Cycladic plank idol, c2000BCE Right: Two Cycladic female figures, c. 2500-2000 BCE, marbleMale lyre player (Ketos), c. 2700-2500 BCE, marble
Plan of palace of Knossos Legendary PALACE OF MENOS (hence the name MINOANS) Thesus said to have battled with bull-man MINOTAUR in “labyrinth” Found his way out with the help of the king’s daughter (ARIADNE) who gave him a spindle of thread to find his way back
Staircase, east wing, Palace of Minos, Knossos, Crete, c. 1500 BCE
Minoan Dolphin fresco,The Queen’s Megaron, Palace of Minos, Knossos, Crete, c. 1500 BCE BUON FRESCO – “true fresco”
Dune Landscape. Fresco from Akrotiri, Thera. c.1600-1500 B.C. National Archaeological Museum, Athens
Minoan Fisherman fresco, ~1550 BCE
“The Toreador Fresco,” c. 1500 BCE. Height including upper border c. 24 ½ “. Museum, Heraklion, Crete
Minoan, Beaked jug (Kamares style), from Phaistos, c. 1800 BCE, Height 10 5/8” Museum, Heraklion, Crete KAMARES-WARE = eggshell ware Light images on dark background
Minoan, Octopus Vase, ~1500 BCE
Minoan, Det fr Toreador Fresco; Rhyton in the shape of a bull's head, from Knossos. c. 1500-1450 B.C.E. Serpentine, crystal, shell inlay (horns restored), height 8 1/8". Museum, Heraklion, Crete
Minoan Snake Goddess, c. 1600 B.C.E. Faience, height 11 5/8" (29.5 cm). Museum, Heraklion, Crete.
Minoan Snake Goddess #2, 1600BCE; Minoan Snake Goddess #3, faience, Crete, ~1500 BCE
Mycenean, Lion Gate at Mycenae, 1350BCE
Mycenean, Treasury of Atreus, corbelled dome, 1330BCE
Mycenean, Treasury of Atreus, corbelled dome, 1330BCE
Warrior vase 1200 BCE Mycenaean
Mycenean, bronze dagger blade with inlaid gold and silver decoration showing a lion hunt, Mycenae, c 1550 BCE
Mycenean Funeral Mask, 1500BCE
RhMycenean, Rhyton in the shape of a lion's head, from a shaft grave at Mycenae. c. 1550 B.C.E. Gold, height 8" (20.3 cm). National Archaeological Museum, Athens
Mycenean, Vapphio Cups
Myceneans fell to the stupid Dorians … people basically forgot how to do everything! “DARK AGES of Greece” Slowly had to re-teach themselves all the artistic skills that earlier civilizations already knew how to do. They do this, and they do it well. Getting to a new realism in art never seen before.
Centaur, from Lefkandi, Euboea, Late 10th c. BCE. Ceramic, height 14”. Centaur – half man / half horse
Greek Geometric vase, 9th-8thcBCE; Greek Geometric Dipylon Vase, 8thcBCE at Met
Greek Geometric vase, 9th-8thcBCE; Greek Geometric Dipylon Vase, 8thcBCE
Hero and centaur (Herakles and Nessos?), from Olympia,Greece, ca. 750–730 BCE. Bronze, 4 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Huge influence of all the other surrounding civs Egypt and ANE Crazy art, reflects all the different influences
Mantiklos Apollo, statuette of a youth dedicated by Mantiklos to Apollo, from Thebes, Greece, ca. 700–680 BCE. Bronze, 8” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Greek Orientalizing Pd, Black fig vase w animals, 650bce;
New York Kouros, Greek Archaic Statue - Kouros -male,650 B.C.E.; Menkaure and Khamerernebty, 2600 BCE
Calf Bearer, dedicated by Rhonbos on the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 560 BCE. Marble, restored height 5’ 5”; fragment 3’ 11 1/2” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
Why did Greek artists render the male form in the nude? Kroisos, from Anavysos, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, 6’ 4” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Kouros, Kroisos Anavyssos kouros (ca. 520 B.C.E.) (boy was named Kroisos), marble, 6’4”; Greek Archaic, Statue of a Youth, Kouros, 530-520 BCE
Greek Archaic, Hera of Samos, ~570 BCE
Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 520–510 BCE. Marble, 1’ 9” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
Temple of Poseidon
"Basilica" (Temple of Hera I): view from SE. (east colonnade)Paestum, Italy ca. 550-530 B.C.E.
