic Goddess Figure, mid4millBCE, 12in
Pre-dynastic, The Palette of Narmer, 3000 BCE
1799 – found by the troops Napoleon Bonaparte
Khafre enthroned, from Gizeh, Egypt, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2520–2494 BCE. Diorite, 5’ 6” high.
Egyptian, Old Kingdom, Mycerinus and His Queen AKA Menkaure and Khamerernebty, ~2500 BCE; Khafre, ~2550 BCE
Old Kingdom, Prince Rahotep and His Wife, Nofret, 2580 BCE
Egyptian, Old Kingdom, Ka-Aper, c2600 BCE
Egyptian, Old Kingdom, Ti watching a hippo hunt, 25cBCE, 48in high
Egyptian, Gathering of Papyrus Tomb Painting
Egyptian, drawing of mastabas used before 3000BCE
Plan (top) and restored view (bottom) of the mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Third Dynasty, ca. 2630–2611 BCE.
Imhotep, The Stepped Pyramid of King Djoser
Egyptian, Old Kingdom, Pyramids at Gizeh, 27th c BCE
Egypt, Old Kingdom, Sphinx and P of Khafu
Egyptian, Old Kingdom, Great Sphinx, side vw
Egyptian, Old Kingdom, Chefren, 2500 BCE
Rock-cut tombs BH 3-5, Beni Hasan, Egypt, 12th Dynasty, ca. 1950 – 1900 BCE.
Interior hall of the rock-cut tomb of Amenemhet (tomb BH 2), Beni Hasan, Egypt, 12th Dynasty, ca. 1950–1900 BCE.
Egyptian, NK, Hatshepsut temple and cliff Mortuary temples NOT TOMBS – built for pharaoh to worship in their lifetime and also for PEOPLE TO GO WORSHIP PHARAOH after their death! AXIALLY PLANNED TEMPLE COLLONADES in tiers
Egyptian, NK, Hatshepsut temple and cliff
Egyptian, New Kingdom, Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, ~
Hatshepsut with offering jars, from the upper court of her mortuary temple, Deir el-Bahri, Egypt, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1473–1458 BCE. Red granite, 8’ 6” high; Hatshepsut Enthroned, c 1473-1458 BCE
Egyptian, NK, Temple of Amen-Re at Karnak floorplan
Restored vw of Temple of Amen-Re, Karnak; Ruins of the Great Temple of Amun (Amen-Re) at Karnak, Egypt, c 1579-1075 BCE
Egyptian, NK, Model of Hypostyle Hall at Karnak, Metropo~D7D
Egyptian, NK, Hypostyle Hall at Karnak, Metropolitan
Egyptian, New Kingdom, Pylon Temple of Horus at Edfu, begun 235 BCE
“The obelisk symbolized the sun god Ra, or Re, and during the brief religious reformation of Akhenaten was said to be a petrified ray of the Aten, the sundisk. It was also thought that the god existed within the structure…It is hypothesized by New York University Egyptologist Patricia Blackwell Gary and Astronomy senior editor Richard Talcott that the shapes of the ancient Egyptian pyramid and obelisk were derived from natural phenomena associated with the sun (the sun-god Ra being the Egyptians' greatest deity). The pyramid and obelisk would have been inspired by previously overlooked astronomical phenomena connected with sunrise and sunset: the zodiacal light and sun pillars respectively.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obelisks
Egyptian, New Kingdom, Fowling Scene Tomb ptg, c 1400BCE Fresco secco (dry fresco) vs. buon fresco (wet fresco)
Egyptian, New Kingdom, Musicians and Dancers, Tomb ptg, c 1400BCE
New Kingdom, Amenhotep III on left; right, his son, Amenhotep IV, who renames himself Akhenaton
New Kingdom, Akhenaton; Egyptian, vandalized head of Akenaton
Egyptian, New Kingdom, Nefertiti, 1360 BCE
New Kingdom, Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and Their Daughters
Egyptian, New Kingdom, Queen Ti, Amarna Pd; Egyptian, New Kingdom, Smenkhkare & wife, Amarna Pd
Egyptian, New Kingdom, Temple of Ramses II, 1279-1211?
