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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Introduction Downtown Resident - Patrick Kennedy, AICP CNU IH-345

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX “We shape our buildings and afterwards they shape us.” Winston Churchill Speech to the House of Commons (Oct 28, 1943) on plans for rebuilding of the Chamber Elements

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He only got it partially right… But in doing so, he underscores inherent nature of cities as systems and the common misinterpretation of systems…we focus the most on the least important. Better stated, he might’ve said “we shape our cities, then they shape our behavior…” Or even better, “we shape our infrastructure, which then shapes our real estate market.” IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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Why are skylines roughly conical? If density and “reach” (interconnectivity) exist on a scale of 0-10, the most interconnected places will have the most density. Downtown highways reduced interconnectivity of downtown and displaced demand outwards, spilling across the landscape, i.e. sprawl IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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Why are skylines roughly conical? Interconnectivity is the release valve of demand. Buildings (supply) respond to that demand. In historic cities with height restrictions, the pent-up demand is forced outwards while driving up real estate prices in the core. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX London Spatial Integration Map

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However, the faster traffic moves and the bigger the road, the more of a barrier it becomes… The less connected, the less desirable, less safe, and less valuable it will be. Disconnection leads to disinvestment and ultimately decay. Pedestrians Cross Anywhere Crossings at Dedicated Locations No Crossings, Pedestrians Retreat IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Lemmon Ave Eg. Greenville ave/McKinney Ave. Main Street

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The problem is that our transportation networks focus only on speed, not sum connectivity… Highways, for the most part, have a net negative value through cities. The real estate market didn’t realize this and created too much supply (big buildings) along freeways…which have incrementally devolved into the land’s natural highest and best use…gas stations, strip centers, drive-thrus IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX L +/- Gx  = $ = p  Local Connectivity +/- Global/Regional Connectivity = Value = Density The Conventional wisdom is that traffic = value. But that is only partially true. The market responded by adding supply along new freeways. However, if all of that traffic is in cars, the quality of place is repulsive. People don’t like spending time there. Within cities, freeways act more as barrier than connector.

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Champs Elysees moves 84,000 cars per day. 635 moves 250,000. Champs Elysees also moves 500,000 pedestrians per day. In half the width, moves more than twice the people and has nearly 10 times the real estate value. Champs Elysees, Paris I-635

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They are undesirable to be near and you can’t walk to many destinations. Hence “world class” cities have worked to not throw the baby out with the bathwater, by preventing and/or removing highways from the cores of their cities. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX London Paris

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX “[President Eisenhower] went on to say that the matter of running Interstate routes through the congested parts of the cities was entirely against his original concept and wishes; that he never anticipated that the program would turn out this way . . . and that he was certainly not aware of any concept of using the program to build up an extensive intra-city route network as part of the program he sponsored.  He added that those who had not advised him that such was being done, and those who steered the program in such a direction, had not followed his wishes.” Notes from Meeting April 6th, 1960 Source: Eisenhower Presidential Library Archives Connections

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In downtown Dallas, we added the most supply (tall buildings) of square footage between the 1950’s and 1980’s… …at the same time we displaced demand outside of downtown and outside of Dallas proper and the area became more car-dependent because of the highways. The result, predictably, was empty towers. Median Dallas Household Income After taxes to pay for all that infrastructure: 29.85K Avg O&M cost per year/vehicle $8K 29.5/16 = 54.2% of take home pay goes to coerced car dependence $3.87 Billion per Year could stay in local economy if each household could give up 1 car IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Downtown Dallas in 1930

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Since, Dallas has been burdened with ever growing infrastructure and infrastructural burden with a stagnant population. The Federal Government pays 90% for new highways. Cities gladly took the free money and promise of “progress.” You don’t get much money for replacements/repairs and you get zero new economic benefits. We have a national $1.176 trillion 5-year infrastructure deficit. Limited route or mode choice, aka dependence. And TxDOT is $17 billion in debt. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Building infrastructure for automobile dominance has one result Places first become invaded, then abandoned Invaded City: When Neighborhood Scaled Centers like Henderson Ave, Greenville Ave, Bishop Arts are So Rare they become Regional Destinations lacking infrastructure to support Abandoned City: Typically after a place is invaded, it becomes so undesirable that it is then abandoned, like deep ellum or downtown. Because it is invaded by cars, the typical response is provision of more parking

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX We must ensure the city meets the needs of the people today. And is it highly adaptable for future generations. Does it reflect demographic shifts? What was “independence” to one generation might be the opposite to the next. Adaptability and resilience of cities comes from true transportation choice. However, freeway infrastructure restricts that The car to Baby Boomers To Millennials, the bike means independence from chauffeuring

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Downtown has grown, largely due to the increased connectivity brought on by DART But it hasn’t kept up with population projections, stagnating around 7,000 IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Crozier Tech would be a parking lot if it wasn’t for historic preservation. Elsewhere around the globe in cities where demand is higher, they rehab existing buildings because it is cheaper than tearing them down. 2006 projections