Temple of Poseidon (Temple of Hera II): view from SE.ca. 460 B.C.E.
Pediment of the Temple of Artemis on Corfu, 600-580 BCE
SUMERIAN PIECE TO COMPARE WITH GREEK PEDIMENT IN PREVIOUS SLIDE Heraldic Arrangement, Sound Box of a lyre
Greek Archaic, Siphnian Treasury at Delphi reconstruction, 530 bce Ionic, caryatids SEE NEXT SLIDE FOR ARCHAIC RELIEF ON THIS STRUCTURE
Greek Archaic, Battle of the Gods and Giants, Treasury of the Siphnians, 530 BCE
Plan (left) and GUILLAUME-ABEL BLOUET’S 1828 restored view of the façade (right) of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 500–490 BCE.
Greek Archaic, Dying Warrior from Temple of Aphaia, ~490 BCE
Right: Euthymides, Revelers, red -figure amphora, c. 510 B.C. Left: Amphora signed by Exekias with Achilles and Ajax at play.Third quarter of the sixth century B.C.
Andokides Painter , Achilles and Ajax playing dice (Attic bilingual amphora), c. 525-520.
Greek Classical Severe Style, Kritios Boy, front & side vws,
New York kouros vs Kritios Boy
Left: Kouros, Kroisos Anavyssos kouros (ca. 520 B.C.E.) (boy was named Kroisos), marble, 6’4”; Greek Archaic, Statue of a Youth, Kouros, 530-520 BCE Right: Ephebe ("Kritios Boy") ca. 480 B.C.E.
Greek Classical Severe Style, The Charioteer of Delphi
Greek Classical Severe Style, Statue of a Running Girl, 490-4; Greek Classical Severe Style, Statuette of Herakles, ~460 BCE
Greek Classical Severe Style, Myron, Discobolos, ~450 BCE
Focus on representing perfect proportions of the human form
Greek High Classical, Polykleitos, Doryphorus, ~450 BCE
Greek High Classical, Riace Warrior, 5c BCE
Greek Classical Severe Style, Zeus (or Poseidon)
Greek, Parthenon reconstruction
Greek Classical, Iktinos and Kallikrates, The Parthenon, 447-432. LEARN THE NAMES OF THE ARCHITECTS. Chief sculptor: PHIDIAS. Know him too! Constructed under lead of Pericles after the Persian sack of Athens in 480 BCE Pericles used extra funds $$$ from Persian war treasury (aka, tax dollars) to build the Acropolis – allies were pissed! 17 columns on sides / 8 on ends (9:4 ratio) Some Ionic elements inside – not 100% doric
Various metopes from Parthenon
Greek Classical, Dionysus, East Ped of Parthenon, C440BCE; Greek Classical, Three Goddesses, East Ped of Parthenon, C440BCE
Greek Classical, Parthenon e ped sculptures, left side, 448-432BCE; Greek Classical, Parthenon e ped sculptures, r side
Greek Archaic, Hera of Samos, ~570 BCE COMPARE TREATMENT OF DRAPERY—PHIDIAS’S WET DRAPERY STYLE ON LEFT, FOUND IN PEDIMENT ON PARTHENON
Displays ATHENIAN festival procession that occurred every 4 yrs (THEY THINK) If this is the case, it exemplifies how highly Athenians regarded themselves (to include themselves on a temple for the god) CHARIOTS, MUSICIANS, ANIMALS FOR SACRIFICE SEATED GODS AND GODDESSES WATCH THE PROCESSION ****
Greek Classical, Temple of Athena Nike, Athens, c410BC Nike adjusting her sandal / 3’ 6” high / c. 410 BCE
Greek Classical, Porch of the Maidens, Erechtheum, Athens, 42 BUILT IN 421 BCE Built on the site where POSEIDON and ATHENA fought for rights to be patron diety of ATHENS Poseidon struck rock on top the Acropolis and produced a salt water spring Athena miraculously caused an OLIVE tree to grow THIS STRUCTURE has to incorporate both those sites and deals with uneven terrain
