2.Personality Theories

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The ‘Nature of Personality’ material relates to APA goal 1.2: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas in Psychology. In particular, the ‘personality’ component of section A(2): Individual differences, psychometrics, personality, and social processes, including those related to sociocultural and international dimensions, is relevant here.

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Item #2 above (We exercise free will to control our actions) relates to APA goal 1.2: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas in psychology, D: Overarching themes, persistent questions, or enduring conflicts in psychology. Under this goal, #3: Free will versus determinism, is most relevant here.

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All of the material on the assessment of personality (slides 56-65) relates to APA goal 4.2: Identify appropriate applications of psychology in solving problems. In particular, item C: psychological tests and measurements, is pertinent here.

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Chapter 2 Theories of Personality

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The Nature of Personality LEARNING OBJECTIVES Explain the concepts of personality and traits. Describe the “Big Five” personality traits. Discuss how the Big Five traits are related to important life outcomes.

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The Nature of Personality, continued Personality is “an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits”. A personality trait is “a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations”. Common personality traits Honest Moody Impulsive Friendly

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Personality Traits http://www.thelists.org/list-of-personality-traits.html http://cte.jhu.edu/techacademy/web/2000/kochan/charactertraits.html

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The Nature of Personality, continued There are many perspectives on personality. McCrae and Costa (1987-1999) proposed five “higher-order” traits known as the “Big Five” Extraversion (or positive emotionality) Neuroticism (or negative emotionality) Openness to experience Agreeableness Conscientiousness

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Figure 2.1 The five-factor model of personality. Trait models attempt to break down personality into its basic dimensions. McCrae and Costa (1987, 1997, 2003) maintain that personality can be described adequately with the five higher-order traits identified here, widely known as the Big Five traits. SOURCE: Trait descriptions from McCrae, R.R., & Costa, P.T. (1986). Clinical assessment can benefit from recent advances in personality psychology. American Psychologist, 41, 1001-1003.

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Psychodynamic Perspectives LEARNING OBJECTIVES Describe Freud’s three components of personality and how they are distributed across levels of awareness. Explain the importance of sexual and aggressive conflicts in Freud’s theory. Describe eight defense mechanisms identified by Freud.

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Psychodynamic Perspectives, continued LEARNING OBJECTIVES, continued. Outline Freud’s stages of psychosexual development and their theorized relations to adult personality. Summarize Jung’s views on the unconscious. Summarize Adler’s views on key issues relating to personality. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of psychodynamic theories of personality.

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Psychodynamic Perspectives, continued Psychodynamic theories include a variety of theoretical models derived from the work of Sigmund Freud. All focus on unconscious mental forces that shape our personalities. Well-known psychodynamic theorists Freud Jung Adler Erikson

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Sigmund Freud (6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) Austrian neurologist who founded the discipline of psychoanalysis. Freud became a neurological researcher into cerebral palsy, aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy. Freud went on to develop theories about the unconscious mind and the mechanism of repression, and established the field of verbal psychotherapy by creating psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology.

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Psychodynamic Perspectives, continued Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of personality is somewhat controversial and is based on three main assumptions Personality is governed by unconscious forces that we cannot control. Childhood experiences play a significant role in determining adult personality. Personality is shaped by the manner in which children cope with sexual urges. -- see The Oedipus Complex, next slide

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The Oedipus Complex In psychoanalytic theory, the term Oedipus complex denotes the emotions and ideas that the mind keeps in the unconscious, via dynamic repression, that concentrate upon a boy’s desire to sexually possess his mother, and kill his father. Sigmund Freud, who coined the term "Oedipus complex" believed that the Oedipus complex is a desire for the mother in both sexes (he believed that girls have a homosexual attraction towards their mother). The Oedipus complex occurs in the third — phallic stage (ages 3–6) — of five psychosexual development stages: (i) the Oral, (ii) the Anal, (iii) the Phallic, (iv) the Latent, and (v) the Genital — in which the source libido pleasure is in a different erogenous zone of the infant’s body. In classical, Freudian psychoanalytic theory, the child’s identification with the same-sex parent is the successful resolution of the Oedipus complex and of the Electra complex (girls sexually desire father and want to kill mother). Freud further proposed that girls and boys resolved their complexes differently — he via castration anxiety she via penis envy; and that unsuccessful resolutions might lead to neurosis, paedophilia, and homosexuality. Men and women who are fixated in the Oedipal and Electra stages of their psychosexual development might be considered “mother-fixated” and “father-fixated” as revealed when the mate (sexual partner) resembles the corresponding mother or father . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Freud argued that personality is divided into three structures The id is “ the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle”. The ego is “the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle”. The superego is “the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong”.

