It's All About the Heart - Senior Project Presentation

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Hello, my name is Sobia Arshad and I would like to welcome you to the Senior Project Presentation.

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To me, this quote is very meaningful because I am not prepared for any internship or job that I may get in the field of cardiology because of where I did my senior project internship. I was very lucky to do my internship with Dr. Daniel Morin (point him out) who is a Cardiologist/Electrophysiologist at Ochsner.

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Senior Project has really helped my prepare for my future by making it feel as if I am in a professional environment. Everyday, I would sit in that class and it would feel as if I am at work Also, I would have to speak with my peers in a proficient manner. I have to admit though, it was a bit difficult in the beginning because it was something new that the students as well as the teachers had to adjust to.

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I am really glad to have taken this class. I have learned so many new things, such as professional etiquette, new researching techniques, different writing styles, and the list goes on and on… This class has truly helped me mature

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Learning as much as I could about the heart and pacemakers Find out how pacemakers can be individualized to fit the patient’s needs After this class and high school, I hope to go on to college and major in biology

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As I mentioned earlier, I did my internship at Ochsner with Dr. Morin I remember on the first day of my internship, I learned that the heart had electricity. From that point on, I researched everyday about the heart because obviously, there was so much that I had to learn. I would like to thank Dr. Morin for all of his hard work for teaching me everything I needed to know about the heart and pacemakers Although I am undecided as to what particular field I will be going into, I know for sure that I will pursue a career in medicine

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The question that drove my research and my internship was What are common heart diseases and how can be used to help those conditions? This question has required me to do a lot of research and I have learned a numerous amount of new things as a result of this research.

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My thesis statement is Based on the diagnosis of specific heart conditions and information gathered from cardiac tests, pacemaker insertion can be individualized for the patient’s needs. I was really fortunate to intern at the place of my interest because I know that some of my classmates had a hard time finding an internship site.

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- These are some of the pictures that I took at my internship.

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The heart has four chambers, the left and right atria and the left and right ventricles. Every heartbeat begins in the right atrium at the sinoatrial (SA) node, which is known as the natural pacemaker of the body (Lerner 3167). Within this node are specialized cells that produce electricity in the heart called pacemaker cells. Electricity is produced by these cells when the charge changes from negative to positive. The right side of the heart, which includes the right atrium and right ventricle, receives the incoming blood from the body that is deoxygenated. When the right atrium is filled with blood, an electrical impulse is sent across the cells of the heart and causes the two atria to contract and squeeze the blood to the ventricles. The blood in the right ventricle is then sent to the lungs to become oxygenated and brought back to the left side of the heart, which includes the left atrium and left ventricle. The oxygenated blood is then pumped through the aorta to the rest of the body. The combined contractions of the atria and ventricles are known as the heartbeat (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute). As the electrical signal travels from the top to the bottom of the heart, it causes a contraction in a rhythmic fashion which causes the heart to pump. The rhythmic pumping of the blood can be measured by an electrocardiogram (ECG). Electrodes placed on the patient’s body are connected to an ink and needle that measures the intensity of the heart wave. The intensity of the heart wave determines the height of the ECG (Nobel Prize). For example, a higher intensity would cast a higher marking and a lower intensity would cast a lower marking.

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- Explain Atrial Flutter

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The regular heart rate of a person is sixty to one hundred beats per minute. Heart rates above or below this range are considered abnormal. Heart rates that are lower than the regular heart rate are considered bradycardia and heart rates that are higher are considered tachycardia (Longe 3164). For patients with an abnormally slow heart rate, a pacemaker can be used to regulate it. A pacemaker helps the heart beat at a normal pace by sending electrical impulses when needed. Inside the pacemaker is a pulse generator, which serves as the power source to supply electrical impulses (Up To Date for Patients). Also in the pulse generator is a small computer processor that sets the rate of the electrical impulses. A pacemaker battery usually lasts from seven to fifteen years depending on the number of leads and how much energy the pacemaker uses. These different configurations allow each pacemaker to be individualized.

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Demand pacemakers work with the heart and discharge an electrical signal only when the heart’s rate slows down or misses a beat. Fixed-rate pacemakers discharge an electrical signal at a single rate, disregarding the heart’s own electrical activity. Rate responsive pacemakers work with the body’s need to raise and lower the heart rate when needed (e.g., during exercise). Another way by which pacemakers differ is by how many wires, or leads, to which they are connected. A single chambered pacemaker has one lead which carries the electrical signal to and from either the left ventricle or the right atrium. A dual-chambered pacemaker has two leads which are connected to the right atrium and right ventricle. This configuration allows a heartbeat to more naturally resemble the activity of a normal heart. A triple-chambered pacemaker has one lead connected to the right atrium and the other two in the left and right ventricles. This kind of pacemaker is usually inserted in patients who may have cardiomyopathy, or a weakened heart muscle. A triple-chambered pacemaker may help improve blood flow by resynchronizing the ventricles and improving the contraction efficiency of the heart. Pacemakers are inserted into a patient’s body through a minimally invasive surgery done by a surgeon and a cardiologist (Up To Date for Patients).

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Ask, how many of you like to eat fast foods? You should eat fewer unhealthy meals especially when dining at restaurants, fast food, or eating take-out snacks. Read the nutrition label before buying food products to ensure that they are nutritional rather than full of empty calories. The patient should examine the history of heart disease on both sides of their family to discover its prevalence. Increase the intake of fruits and vegetables to get disease-fighting antioxidants and heart-healthy fiber. Achieve and maintain a healthy weight. This helps control high blood pressure which can often lead to cardiovascular diseases. Measure the waist to see if extra weight needs to be lost. Increase physical activity. This helps maintain an active lifestyle and also helps lower blood pressure. Set aside about ten minutes each day for a time-out. A time-out helps relieve stress and allows you to breathe easier. Think about reducing alcoholic consumption. Excess alcohol and other drugs can be bad for the heart and help increase risk of cardiovascular diseases.

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From the numerous amount of research that I have done, I have come to the conclusion that pacemakers can be individualized in many ways. I have learned many new research techniques that have helped me to expand my research to cover a variety of topics. Also, I have found many new resources from which I can gather information from. This internship experience has definitely widened my horizons and it has given me a lot to think about. This internship experience has truly been priceless. All of this information that I have researched and learned will definitely stick with me for the rest of my life. I could not have thought of a better class to be in for my senior year of high school. Thank you very much for taking the time to come to this panel presentation.

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Questions?

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By: Sobia Arshad It’s All About the Heart

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Introduction “It is better to be prepared for an opportunity and not have one, than to have one and not be prepared for it” - Whitney Young, Jr.

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Senior Project

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Senior Project

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Internship Experience

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Personal Drive What are common heart diseases and how can pacemakers be used to help those conditions?

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Thesis Statement Based on the diagnosis of specific heart conditions and information gathered from cardiac tests, pacemaker insertion can be individualized for the patient’s needs.

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Your Heart

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Atrial Flutter

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Pacemakers

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Different Types of Pacemakers Single-chambered Dual-chambered Triple-chambered Demand Fix-rate Rate-responsive

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Keeping your heart healthy

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Conclusion

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