Egyptian, New Kingdom, Temple of Ramses II from air, 1279-121
Egyptian, New Kingdom, Temple of Ramses II from air, 1279-121
HOWARD CARTER , British, 1922 discovery of TOMB in Thebes (Valley of the Kings) Tut death mask c.1323 BCE 3 coffins royal mummy within the third Innermost coffin of Tutankhamen 1323 BCE Gold with inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones
Egyptian, New Kingdom, Tut & Wife on Tut's Throne Tut likely a son of Akhenaton from a minor wife (not Nefertiti) You can see similar stylistic tendencies like those of Amarna Considered POST AMARNA
Egyptian, New Kingdom, Tutankhamen Hunting, ~1340 BCE
Egyptian, New Kingdom, Psychostasis of Hu-Nefer, 1290 BCE
Made and found of the Fayium Basic (Hawara and Antonooplis) Stylistically very similar … placed atop the faces of the mummies before burial 1st C. BCE – 1st C. CE
Sumerian votive statues from the Square Temple at Eshnunna, ~2700 BCE
Sumerian, Votive statue
Sumerian Bull lyre, ~2685 BCE; Sumerian, Sound box from Bull lyre, ~2685 BCE, HERALDIC COMPOSITION
Sumerian, Standard of Ur (war side), ~2700 BCE
Akkadian, Head of an Akkadian Ruler, ~2300 BCE
Akkadian, Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, ~2200 BCE
Sumerian ziggurat at Ur, partially restored, ~2500 BCE
Neo-Sumerian, Seated Gudea, ~2100 BCE, 17in; NeoSumerian, Seated Gudea, 2150BCE Gudea statues stood in temples where they could “perpetually render services to the gods”, similar to Sumerian votive statues Inscribed with messages to the gods Large chest / strong arms = god have given him fullness of life and muscles reveal his ‘god given strength’ DIORITE = rare, dark stone that had to be imported $$$$ … shows his POWER and AUTHORITY and WEALTH!
Plan for a new temple in his lap Describes how Neo-Sumerians prepped and purified sites for their temples Also, accounts for dream Gudea apparently had of the god telling him to erect temples in their honor
Neo-Sumerian, Votive Statue of Gudea, ~2120 BCE
Babylonian, Stele of Hammarubi, ~1760 BCE Flame shouldered sun god SHAMASH handing over the right to rule / tools to rule to HAMMURABI King’s hand is raised in respect King’s height is almost equal to Shamash, but not quite Shamash’s feet atop the ‘mountains’ which represent land held by the Babylonians Shamash in composite view, but head in full profile so you can’t see his eight horned helmet – only 4 horns
Hittites conquered and sacked Babylonia around 1595 BCE SUPER fortified capital – 7 foot tall lions guarding the main gateway Lots of heavy stone – BIG CONTRAST from other ANE cultures / civs
Biggest empire in the ANE up to this point, took over Babylonians (that were left) and Hittites HUGE royal citadel complex – massive fortifications – shows that they were fearful of being attacked at ANY TIME. ziggurats within each organized “complex” like later churches are to small towns … the center of life MERCILESS to those who opposed them, but but forgiving to those who submitted to them at their own will
Assyrian, Lamassu (winged human-headed bull), ~720 BCE; Assyrian Lamassu at Pergamon Museum in Berlin MANY DIFFERENT LAMASSU – stood at entrances to the palace / throne room etc. @ CITADEL OF SARGON II Meant to intimidate / ward off the king’s enemies Simple tasks of moving and placing these massive hybrids was so challenging … the process is documents on reliefs in various places throughout the palace complex
Assyrian, Lamassu Palace entrance; Assyrian, drawing of lamassu & Palace entrance, app 8c BCE
Assyrian, Hunting scene with the king pouring libation over slain wild bull
PALACE OF ASHURNASIRPAL II (many reliefs that the Assyrians are famous for)
Assyrian, Bird-headed figure from Nimrud's Palace, app 8 c BCE
Assyrian, detail, Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal, c650 BCE
Assyrian, Ashurbanipal hunting lions relief, ~650 BCE
Assyrian, Dying Lioness bas relief, 650 BCE
Assyrian, Ashurbanipal II Killing Lions, 850 BCE
Assyrian, Relief of Severed Heads
Babylon comes back! (this is when the “HANGING GARDENS” happen Blue glazed bricks Molded reliefs of animals (both real and imaginary)
Neo-Babylonian/Chaldean, Ishtar Gate, ~575 BCE Marduk / Nabu (major Babylonian deities) represented by the DRAGON Adad represented by Bull LIONS sacredto Ishtar
Neo-Babylonian/Chaldean, Ishtar Gate, ~575 BCE
While Neo-Babylonia thought they were strong – CYRUS of PERSIA was stronger … Captured the Neo-Babylonians 6th C. BCE LARGEST EMPIRE world had seen up until that point They conquered Egypt – which was HARD TO DO!