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Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory, continued The id, ego and superego are distributed across three layers of awareness The conscious – “material we are fully aware of at a particular time”. The preconscious – “material just below the surface of awareness”. The unconscious – “material well below the surface of conscious awareness, but that greatly influences behavior” (see Figure 2.2).

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Figure 2.2 Freud’s model of personality structure. Freud theorized that we have three levels of awareness: the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious. To dramatize the size of the unconscious, it has often been compared to the portion of an iceberg that lies beneath the water’s surface. Freud also divided personality structure into three components—id, ego, and superego—that operate according to different principles and exhibit different modes of thinking. In Freud’s model, the id is entirely unconscious, but the ego and superego operate at all three levels of awareness.

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Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory, continued Freud believed that behavior is the result of ongoing internal conflict among the id, ego, and superego. Conflicts stemming from sexual and aggressive urges are especially significant. Such conflicts arouse anxiety, so we use defense mechanisms – “largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from painful emotions such as anxiety and guilt”.

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15 Common Defense Mechanisms By JOHN M. GROHOL, PSY.D http://psychcentral.com/lib/2007/15-common-defense-mechanisms/ http://psychcentral.com/

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Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory, continued Personality development Freud believed that the basic elements of adult personality are in place by age five and result from the outcome of five psychosexual stages (see Figure 2.5). In each stage, children must cope with distinct immature sexual urges that influence adult personality. Fixation results if the child fails to move forward from one stage to another and is usually caused by excessive gratification, or frustration of needs at a particular stage.

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Figure 2.5 Freud’s stages of psychosexual development. Freud theorized that people evolve through the series of psychosexual stages summarized here. The manner in which certain key tasks and experiences are handled during each stage is thought to leave a lasting imprint on one’s adult personality.

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Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) Swiss psychiatrist and the founder of analytical psychology. Jung is considered the first modern psychiatrist to view the human psyche as "by nature religious" and make it the focus of exploration. Jung is one of the best known researchers in the field of dream analysis and symbolization. Many psychological concepts were first proposed by Jung, including the archetype, the collective unconscious, the complex, and synchronicity. A popular psychometric instrument, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), has been principally developed from Jung's theories.

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Psychodynamic Perspectives, continued Jung’s Analytical Psychology Jung also focused on the role of the unconscious in shaping personality. However, he argued that the unconscious is comprised of two layers The personal unconscious, which contains the same material as Freud’s unconscious layer, and The collective unconscious, which contains traces of memories, shared by the entire human race, inherited from our ancestors.

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Jung’s Analytical Psychology The collective unconscious does not contain memories of distinct, personal experiences. Rather, it contains archetypes – “emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning”. Jung was also the first to describe Introverted (inner-directed), and Extroverted (outer-directed) personality types.

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Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of Individual Psychology. In collaboration with Sigmund Freud, Adler was among the co-founders of the psychoanalytic movement. He was the first major figure to break away from psychoanalysis to form an independent school of psychotherapy and personality theory

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Psychodynamic Perspectives, continued Adler’s Individual Psychology Adler believed that the most important human drive is not sexuality, but our drive for superiority. Adler stated that we use compensation - “efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one’s abilities”. If we are unsuccessful, we may develop an inferiority complex – “exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacy”. Adler also believed that birth order may contribute to personality.