Erechtheion Honored early king of Athens – ERECHTHEUS Apparently also marks the site where Athena and Poseidon fought to see who became patron of the city of Athens Irregular, assymmetrical plan bc of where it sat on the land of the plateau Ionic / caryatids walk towards Parthenon in a processional way
The PELOPONNESIAN WAR brought an end the the SERENE IDEALISM of the previous century Greek thought and Greek art started to focus on REAL WORLD APPEARANCES rather than the ideal and perfect
Greek Late Classical, Praxiteles, Cnidian Aphrodite, ~350 BCE; Greek Late Classical, Praxitiles, Hermes and Dionysus, ~340 B Gods and goddesses retain their beauty but lose some grandeur and take on sensuous nature Goddess of LOVE COMPLETELY NUDE (rare before this, and then it was usually slave girls or courtesans) NOT goddesses! Not openly EROTIC (we catch her dropping her garment getting ready to step into bath) HERMES and infant Dionysus – Hermes leans on a tree trunk (actually needed – not a support stump!) and dangles a bunch of grapes as temptation for baby who has become GOD OF THE VINE (Wine) Tender human interaction is typical of real life but often not seen in Greek artwork before this
LYSIPPOS: Established a different canon of proportions from that of Polykleitos Bodies more slender Head is roughly 1/8 of the body (versus 1/7 previously) Begin to encourage viewers to look at the sculpture from many angles – break the idea of the frontal view
Must walk around it – SCULPTURE IN THE ROUND! Strong but weary – ironic? Must lean on his club for support Herakles holds the golden apples of Hesperides in his right hand behind his back (wouldn’t see them if you didn’t walk around) (12 labors of Herakles: pennance paid by H [later Hercules] for killing his six sons when insane. 12 years / 12 labours = immortality) ONE OF THE IMPOSSIBLE 12 LABORS – instead of enthusiasm he seems dejected HUMANIZING the GODS – reflects the mental state of the weary Greeks
Found in the homes of the wealthy in the MACEDONIAN capital of PELLA FLOORS – pebbles from rivers and beaches set in cement “Gnosis made it” LIKE RED FIGURE – against dark background We see SHADING and references to VOLUME not seen in vase painting
Found on the floor of a POMPEIIAN HOUSE – usually called ALEXANDER MOSAIC TESSERAE – tiny pieces of stone or glass that make a mosaic Alexander the Great vs the Persian King Darius III (Darius fled the battlefield in humiliating defeat)
POLYKLEITOS THE YOUNGER, Theater, Epidauros, Greece, ca. 350 BCE. – Possibly a nephew of the original Polykleitos??? Greek plays were during festivals and associated with religious rites – not pure entertainment! Orchestra = “dancing place” – where the actors and chorus performed THEATRON = place for seating ALWAYS situated hillside! – held app. 12,000 people Harmony of proportions and excellent acoustics
Lasted from death of ALEXANDER the GREAT (323 BCE) for about 3 centuries (until Mark Antony and Cleo double suicide)
Greek Hellenistic, Aphrodite of Melos (Venus de Milo), ~150 BCE; Greek Hellenistic, Barberini Faun, ~220 BCE Her left hand would have held the apple Paris gave her when he judged her the most beautiful goddess of all Her right hand may have slightly attempted to hold up her falling drapery TEASE
