JORDAN, Contest


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JORDAN By: DR. SALMA NASHEF. 12th June, 2009.

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The "Arab World" includes 22 countries in the Middle East and North Africa, with a population of 180 million.  Arabs are inhabitants of the Arab World who speak various dialects of the Arabic language and share the values and beliefs of the Arab culture. One of the Arab World. JORDAN is The National Flower Of Jordan: The Black Iris, Photographed By Salma Nashef. 2 Dr. Salma Nashef.

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Jordan is known officially as the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, located in the Southwest of Asia, spanning the southern part of Syria, down to the Gulf Of Aqaba. It shares borders with Syria to the north, Iraq to the north-east, the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Saudia Arabia to the east and south. It shares control of the Dead Sea with Israel, and the coastline of the Gulf of Aqaba with Israel, Saudia Arabia, and Egypt. Much of Jordan is covered by desert, particularly the Arabian Desert; however the north-western area, with the Jordan River. The capital city Amman is in the north-west. 3 Dr. Salma Nashef.

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The Map Of Jordan. 4 Dr. Salma Nashef.

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5 Dr. Salma Nashef. Kings of Jordan and political events King Abdullah I ruled Jordan after independence from Britain. After the assassination of King Abdullah I in 1951, his son King Talal ruled briefly. King Talal's major accomplishment was the Jordanian constitution. After his son Hussein reached 18, he ruled Jordan as king from 1953 to 1999, surviving a number of challenges to his rule, drawing on the loyalty of his military, and serving as a symbol of unity and stability for both the Bedouin-related and Palestinian communities in Jordan. King Hussein ended martial law in 1991 and legalized political parties in 1992. King Abdullah II succeeded his father Hussein following the latter's death in February 1999.

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6 Dr. Salma Nashef. Abdullah moved quickly to reaffirm Jordan's peace treaty with Israel and its relations with the United States. Abdullah, during the first year in power, refocused the government's agenda on economic reform. Jordan's continuing structural economic difficulties, burgeoning population, and more open political environment led to the emergence of a variety of political parties. While the King remains the ultimate authority in Jordan, the parliament plays an important role.

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Jordanian Head Of State King Abdullah ІІ “My first concern always is to develop the life for every person in this . country”. King Abdullah ІІ 7 Dr. Salma Nashef.

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The Flag Of Jordan. The flag symbolizes the Kingdom's roots in the Great Arab Revolt of 1916, as it is adapted from the revolt banner. The black, white and green bands represent the Arab Abbasid, Umayyad and Fatimid dynasties respectively, while the crimson triangle joining the bands represents the Hashemite dynasty. The seven-pointed Islamic star set in the center of the crimson triangle represents the seven verses of Surat Al-Fatiha, the first sura in the Holy Qura'n.       8 Dr. Salma Nashef.

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National Days Of Jordan 14th November 1935 Birth Of Late King Hussien. 25th May 1946 The Independence Day. 30th January 1962 King Abdullah’s Birthday. 7th February 1999, King Abdullah ascended the throne . Photographed by Salma Nashef 9 Dr. Salma Nashef.

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10 Dr. Salma Nashef. Religion. The population consists of 92 percent Sunni Muslims, 6 percent Christian (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek Catholics (Melkites) and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protistant), and 2 percent other (several small Shia Muslims and Druze populations). Christians made up 30% of the Jordanian population in 1950. However, Emigration to Europe, Canada and the United States has significantly decreased the relative ratio of the Christian population

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11 Dr. Salma Nashef. Climate. The major characteristic of the climate is the contrast between a very rainy season from November to March and semi dry weather for the rest of the year. With hot, dry, uniform summers and cool, freezing variable winters during which practically all of the precipitation occurs, the country has a Mediterranean climate. In general, the farther inland from the Mediterranean Sea a given part of the country lies, the greater are the seasonal contrasts in temperature and the less rainfall. Atmospheric Pressures during the summer months are relatively uniform, whereas the winter months bring a succession of marked low pressure areas and accompanying cold fronts. These cyclonic disturbances generally move eastward from over the Mediterranean Sea several times a month and result in sporadic precipitation.

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12 Dr. Salma Nashef. Touristic Places Of Jordan. Jerash Jerash lies on a plain surrounded by hilly wooded areas and fertile basins. Conquered by General Pompey in 63 BC, it came under Roman rule and was one of the ten great Roman cities, the Decapolis League.

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- Wadi Rum 13 Dr. Salma Nashef. This is a stupendous, timeless place, virtually untouched by humanity and its destructive forces. Here, it is the weather and winds that have carved the imposing, towering skyscrapers, so elegantly described by T.E. Lawrence as “vast, echoing and god-like”..

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Photographed by Salma Nashef 14 Dr. Salma Nashef. Dead Sea The Dead Sea is flanked by mountains to the east and the rolling hills of Jerusalem to the west, giving it an almost other-worldly beauty. Although sparsely populated and serenely quiet now, the area is believed to have been home to five Biblical cities: Sodom, Gomorrah, Adman, Zebouin and Zoar.

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- Aqaba With its wealth of other attractions, Jordan’s splendid Red Sea resort is often overlooked by modern-day visitors. But apart from being a delightful place for discerning holidaymakers, this is actually a great base from which to explore various places of interest in southern Jordan. 15 Dr. Salma Nashef.

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- Petra 16 Dr. Salma Nashef. The giant red mountains and vast mausoleums of a departed race have nothing in common with modern civilization, and ask nothing of it except to be appreciated at their true value - as one of the greatest wonders ever wrought by Nature and Man

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17 Dr. Salma Nashef. - Amman Due to the city’s modern-day prosperity and temperate climate, almost half of Jordan’s population is concentrated in the Amman area. The residential suburbs consist of mainly tree-lined street and avenues flanked by elegant, almost uniformly white houses, in accordance with a municipal law, which states that all buildings must be faced with local stone.

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18 Dr. Salma Nashef. References: - - - - * All the pictures are from the internet unless it is stated otherwise.

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Thank You. 19 Dr. Salma Nashef.