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Erik Erikson (15 June 1902 – 24 May 1994) developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings. He may be most famous for coining the phrase identity crisis. Although Erikson lacked even a bachelor's degree, he served as a professor of prominent institutions such as Harvard and Yale. Erikson believed that every human being goes through 8 stages across the lifespan to reach his or her full development. Erikson won a Pulitzer Prize and a U.S. National Book Award for his 1969 book Gandhi's Truth.

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Psychodynamic Perspectives, continued 4. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development Infant (Hope) – Basic Trust vs. Mistrust Toddler (Will) – Autonomy vs. Shame Preschooler (Purpose) – Initiative vs. Guilt School-Age Child (Competence) – Industry vs. Inferiority Adolescent (Fidelity) – Identity vs. Identity Diffusion Young Adult (Love) – Intimacy vs. Isolation Middle-aged Adult (Care) – Generativity vs. Self-absorption Older Adult (Wisdom) – Integrity vs. Despair FOR MORE INFO: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial.htm

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Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives Psychodynamic theory contributed many important ideas Unconscious forces may contribute to personality. Internal conflict may play a key role in psychological distress. Early childhood experiences can influence adult personality. People may rely on defense mechanisms to reduce unpleasant emotions.

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Evaluating Psychodynamic, continued Psychodynamic theory has also been criticized Poor testability – it is too vague to subject to scientific tests. Inadequate evidence – the theories depend too much on case studies of clients whose recollections may have been distorted to fit the theory. Sexism – the theories have a male-oriented bias and do not adequately address women’s issues.

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Contemporary Psychoanalysis Based on current psychoanalytic studies plus research in child development, memory, neurobiology and culture, contemporary psychoanalysis is an advanced method for making sense of ourselves and the world around us. Today, psychoanalysis is as strikingly different from Freudian analysis as modern physics is from the work of Newton. http://www.icpla.edu/contemporary.aspx

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The Behaviorists PAVLOV SKINNER BANDURA

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Albert Bandura (1925-- Bandura has made contributions to many fields of psychology, including social cognitive theory, therapy and personality psychology. He the originator of social learning theory and the theory of self-efficacy. B. F. Skinner (1904 -1990) Behaviorist, author, inventor, social philosopher and poet. In a 2002 survey, Skinner was listed as the most influential psychologist of the 20th century. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849 – 1936) Russian physiologist and mathematician who made significant contributions to psychology. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Behavioral Perspectives LEARNING OBJECTIVES Describe Pavlov’s classical conditioning and its contribution to understanding personality. Discuss how Skinner’s principles of operant conditioning can be applied to personality development. Describe Bandura’s social cognitive theory and his concept of self-efficacy. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of behavioral theories of personality.

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Behavioral Perspectives, continued Behaviorism - “is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study observable behavior”. Behavioral theorists view personality “as a collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations”. Focus on personality development, and how response tendencies are shaped by classical conditioning operant conditioning observational learning

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Behavioral Perspectives, continued Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning is “a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus” (see Figure 2.8). Classical conditioning may explain how people acquire particular emotional responses such as anxiety or phobias.

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Figure 2.8 The process of classical conditioning. The sequence of events in classical conditioning is outlined here As we encounter new examples of classical conditioning throughout the book, you will see diagrams like that shown in the fourth panel, which summarizes the process.

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Behavioral Perspectives, continued Skinner’s Operant Conditioning is “a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences”. Favorable consequences, called “reinforcers”, tend to cause organisms to repeat the behaviors that precede them, and Unfavorable consequences, called “punishers”, tend to discourage behaviors.

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Behavioral Perspectives, continued Positive reinforcement – “occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by a pleasant stimulus”. Negative reinforcement – “occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus” (see Figure 2.11). Punishment – “occurs when a response is weakened because it is followed by an unpleasant stimulus”.

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Figure 2.11 Positive and negative reinforcement in operant conditioning Positive reinforcement occurs when a response is followed by a favorable outcome, so that the response is strengthened. In negative reinforcement, the removal (symbolized here by the “No” sign) of an aversive stimulus serves as a reinforcer. Negative reinforcement produces the same result as positive reinforcement: The person’s tendency to emit the reinforced response is strengthened (the response becomes more frequent).