Named after the Italian Cardinal who once owned it = hmmm Catholic church??? Restored by Bernini in the Baroque (kindred spirit?) SUSPENSION of CONCIOUSNESS / fantasy world of dreams appealed to them OPPOSITE of the rationale and discipline of the Classical! SATYR – drunken, restless semi-human follower of (He has had too much wine and fallen into an undisturbed, intoxicated sleep) Blatant sexuality / exposed genitals
Greek Hellenistic, Eros and Psyche, ~150 BCE; Greek Hellenistic, Boethos, Boy Strangling a Goose, 2cBCE, 33
Greek Hellenistic, Seated Boxer, 50 BCE; Greek Hellenistic, Old Market Woman, 2c BCE
Greek Hellenistic, Hagesandros, Athenodoros and Polydoros of Rhodes Laocoon and his sons c. 175-150 BC Marble, height 242 cm (95 1/2 in) Museo Pio Clementino, Vatican ...STORY from AENIED – Trojan priest tried to warn his people of the danger lurking inside horse given by Greeks – god sends snakes to prevent him from speaking Twisting, curving compostition moves the eye Over- exaggerated muscles intensify the pathos of the moment
Photo by Anna Butler from her Junior experience Italy trip.
Nike alighting on a warship (Nike of Samothrace), from Samothrace, Greece, ca. 190 BCE. Marble, figure 8’ 1” high. Louvre, Paris.
Berlin, Pergamon Museum Pergamon (kingdom of Attalos II) came about after breakup of Alexander’s empire Sculpted frieze almost 400 ft. long / about 100 larger than life figures (Subject: battle of Zeus and the gods against the giants= gigantomachy) (One of these kings had successfully turned back an invasion of the Gauls in Asia Minor – likely alludes to that victory over ‘barbarians’)
Greek Hellenistic, Athena Battling Alkyoneos from Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, 175 BCE
EPIGONOS(?), Gallic chieftain killing himself and his wife. Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 230–220 BCE, 6’ 11” high. Museo Nazionale Romano–Palazzo Altemps, Rome. Gauls had long, brushy hair and mustaches Wore TORQUES (neckbands) Showed only their foes and their noble, moving response to defeat LYSIPPAN TRADITION – best viewed by walking around it fully
Trumpeter from gaul falling on his instrument – blood comes from wound – shows the defeat of the Gauls Meant to be viewed IN THE ROUND
Mickey Mouse Goes Outside And Chases Hoez Minoan Mycenaean Geometric Orientalizing Archaic Classical Hellenistic
Male lyre player c.2700-2500 BCE marble Cycladic Plank Idol c. 2000 BCE
PALACE OF KNOSSOS / Crete / c. 1700-1400 BCE
Minoan Dolphin fresco The Palace of Minos / Knossos, Crete c. 1500 BCE
Landscape with swallows (“Spring Fresco”) Akrotiri, Thera (Cyclades) / c. 1650 BCE / Fresco
Minoan Fisherman fresco 1550 BCE
The Toreador Fresco (aka Bull-leaping fresco) Palace at Knossos / Crete c. 1450-1400 BCE Fresco / 2’ 8”
Beaked Kamares Jug c. 1800 BCE 10 5/8” Kamares-ware jar c. 1800-1700 BCE 1’ 8”
Octopus Vase Minoan 1500 BCE
Harvester’s Vase / Minoan / c. 1500 BCE 5” largest diameter
Bull-head Rhyton from Knossos c. 1500-1450 BCE 8 1/8”
Minoan Snake Goddess c. 1600 BCE Faience (glass) 11 5/8”
The Myceneans invade and conquer the Minoans around 1500 BCE.
