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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX “The purpose of transportation is to bring people and goods to places where they are needed, and to concentrate the greatest variety of goods and people within that limited area, in order to widen the possibility of choice [while minimizing necessary cost and energy of travel]. A good transportation system minimizes unnecessary transportation [and infrastructure]; and in any event, it offers change of speed and mode to fit a diversity of human purposes.” Lewis Mumford The City in History, 1961 Purpose of a city and its transportation system

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Why skylines roughly conical? IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX If we declare density to be a goal, we have to Understand where density comes from

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The pattern is supply meeting demand. 0: (Nature/Agricultural) 10: (Urban Core) IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX The most DEMAND for space is in areas that are the most connected…have the greatest “reach”… Sure it’s harder to hop in a car and drive 20 miles, but in 5 minute (walk/bike/bus/car/transit) you can reach MORE DESTINATIONS

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The pattern is supply meeting demand. Highly connected urban cores like DC and Paris have height restrictions… Demand is very high, but supply is limited, pushing towers to periphery

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The pattern is supply meeting demand. Also exists on a hierarchy, of local nodes of connectivity (Micro-Market), within regional gradient (Macro-Market) Where walkability (local connectivity/qualitative) meets regional/global network (quantitative). Walkability is the key determinant of local nodes. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX DC Orange Line – Rosslyn/Balston Corridor

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Adding supply without requisite demand… All the “global” connectivity you could ever want, but few walk three blocks from the Crescent. “Build it and they will come” is no guarantee of success. Kevin Costner gives awful real estate advice. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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Ironic Tragedy of Dallas… built the most supply (1950s to 1980s) IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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Ironic Tragedy of Dallas… built the most supply (1950s to 1980s) …at a time when we were stripping demand. Building highways through downtown, unlocking new land, further afield, effectively made everywhere they touched, equally, poorly connected…resulting in low demand over an increasingly large area. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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Real Estate (supply) is Responsive to Infrastructure (Demand) (The Market is the invisible hand, but infrastructure networks are the invisible arm…location, location, location still matters) Human Behavior is responsive to Infrastructure Design (We don’t drive because we love our cars more than anywhere else, we love them because we’re made dependent upon them.) But Infrastructure is responsive to policy (priority) (The invisible brain guiding the invisible arm?) logical relationship between movement and value has been replaced w/ disorder and cannibalization (The movement of high speed traffic itself is undesirable and sociofugal. High Streets replaced with Highways IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX So what are our priorities?

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To understand cities, put down those architecture books Instead, think of them as complex living systems IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX MYTHOLOGY OF THE “BILBAO EFFECT” ‘twas but a cherry on top of a larger foundation of PURPOSE and INTERCONNECTION

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX MYTHOLOGY OF THE “BILBAO EFFECT” ‘twas but a cherry on top of a larger foundation of PURPOSE and INTERCONNECTION

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If a city is composed of ELEMENTS (buildings, uses, parks), CONNECTIONS (socio-economic bonds, movement infrastructure) and PURPOSE What is the purpose? Social & Economic Exchange IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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Cities as Complex Systems Elements (Buildings, Businesses, Parks, etc.) Connections (infrastructure) Purpose (Reason for Existence) Improved Quality of Life thru social & Economic Exchange (Cities exist throughout course of civilization b/c they are engines of value creation) Moving Vehicular Traffic (The Dogma that trumps all other considerations) City (Generative) (Logic to Supply and Demand – most value in areas of highest “reach”) Anti-City (degenerative) (Inherent tension in market – all places are equal therefore profit margin is outside city on greenfield) Network Capacity (Multiply interconnected, empowers choice - Concentrates the good, disperses the bad) Corridor Capacity (Limited choice of route or mode – concentrates the bad, disperses the good) What is the Prime Directive?

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Urbanism is not the same as density But rather interconnectivity and opportunity. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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We see cities; Urbanism is invisible The things we see, the buildings and bridges are merely the supply to meet demand We have to make infrastructure networks that match our desire lines IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Inter-city vs Intra-city (inner-city)Highways Jane Jacobs wrote that you need big infrastructure for big destinations, small networks for small destinations.