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Behavioral Perspectives, continued Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Observational learning - “occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models” (see Figure 2.12). This theory is unique in that it requires that we: pay attention to others’ behavior, understand the consequences that follow others’ behavior, and store this information in memory.

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Figure 2.12 Observational Learning. In observational learning, an observer attends to and stores a mental representation of a model’s behavior (for example, showing off) and its consequences (such as approval or disapproval from others). According to social cognitive theory, many of our characteristic responses are acquired through observation of others’ behavior.

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Bandura’s theory, continued Bandura stressed the importance of self-efficacy – “one’s belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes”. High self-efficacy is associated with confidence whereas low self-efficacy creates doubt in one’s abilities. Bandura believed that self-efficacy is one of the most important personality traits because it is tied to success in many endeavors and resistance to stress.

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Evaluating the Behavioral Perspectives Behavioral theory has been credited for suggesting that both personality and situational factors work together to shape behavior. However, this perspective has also been criticized Recently, behaviorism has given too much credence to the presence of cognitive influences. It relies too heavily on animal models. Fragmented view of personality.

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Humanistic Perspectives LEARNING OBJECTIVES Discuss humanism as a school of thought in psychology. Explain Rogers’s views on self-concept, development, and defensive behavior. Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and summarize his findings on self-actualizing persons. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of humanistic theories of personality.

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Humanistic Perspectives, continued Humanism – “a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their free will and their potential for personal growth”. This perspective is based on the following ideas: Humans have an innate drive toward personal growth. Humans exercise free will over their actions. Humans are largely rational beings driven by conscious, not unconscious, needs.

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Carl Rogers (1902 – 1987) Influential American psychologist, one of the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology. Rogers is widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research. The person-centered approach, his own unique approach to understanding personality and human relationships, found wide application in various domains such as psychotherapy and counseling. Towards the end of his life Rogers was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize for his work with national intergroup conflict in South Africa and Northern Ireland.

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Humanistic Perspectives, continued Rogers’s Person-Centered Theory Personality contains only one construct, the self, or self-concept – “a collection of beliefs about one’s own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior”. If our ideas about ourselves match our actual experiences, our self-concept is congruent with reality. However, if our ideas about ourselves do not match reality, this disparity is called incongruence, which undermines our well-being (see Figure 2.13).

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Figure 2.13 Rogers’s view of personality structure. In Rogers’s model, the self-concept is the only important structural construct. However, Rogers acknowledged that one’s self-concept may not jell with the realities of one’s actual experience—a condition called incongruence. Different people have varied amounts of incongruence between their self-concept and reality.

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Rogers’s Person-Centered Theory, continued Self-Concept and Development All humans have a need for affection, and experiences early in life are key. If parents make affection conditional (given only if the child’s behavior meets their expectations), children do not feel worthy of love and develop an incongruent self-concept. If parents give affection unconditionally, children feel worthy of love and develop congruent self-concepts.

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Abraham Harold Maslow (1908 – 1970) American professor of psychology who created Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He stressed the importance of focusing on the positive qualities in people, as opposed to treating them as a 'bag of symptoms’. He called his new discipline, "Humanistic Psychology.” Maslow believed that every person has a strong desire to realize his or her full potential, to reach a level of "self-actualization”. Maslow studied mentally healthy individuals instead of people with serious psychological issues. This informed his theory that people experience “peak experiences", high points in life when an individual is in harmony with self and surroundings.

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Humanistic Perspectives, continued Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualization Human motives are organized into a hierarchy of needs – “a systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused” (see Figure 2.15). Humans have an innate drive toward personal growth and the greatest need is the need for self-actualization – the fulfillment of one’s potential.

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Figure 2.15 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. According to Maslow, human needs are arranged in a hierarchy, and individuals must satisfy their basic needs first, before they progress to higher needs. In the diagram, higher levels in the pyramid represent progressively less basic needs. People progress upward in the hierarchy when lower needs are satisfied reasonably well, but they may regress back to lower levels if basic needs cease to be satisfied.