Citadel at TIRYNS Mycenaean (Greek mainland) / c.1400-1200 BCE Corbeled gallery in the walls of the citadel at Tiryns CYCLOPEAN MASONRY
POST and LINTEL CORBELED ARCH ARCH Three methods of spanning passageway
LION GATE at Mycenae / 1350 BCE / Mycenean
Mycenean / TREASURY AT ATREUS / 1330 BCE
CORBELLED DOME = when each stone projects a little further out than the one beneath it.
Warrior vase 1200 BCE Mycenaean
Bronze dagger with LION HUNT / 1550 BCE
Mycenaean Funeral MASK 1500 BCE
Rhyton in the shape of a lion’s head Mycenaean c. 1550 BCE gold 8” high
repousse Imagery formed in relief by beating a metal plate from the back, leaving the impression on the face.
The Mycenean Period ends in around 1100 BCE when the much-less-advanced Dorians invade and conquer. They are able to do this because they have IRON WEAPONS, which is superior to bronze.
The Greek World Separate city states that slowly develop and adopt “democracy” Trade and communication with EGYPT & the ANE The perfect individual became the Greek ideal “MAN IS THE MEASURE OF ALL THINGS!” Power & Authority / Intimidation are OUT.
Mickey Mouse Goes Outside And Chases Hoes Minoan Mycenaean Geometric Orientalizing Archaic Classical Hellenistic
Greek Geometric Period 900 – 700 BCE
Centaur from Lefkandi , Late 10th c. BCE. Ceramic height 14” S
Geometric Vase 9th-8th C. BCE GEOMETRIC DIPYLON VASE 8th C. BCE
Hero and centaur (Herakles and Nessos?) from Olympia,Greece, ca. 750–730 BCE. Bronze, 4 1/2” high. 41
Orientalizing Phase: transition from Geometric to Archaic
Mantiklos Apollo (statuette of a youth dedicated by Mantiklos to Apollo) ca. 700–680 BCE. Bronze / 8” high. 43 G
Corinthian black-figure amphora with animal friezes c. 625-600 BCE / 1’ 2” high
New York Kouros / c. 650 BCE
Calf Bearer ca. 560 BCE. Marble restored height 5‘5” (fragment 3’ 11 ½”) 47 ARCHAIC SMILE
Kroisos from Anavysos ca. 530 BCE. Marble 6’ 4” high. 48
Statue of a Youth (Kouros) 530-520 BCE
Encaustic is mixing hot beeswax with pigment – creates a more durable application of paint. Earlier used on Roman Fayum Portraits and later by PoMo master JASPER JOHNS! 570 BCE Hera of Samos Peplos Kore / c. 530 BCE / 4’ high
Kore from the Acropolis Athens, Greece, ca. 520–510 BCE Marble 1’ 9” high.
stereobate aka a "peripteral temple"
“Basilica” (Temple of Hera I) / Paestum, Italy / c. 550-530 BCE
Temple of Poseidon TEMPLE OF POSEIDON aka Temple of Hera II / 460 BCE
Temple of Artemis on Corfu PEDIMENT 600-580 BCE
Siphnian Treasury at Delphi Reconstruction 530 BCE
BATTLE OF THE GODS and GIANTS aka “Gigantomachy” North frieze of the Siphnian Treasury at Deplhi 520 BCE App. 2” 1” high
Plan (left) and GUILLAUME-ABEL BLOUET’S 1828 restored view of the façade (right) of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 500–490 BCE. G TEMPLE OF APHAIA Aegina, Greece / c. 500 BCE
DYING WARRIOR from Temple of Aphaia (East Pediment) 490 BCE Dying Warrior from Temple of Aphaia (from the WEST pediment) 490 CE
Euthymides Revelers (red-figure amphora) 510 BCE Exekias Achilles and Ajax Playing Dice (black-figure amphora) c. 540 BCE
Classical Period Phase One: Severe Style
This is one of the MOST IMPORTANT sculptures of all time! KRITIOS BOY from the Acropolis c. 480 BCE SEVERE Classical
Severe Classical Charioteer of Delphi 470 BCE BRONZE!