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The Most Basic Requirement for Cities is to provide Safety and Security Fatalities follow highways. Copenhagen has a goal of zero traffic fatalities in a year. Down from 5 in 2010. Chicago has implemented a similar goal for 2022. Pedestrian Fatalities per Year: NYC: 170 Dallas: 72 However, based on number of pedestrians, there is a 51.41x greater chance of a pedestrian being killed in Dallas. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX DFW area traffic fatalities, 2001-2009 Downtown Dallas & vicinity

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Walkable neighborhoods exist only in small, isolated pockets in Dallas bounded by arterials and freeways There is extreme pent-up demand for walkable housing. Currently, 3% in Dallas live in walkable neighborhoods, but 40% of the nation desires it and over 70% of those under-30. If a city wants to compete in the 21st century, it has to be walkable. One of these is not like the other… IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Disparate Walkable Islands of Dallas

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The problem we recognized with downtown planning efforts is that few attempt to alleviate the underlying problem: Demand is too low and land costs are too high. For the most part, downtown development happens via charity or subsidy. For downtown to truly take-off, we must light a fire through market-based strategies, not simply filling a bucket with buildings. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Underdeveloped land: surface parking & vacant land Underdeveloped land and tax exempt property

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Cities have existed throughout the history of civilization because they are profit-engines (economically and socially). Their purpose is the platform for social and economic exchange, bringing people together. Our goal with this plan is to flip the equation… Drive Demand higher while bringing down land prices through the supply of excess public right-of-way IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX 1945 Dallas Spatial Integration Map Present Day: highway networks devalued the center and dispersed value northward

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Working Against the Market Much of downtown sits underdeveloped because land costs are high, but demand for downtown is low Surface parking for suburban commuters is often the highest and best use. Without flipping this upside-down equation we must subsidize infill development for the increased tax base of density, But there is no guarantee that they will be successful. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Key Question: How do we reframe the market to empower it to deliver high quality urban development rather than begging and borrowing for “less bad” development? Diversity map of dallas – 1 dot = 25 people

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX “The purpose of transportation is to bring people and goods to places where they are needed, and to concentrate the greatest variety of goods and people within that limited area, in order to widen the possibility of choice [while minimizing necessary cost and energy of travel]. A good transportation system minimizes unnecessary transportation [and infrastructure]; and in any event, it offers change of speed and mode to fit a diversity of human purposes.” Lewis Mumford The City in History, 1961 Purpose

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If we wanted to take out a freeway, IH-345 makes the most sense Instead of full cost of replacement, use a fraction for demo, open up land for redevelopment, restitch the grid Open up the land for infill of high quality, walkable, urban development IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX By far the largest contiguous area of historic grid unbroken by freeways

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I-345 finished construction in 1973 (Elevated freeways have about a 40 year lifespan) 2000 – 19 cracks repaired 2004 – 87 cracks repaired 2010 – 381 repairs at 166 locations 2011 report suggests adding new columns to reinforce unstable assymetric column pattern Assymmetric column structure partially to blame due to spaghetti beneath it IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Study Area Total Study Area: 245 Acres Existing Underdeveloped Land: 118.29 acres Right-of-Way: 63.93 acres After reviewing every property in the area… Improvements: $19,906,970 Or $81,252.94/acre (Less intense than most sprawl) Yearly City Tax Revenue: $3,584,832.20

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Study Area Repositioned Existing Underdeveloped Land: 118.29 acres Recaptured Right-of-Way: 63.93 acres Total Developable Area: 186.44 acres

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Masterplan Repositioned Existing Underdeveloped Land: 118.29 acres Recaptured Right-of-Way: 63.93 acres Total Developable Area: 186.44 acres For a similar cost to Klyde Warren Deck Park ($60-65M) We can add several new parks as centerpieces of new neighborhoods, sell off 64 acres of land for development, add 17,097 new residential units, over 25,000 new residents, And over 10,000 jobs

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Emphasis on small, walkable block sizes, grid interconnectivity, & public spaces at critical convergence points. Preserves all existing buildings beyond warehouses Celebrates Ross Avenue Swiss Avenue to Arts District Link Can’t simply restitch grid – DART Trivium Air Rights & Wormholes Repositioned Important Properties, new front doors for: Latino Cultural Center Crozier Tech Spire Property Billingsley Property Deep Ellum Farmers Market residential Masterplan

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Total Study Area: 245 Acres Four TIFs cover portions of site Highway Demo: 1.395 miles Cost Approx. $55,000,000 (Re)Constructed Grid: Approx. 6.2 miles Cost Approx $11,270,000 Majority of which is covered in TIF The TIF districts help pay for the restoration of the grid 4 Existing TIF Districts Within Study Area Economic Development

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Economic Development: Absorption Study using land value and FAR based off local models IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX CityPlace: A few high-rises, but mostly mid-rise, verticall mix of uses Projecting 95% Build-out from 2015-2030: Projected New investment: $4,060,663,220 Projected Tax Revenue (Per Year): $110,043,972 One year of Tax Revenue from this plan builds a modern streetcar line from West End to Lower Greenville.