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Maslow’s Theory, continued Maslow called people with extremely healthy personalities “self-actualizing persons”. They have demonstrated significant personal growth and tend to share certain ideal characteristics, listed in Figure 2.16.

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Figure 2.16 Characteristics of self-actualizing people. Humanistic theorists emphasize psychological health instead of maladjustment. Maslow’s sketch of the self-actualizing person provides a provocative picture of the healthy personality.

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Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives Humanistic theory is credited with Identifying the self-concept as a key element of personality. Placing an emphasis on a more positive outlook on human behavior and personality. However, this perspective has also been criticized for Poor testability. An unrealistic view of human nature. Inadequate evidence.

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Biological Perspectives LEARNING OBJECTIVES Describe Eysenck’s views on personality structure and development. Summarize recent twin studies that support the idea that personality is largely inherited. Summarize evolutionary analyses of why certain personality traits appear to be important. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of biological theories of personality.

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Biological Perspectives, continued Eysenck’s Theory Eysenck viewed personality as a “hierarchy of traits” (see Figure 2.17). He placed special emphasis on biological differences that occur along the extraversion-introversion dimension. Introverts have higher levels of physiological arousal, causing them to avoid overly stimulating social situations. Extroverts have lower baseline levels of arousal and, thus, seek stimulation from social situations.

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Figure 2.17 Eysenck’s model of personality structure. Eysenck describes personality structure as a hierarchy of traits. In this scheme, a few higher-order traits (such as extraversion) determine a host of lower-order traits (such as sociability), which determine one’s habitual responses (such as going to lots of parties). From Eysenck, H.J. (1967). The biological basis of personality, p. 36. Springfield, IL: Charles, C. Thomas. Courtesy of Charles C. Thomas.

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Biological Perspectives, continued Recent Research in Behavioral Genetics A heritability ratio is “an estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance”. Results from twin studies suggest that the heritability of personality is close to 50%. Results also indicate that shared family environment has little effect on personality. Together, this research suggests that biology has a greater influence than environment on personality traits.

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Biological Perspectives, continued The Evolutionary Approach to Personality Evolutionary Psychology – “examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations”. David Buss (1991, 1995, 1997) maintains that the “Big Five” traits are present across a variety of cultures because they had significant adaptive value for humans.

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Evaluating Biological Perspectives Recent research has generally supported many of the assumptions of this perspective. However, the biological perspective has also been criticized on the following grounds: There are statistical problems with the estimation of hereditary influence. “Hindsight bias” may be present. There is no comprehensive biological theory of personality.

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Contemporary Empirical Approaches to Personality LEARNING OBJECTIVES Describe the personality trait of sensation-seeking. Summarize some of the correlates of high sensation-seeking. Explain the chief concepts and hypothesis of terror management theory. Describe how reminders of death influence people’s behavior.

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Sensation-Seeking: Life in the Fast Lane Sensation-seeking – “is a generalized preference for high or low levels of sensory stimulation”. Zuckerman (1991, 1996, 2008) believes this is a biologically based trait with four components Thrill- and adventure-seeking Attraction to unusual experiences Lack of inhibitions Easy susceptibility to boredom

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Sensation-Seeking, continued Is the sensation-seeking trait good for you? Pro: individuals who score high on the sensation-seeking trait have a higher tolerance for stress. Con: they also are more likely to engage in risk-taking behavior that may be harmful to their health.

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Essentials of Terror Management Theory Terror Management Theory is based on the following assumptions: Human cognition is unique in that it allows us to be aware of our own mortality. This creates great anxiety, which can be reduced by cultural worldviews that promote self-esteem and faith. These constructs give people a sense of order, context, and meaning. These, along with self-esteem, serve as buffers against the anxiety that death awareness creates.

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Terror Management Theory, continued Terror management theory has been applied as an explanation for many phenomena: Excessive materialism. Depressive disorders. Appreciation of art. Suppression of sexual urges. Inhibition of health-protective behaviors. Psychological discomfort about bodily processes.