Classical SEVERE Myron DISKOBOLOS 450 BCE 5’ 1”
Classical Period Part 2: High Classical
Artist: POLYKLEITOS Title: Doryphoros (Spear Bearer) c. 450 BCE/ 6’ 11” THIS IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT SCULPTURES OF ALL TIME! Oh heeeeey
CONTRAPPOSTO High Classical Riace Warrior c. 460 BCE BRONZE! / 6’ 6”
ZEUS (or Poseidon) c. 460 BCE BRONZE 6’ 10” high
Iktinos and Kallikrates The Parthenon 447-432 BCE / Athen (the pits), Greece
Parthenon METOPES Centaur Battles!
Phidias = chief sculptor "Phidian Style"
DETAILS of the PANATHENAIC Festival procession FRIEZE @ the Parthenon
Temple of Athena Nike / @ the Acroplis – Athens / c/ 427-424 BCE
ERECHTHEION / @ the Acropolis / c. 421 BCE
Late Classical 4th c BCE
Praxiteles made these. Aphrodite of Knidos Hermes and Dionysus
LYSIPPOS Apoxyomenos (The Scraper) ca. 330 BCE 6’ 9” high. 94
LYSIPPOS Weary Herakles c. 320 BCE 10’ 5” high (whoa.)
3 Innovations in Greek Sculpture that DIFFER from prior civs: 1. Unafraid of NUDITY. It was not debasing, as felt by Egyptians. Greeks glorified the perfection of the nude. Started with the man, eventually did women too. 2. Large sculptures were cut away from the stone behind them. Most work was bronze, which no longer exist. We see Roman marble copies. 3. CONTRAPPOSTO!!!!!! Natural way of standing.
GNOSIS Stag hunt from Pella, Greece c. 300 BCE. Pebble mosaic 10’ 2” high.
Philoxenos / Battle of Issus / c. 310 BCE TESSERAE
POLYKLEITOS THE YOUNGER, Theater of Epidauros, Greece, ca. 350 BCE and later.
Hellenistic MACEDONIANS from the NORTH are taking over Greece. Athens still remains artistically active. The work reflects the pain / horrors / grief suffered by the Greeks because of this.
Ap Aphrodite of Melos (Venus de Milo) 150 BCE By Alexandros of Antioch-on-the-Meander Barberini Faun 220 BCE
BARBERINI FAUN (Sleeping satyr) c. 230 BCE 7’ 1”
Eros and Psyche 150 BCE Boethos Boy Strangling a Goose 2nd C. BCE
Seated Boxer 50 BCE OLD MARKET WOMAN c. 150 BCE
LAOCOON and his SONS c. 175-150 BCE By the RHODES sculptors
Nike alighting on a warship (Nike of Samothrace), from Samothrace, Greece, ca. 190 BCE Marble figure 8’ 1” high. 107
Reconstruction of Altar of Zeus / c. 175 BCE
Athena Battling Alkyoneos (From the Altar of Zeus) GIGANTOMACHY= battle between gods and giants
EPIGONOS(?) Gallic chieftain killing himself and his wife ca. 230–220 BCE 6’ 11” high. 110
Dying Gaul / 230 BCE / 3’ .5”
GrGREEK REVIEW Geometric: vases with geometric humans and shapes. No empty spaces! 2. Orientalizing: Like, whoa. A mixed bag of ANE and Egypt influences. 3. Archaic: Kouros figs look like the Egyptians – except nude, free from their stone and smiley! 4. Classical: ultimate realism, beauty, perfection, proportions achieved! Winning. 5. Hellenistic: Oh dang. Greece is being taken over and we need to cry about it. Let’s make emotional and overly dramatic sculptures with exaggerated bodies.