Persian, plan of Palace of Darius & Xerxes, Persepolis518BCE CEREMONIAL and ADMINISTRATIVE complex They had Assyrian – like “man winged bulls” that guarded entrances Entrance gate called “GATE OF ALL LANDS” showing the vast amount of area Persians had acquired
Persian, Audience Hall of Darius & Xerxes, Persepolis, Iran C500BCE AUDIENCE HALL = APADANA
Persian, bull capital, Palace of Darius & Xerxes, Persepolis518BCE
Persian, relief on strway, Palace of Darius & Xerxes, Persepolis518 Processions of royal guards Persians NOBELS and DIGNITARIES REPRESENTATIVES from different nations bringing tribute to the king INFLUENCES seen that look like ARCHAIC GREECE – which was happening around the same time!
Alexander the Great conquered PERSIA in 330 BCE Marked period of first Greek and then ROMAN rule of parts of ANE In the 3rd Century CE, new power rose up and sought to force ROMANS out of Asia … called themselves the SASANIANS
Near modern BAGHDAD, Iraq IWAN – brick audience hall
Persian-Sasanian, Shapur I Triumphing over Emps Philipus & Valerian, 260CE In iran, far from where events occurred in Turkey Shapur I succeeded in capturing Roman emperor Valerian SASANIAN CROWN very distinctive! Sultan-esque
Persian-Sasanian, Shapur I bowed to by Valerian, 260CE
Persian-Sasanian, Shapur II, 350CE This “thread” of Persia lasted until 636 CE … just four years after the death of Muhammad After ths majority of artists in ANE worked for services of Islam
Palette of NARMER / 3000 BCE / Pre-dynastic obverse reverse
UPPER Egypt LOWER Egypt UNITED Egypt CROWNS of EGYPT
Old Kingdom= BIG structures and all things conveying POWER & AUTHORITY
7 Khafre enthroned ca. 2520–2494 BCE. Diorite 5’ 6” high.
Prince Rahotep and His Wife, Nofret 2580 BCE
Seated Scribe Old Kingdom 2500 BCE 1’9”
Ka-Aper Old Kingdom 2600 BCE
Ti watching the hippo hunt 2450 BCE Old Kingdom
MASTABA = rectangular brick or stone structure with sloped sides that built over a underground tomb
mortuary precinct of Djoser Saqqara, Egypt, Third Dynasty, ca. 2630–2611 BCE.
Stepped Pyramid of King Djoser by IMHOTEP Saqqara, Egypt 2630 BCE
Great Pyramids of GIZEH (Menkaure, Kafre, Khufu) 2490-2528 BCE Gizeh, Egypt
GREAT SPHINX / Old Kingdom / Gizeh, Egypt / 2520 BCE
Middle Kingdom= Rock-cut tombs, trying to hide riches of pharaonic tombs From thieves
Rock-cut tombs Beni Hasan Egypt, ca. 1950 – 1900 BCE. 22
Interior hall of the rock-cut tomb of Amenemhet Beni Hasan, Egypt / ca. 1950–1900 BCE. RESERVED COLUMNS = columns that do not bare any weight / serve only a decorative Purpose!