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Terror Management Theory, continued Research shows that older individuals who have accepted the inevitability of death do not display or express anxiety about it. Instead, they are calm and accepting and better able to live in the moment. “DYING IS ABSOLUTELY SAFE” Ram Dass MORE RAM DASS QUOTES: http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/14525.Ram_Dass

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WHAT ABOUT ZOMBIES …

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DEAD GUY ALE A TOAST TO DEATH?

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Culture and Personality LEARNING OBJECTIVES Discuss whether the five-factor model has any relevance in non-Western cultures. Explain how researchers have found both cross-cultural similarities and disparities in personality. Summarize recent research on the accuracy of perceptions of national character.

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Culture and Personality, continued Links between culture and personality, a concept called national character, have been studied for decades in order to determine if certain traits are more prevalent in particular cultures. However, research has found little or no support for this view. Rather, people’s perceptions of national character seem to be rooted in inaccurate stereotypes.

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Assessing Your Personality LEARNING OBJECTIVES Explain the concepts of standardization, test norms, reliability, and validity. Discuss the value and the limitations of self-report inventories. Discuss the value and limitations of projective tests. Aware of the emerging role of the Internet in personality testing.

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Application: Assessing Your Personality Key Concepts in Psychological Testing A psychological test - “ a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behavior”. Standardization – “uniform procedures used to administer and score the test.” Norms – “provide information about where a score ranks in relation to other scores on the test”.

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Assessing Your Personality, continued Key Concepts, continued Reliability – “refers to the measurement consistency of the test”. Validity – “refers to the ability of the test to measure what it was designed to measure”.

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Assessing Your Personality, continued There are two main types of personality tests Self-Report Inventories “personality scales that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behavior”. A vast range of traits can be measured with these tests, but responses can be inaccurate.

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Assessing Your Personality, continued Common self-report inventories: The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), (Cattell, Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970), measures 16 basic “source traits” (see Figure 2.23). The NEO Inventory, (Costa & McCrae, 1985, 1992) is designed to measure the “Big Five” in research and clinical settings.

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Figure 2.23 The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Catell’s 16PF is designed to assess 16 basic dimensions of personality. The pairs of traits listed across from each other in the figure define the 16 factors measured by this self-report inventory. The profile shown is the average profile seen among a group of airline pilots who took the test. Adapted from Cattell, R.B. (1973, July). Personality pinned down. Psychology Today, 40-46. Reprinted by permission of Psychology Today Magazine. Copyright © 1973 Sussex Publishers, Inc.

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Assessing Your Personality, continued Projective Tests – individuals respond to ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal aspects of their personalities. It is more difficult for the respondent to deceive the tester, but reliability and validity are lower.

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Assessing Your Personality, continued Common projective tests The Rorschach test consists of a series of inkblot pictures. Respondents are asked what they see in the inkblots…

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B. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) consists of a series of pictures of various scenes. Respondents must tell a story that explains what is happening in the picture … Assessing Your Personality, continued

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Figure 2.24 The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). In taking the TAT, a respondent is asked to tell stories about scenes such as this one. The themes apparent in each story can be scored to provide insight about the respondent’s personality. From Murray, H. A. (1971). Thematic Apperception Test. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Copyright © 1943 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College, Copyright © 1971 by Henry A. Murray. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

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Assessing Your Personality, continued Personality Testing on the Internet: Self-report inventories are increasingly being administered online. They have the following advantages: Completed quickly at a reduced cost. Access for rural respondents who might not otherwise easily reach a psychologist. Efficient data collection. Capture new data such as answer changes and time taken on each item.

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The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myers-Briggs_Type_Indicator Measures psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions. These preferences were extrapolated from the theories proposed by Carl Jung published in his 1921 book Psychological Types. CPP Inc., the publisher of the MBTI instrument, calls it "the world's most widely used personality assessment”, with as many as two million assessments administered annually. (E) Extraversion (I) Introversion (S) Sensing (N) Intuition Thinking (F) Feeling (J) Judgement (P) Perception DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS = 16 BASIC TYPES

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More Info about the MBTI – including an online self test if you’re interested … http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/ http://www.personalitypathways.com/type_inventory.html http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes2.asp

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