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City Growth is dependent upon global connectivity Cities, local economies, emerged at crossroads, where a natural resource becomes connected to larger, global markets Increasingly, that resource is human capital, talent…which increasingly desires safe, walkable places, yielding social capital IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Airports Railroad Junctions Deep Water Ports

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Long trip infrastructure often disconnects more than it connects “World class” cities have worked to not throw the baby out with the bathwater, by preventing and/or removing highways from the cores of their cities. The Key Question is do as many citizens as possible still have maximized accessibility? Local + Global Connectivity? London Paris IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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Champs Elysees moves 84,000 cars per day. Part of a complex network. 635 moves 250,000. Traffic is funneled towards, providing little choice. Champs Elysees also moves 500,000 pedestrians per day. In half the width, moves more than twice the people and has 10 times the real estate value. Champs Elysees, Paris I-635 IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX How Mobile is your city center?

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OBJECTIVELY MEASURING CONNECTIVITY Interconnectivity is the release valve of demand. Foot traffic, safety, buildings and businesses (supply) respond to that demand. London Spatial Integration Map – Created by Space Syntax lmtd IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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Sprawl was logical outgrowth of policy Our goal with this plan is to flip the equation…Drive Demand higher while bringing down land prices through the supply of excess public right-of-way We have to move the market. To do so we must change the infrastructure network to favor infill, meet pent-up demand 1945 Dallas Spatial Integration Map: Present Day: highway networks devalued the center and dispersed value northward IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Ordered Disordered

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Distinguishing types of Networks: RETICULATED VS DENDRITIC Key Metric: intersection density, increases choice of route and mode ..improved safety, alternative transportation Increased choice, empowers user to make smart, real-time decisions Smarter users, smarter, more adaptable city.

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Disintegration of networks …leads to disinvestment and decay (despite presence of DART rail – rail tends to be disconnective as well) When places are poorly interconnected, social & economic exchange is stunted. Opportunity is elsewhere, thus, people that can leave, do.

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Disintegration of networks …leads to disinvestment and decay (despite presence of DART rail – rail tends to be disconnective as well) When places are poorly interconnected, social & economic exchange is stunted. Opportunity is elsewhere, thus, people that can leave, do.

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Disintegration of networks …leads to disinvestment and decay (despite presence of DART rail – rail tends to be disconnective as well) When places are poorly interconnected, social & economic exchange is stunted. Opportunity is elsewhere, thus, people that can leave, do.

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“We’ll hold the distinction of being the first nation in the history of the world that drove to the poor house in an automobile.” ~ Will Rogers IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Economic & Behavioral impact

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HIGHWAY CAPACITY TO CONGESTION COSTS Increased highway capacity actually increases cost of congestion for big cities IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Source: Todd Litman, VTPI

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METROPOLITAN HIGHWAY CAPACITY (LANE MILES) PER CAPITA Charting cities based on total population and total highway infrastructure yields a very strong, direct correlation Nearly all cities exist on this straight line. Have x amount of people, have y amount of infrastructure Then there are the severe outliers… IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX What about that Capacity? Which cities have too much?

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HIGHWAY LANE MILES TO POPULATION DENSITY Build More Roads, Population Disperses, Density Drops The more high-speed infrastructure we buy in favor of longer trips, the further everything gets from each other, Population density drops. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX More Highway Capacity = Lower Population density

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VMTS PER CAPACITY More roads = More Driving As population disperses, People are going to drive more. It has effectively been subsidized and engrained into the culture…as if we chose it because “we love our cars” IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX More Highways + Lower Density = Driving More …and since we love our cars, we’re eager to support highway expansion/construction projects to “reduce congestion.” …and the entropy continues…

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COMMUTING MODES: NON-VEHICULAR High rates of driving means: High cost of individual transportation, High cost to public sector for infrastructure, and various externalities IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX …and lower use for alternative transportation

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DETROIT FIGURE GROUND 1916-94 Fabric already began to erode when population reached zenith (1950s) Cities, like complex systems, relationship to surroundings is strongest based on proximity. Compete more with suburbs than they do other cities Detroit Detroit Metro 1950: 1.85M 3.3M 2010: 0.77M 4.3M IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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Travel is slower in NYC than Detroit, so Let’s build Detroit DOT policy would turn every place into Detroit, in pursuit of free flow of traffic IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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THE TRAFFIC IS JUST FINE THOUGH Fighting congestion is fighting the nature of the city, of people coming together. When we try to make everything a convenient destination to DRIVE-TO, nobody is left living there… IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX …Eventually the reason to go there fades away as well.