New Kingdom = the rich “golden age” of Egypt
Mortuary temple of HATSHEPSUT New Kingdom 1473-1458 BCE
What is a HYPOSTYLE HALL? What is an AXIAL TEMPLE? What is a STRAIGHT-AXIS APPROACH?
HYPOSTYLE HALL = A hall with a ROOF that is supported by COLUMNS! AXIAL TEMPLE = a temple based on a single, straight (usually central) axis.
Hatshepsut with offering jars, from the upper court of her mortuary temple ca. 1473 Red granite, 8’ 6” high. Hatshepsut Enthroned 1473 BCE Lady-PHARAOH… HATSHEPSUT
Temple of Amen-Re @ Karnak
G S S Great Temple Amen-Re Karnak Egypt c 1579- 1075 BCE
Wow! What a SWAG clerestory!
PYLON entryway = a simple, massive gateway with sloping walls Pylon Temple of Horus at Edfu / 235 BCE
Obelisk = symbol of the sun god, Ra
FOWLING SCENE (from the tomb of NEBAMUN) c. 1400 BCE fresco secco
Musicians and dancers from the tomb of NEBAMUN c. 1400 BCE fresco secco
Amarna Period Around 1350 BCE Amenhotep IV changes name to AKHENATON Stopped the worship of most Egyptian gods other than ATON, the SEXLESS SUN DISK! =MONOTHEISTIC EGYPT means BIG changes in ART.
Akhenaton, From the temple of Aton (aka Colossal Akhenaton) Karnak, Egypt 1353 BCE 13’ high skinny arms slim waste bulging belly curvy hips fatty thighs slender/ feminine face
Nefertiti by THUTMOSE 1360 BCE 1’ 8”
Akhenaton, Nefertiti and three daughters / c. 1340 BCE
Queen Ti c. 1340 BCE Wood, gold, silver, Alabaster, lapis lazuli 3.75” inches high
Temple of Ramesses II @ Abu Simbel c. 1279 BCE
atlantid = a column in the form of a man
Painted chest from the tomb of TUTANKHAMEN c. 1340 BCE
Last judgment of Hu-Nefer / tomb @ Thebes / c. 1290 BCE Painted papyrus scroll / 1’6” high Hu-Nefer = dead guy Anubis = jackal headed God of embalming hybrid crocodile hippo lion monster THOTH = ibis headed god who records the process OSIRIS = god of order, later lord of the UNDERWORLD! Horus = Falcon headed Son of Osiris
Roman Fayum Portraits 1st C. BCE- 1st C. CE
Santa Anna Never Baked A Nutty Pancake
Sumerian Akkadian Neo-Sumerian Babylonian Assyrian Neo-Babylonian Persian
Sumerian votive statues of Tell Asmar 2700 BCE
Swag. SHUT UP.
Sumerian Bull Lyre 2685 BCE
HERALDIC composition One central figure, with both sides parts appearing identical.
Standard of UR
“War Side” Standard of Ur / 2700 BCE HIERARCHY of SCALE = Biggest is MOST important
“Peace Side” POWER and AUTHORITY NARRATIVE
Shell and LAPIZ LAZURLI
Head of an Akkadian Ruler 2300 BCE
Naram-Sin Victory Stele of Naram-Sin / 2200 BCE DEIFICATION of the KING POWER & AUTHORITY
Ziggurat at Ur / Sumerian / 2500 BCE
Seated GUDEA of Lagash 2100 BCE DIORITE
Seated Gudea holding temple plan 2100 BCE / Diorite / 2’ 5”
Votive Statue of Gudea 2120 BCE
Stele / Law Code of HAMMURABI 1760 BCE CUNEIFORM= Ancient Akkadian form of written language
Lion Gate / Hittite / Turkey 1400 BCE
ASHUR. NASIR. PAL.
Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal 650 BCE / Assyrian
Ashurbanipal II Killing Lions / 850 BCE / Assyrian
PERSEPOLIS / 518 BCE Plan of PALACE of DARIUS & XERXES
APADANA of Darius & Xerxes Modern day IRAN 500 BCE
Palace of SHAPUR I Iraq / 250 CE
Shapur I Triumhping over Valerian / 260 CE
SHAPUR II 350 CE