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Where does the traffic go? 160,000 vehicles/day Four Places: Regional, Local, Short-term, Long-term Regional traffic by-passing downtown anyways reroutes to Loop 12, 635, and 190 IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Amazing thing about complex adaptive systems… THEY ADAPT! Much of this traffic, you don’t want near downtown, polluting the air and causing undo congestion. If it’s not going TO downtown, It should stay OUT of downtown Westside Highway Example ‘75

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Where does the traffic go? Four Places: Regional, Local, Short-term, Long-term Macro- to Micro-destination movement filters onto local streets. Don’t fear traffic, diffuse it & discipline it. The grid disperses the bad (congestion) and concentrates the good (walkable centers and business clusters)… Current traffic planning ignores the grid IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Peak and Haskell are currently one-way couplets designed to carry upwards of 30,000 vehicles per day. Today, they carry on average 7-10,000. They are badly under capacity and could use the increased energy. Investors and Developers look at traffic counts, the movement and visibility of sites. Spin-off benefit of this plan is potential revitalization of peak/Haskell corridors Funnel that traffic into one highway, all you get is parking lots and drive-thrus The state of disrepair on Peak & Haskell. Near East Dallas Grid Is 252,000 cars per day Under its built capacity

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Where does the traffic go? Four Places: Regional, Local, Short-term, Long-term Increased capacity = INDUCED demand. New capacity fills within 10 years, VMT increases as highway capacity increases, and for every intra-city freeway a city loses 18% of its population. Reduced highway capacity = REDUCED Demand. 25% vehicular traffic just goes away. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Los Angeles has been periodically shutting the 405 freeway every weekend for reconstruction. Due to the reaction and awareness of the event and similar freeway closures like it, studies find that the traffic doesn’t simply re-route, but on average 25% just disappears onto different forms of transportation, carpools, or telecommuting Highway capacity reductions in LA have seen demand drops up to 80 miles away

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Where does the traffic go? Four Places: Regional, Local, Short-term, Long-term By creating housing closer to downtown and nearby amenities, combined with local transit options and complete streets, we’ll have 25,000 people moving back to downtown with increased transportation options and proximity. In terms of commuting, that’s 50,000 less highway trips per day. Repositioning infrastructure, reorients the housing market. New housing means increased stability and more local businesses. AzDOT study found less congestion around higher intensity land uses. Fighting “congestion” thru increased highway capacity, is fighting the nature of the city, to bring people together for social and economic exchange. The result is anti-city, Detroit. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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Case Studies – Where else? San Francisco - Embarcadero IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Damaged in 89 loma prieto earthquake Carried 100,000 cars per day Took down 1.2 miles Boulevard now carries 50,000 vehicles per day Trolley carries 20,000 per day Land value up 300% 75% increase in transit commute trips in the impact zone since 1990 54% increase in housing units in impact zone compared with 31% increase in the control zones The number of jobs increased 23% in the impact zone from 1990 – 2005 compared with a 5.5% increase in the control zones

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Case Studies – Where else? San Francisco – Central Expressway / Octavia Boulevard IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Damaged in 89 loma prieto earthquake .8 miles Carried 80,000 per day Replaced with boulevard, promenade, and park Now carries 52,000 per day

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Case Studies – Where else? Portland – Harbor West IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX By 2002: Property values had tripled, increasing faster than anywhere in city by 7% Crime has been reduced significantly Dropping 65% since 1990 versus 16% reduction citywide

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Case Studies – Where else? Milwaukee – Park East Freeway IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Cost of repairing the freeway was going to run over $100 million Demolishing only cost $25 million Carried 54,000 vehicles per day By 2010 census the area added 3400 new residents Boulevard now carries 18,600 vehicles per day

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Case Studies – Where else? Seoul - Chonggye IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX 8.5 mile section of elevated freeway buried a stream Cost $281 million or $33M per mile Number of vehicles entering the area decreased by 43% Air Quality: 21% less tiny airborn particulate matter No2 dropped 20% BETX dropped 25% overall and 65% in some areas Reduced summer temps along corridor 8 degrees 125,000 visitors per weekend day. 50,000 per weekday Added 113,000 new jobs along corridor Long-term benefits expected to approach $25 billion

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Case Studies – Where else? Vancouver – Never had them IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX City of Vancouver refused to allow freeways entering the city Maintained “tangential” non-disruptive relationship The much derided decision was made in the 1960s. Who is laughing now? Most Livable Cities Ranking: Economist’s Intelligence Unit: 3rd Mercer: 5th Monocle (tilts toward arts/culture): 15th

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Case Studies – Where else? NYC – West Side Highway – 53% of vehicular traffic disappeared after 1970s removal. Other cities currently in process of planning intra-city freeway removal from their downtown: Baltimore, New Orleans, Oklahoma City, Seattle… IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Dallas Freeways to scale with Paris’ innercity freeways

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX TxDOT is under-going their Environmental Impact Assessment Now. There are currently 9 options (costs haven’t been calculated yet) We Need a 10th option of a complete tear-out and reconstruction of the grid. Looking for a letter of support. Questions/Comments: 214-708-0680 Conclusion

Summary: Presentation given to Downtown Residents Council pursuant to 10th option for 345 feasibility study