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Hwy lane miles per 100,000 – Kansas City: 147.74 Dallas: 96.38; Houston: 91.41 St. Louis: 67.54 Austin: 66.53 Detroit: 59.31; Portland: 38.84; Seattle: 37.27 Manhattan: 10.83 Stockholm: 13.72 Paris: 8.15; Barcelona: 5.38 Vancouver: 3.13 London: 2.37; CITY WITHIN THE REGION IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX …So? Infrastructure burden to Tax Base

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Places that Drive more…Spend More to do so IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Houston: 95% of trips by motor vehicle; 14% of metro GDP spent on transpo. Copenhagen: 54%/4%. The more a city drives, the more it wastes. Every trip is a punitive tax, simply to participate in the local economy. Is less commerce happening? No. People will always still meet their wants and needs. It’s the buildings, uses, and demand for proximity that relocalizes. The City adapts like a complex, living system

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX We Still Need Roads, It’s the Network Design that’s Problematic: ensures vehicle dependence, depresses land value, Removes billions from local economy, and ensures low densities that can’t afford to maintain the infrastructure. But, the most economically vibrant cities are the most congested (according to their metrics). Congestion is the nature of exchange Transportation Policy Logic: It’s difficult to drive fast in New York. It’s easy to drive fast in Detroit. So let’s build Detroit. Ruling by Fear…

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Fear of Congestion Congestion costs the country $120 billion each year. That seems like a big number. Costs of congestion per capita… Source: Todd Litman, VTPI …but what if we add up the costs of car dependence?

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$400 IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Defining Congestion There is good and bad kind, like cholesterol. Social and economic exchange is predicated on people coming together. When everybody is in cars funneled to certain arterials and highways, reducing modal and route choice, while degrading the quality of place, it is the bad kind. City is the platform, but we’re building Anti-City.

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Freedom of Choice: of Route, Mode, And Your $$ Walkable neighborhoods exist only in small, isolated pockets in Dallas bounded by arterials and freeways Median Dallas Household Income after taxes to pay for all that infrastructure: 29.85K Avg O&M cost per year/vehicle $8K 29.5/16 = 54.2% of take home pay goes to coerced car dependence $3.87 Billion per year could stay in local economy if half Dallas households could give up 1 car One of these is not like the other… IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Disparate Walkable Islands of Dallas

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Two Directions, Two Forms Madrid metropolitan area, same population as DFW, fits almost entirely within 635 IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Pop Quiz 2: Can you name the movie?

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From Leave-ability to Livability The advantages and implications of removing a highway in Dallas IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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Would we ever consider bulldozing all of this today? (Equivalent of 54 city blocks)

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if we wouldn’t destroy it, why not restore it? (What is our vision for the next 50 years?)

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1955 highway plan for dallas (There was no 345, but we were drunk on free federal money) IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX A 1960 plan actually proposed 75/45 as a context sensitive boulevard through downtown “Capacity” was met by the highly interconnected network of streets. Didn’t harm the Destination it was delivering people to.

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What it looks like today IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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Underdeveloped land and tax exempt property Intra-city highways reduced tax-base By dispersing population and economic activity… And added infrastructural burden

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I-345 finished construction in 1973 (Elevated freeways have about a 40 year lifespan) 2000 – 19 cracks repaired 2004 – 87 cracks repaired 2010 – 381 repairs at 166 locations 2011 report suggests adding new columns to reinforce unstable assymetric column pattern Assymmetric column structure partially to blame due to spaghetti beneath it IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Structural Instability

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A new vision (start over) Timing is right ih345 is 40 years old on a 40-year lifespan TxDOT preparing feasibility study for 9 options ranging from complete re-build to continual, on-going repair We must study a 10th option exploring costs AND benefits The current options have only costs and minimal new benefits No federal money for highway repairs/reconstructions there is however opportunities for projects pursuant towards walkable, affordable housing near job centers

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Study Area Total Study Area: 245 Acres Existing Underdeveloped Land: 118.29 acres Net Recaptured Right-of-Way: 63.93 acres After reviewing every property in the area… Existing Improvements: $19,906,970 Or $81,252.94/acre (Less intense than most sprawl) Yearly City Tax Revenue (2012): $3,584,832.20

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Economic Development Total Study Area: 245 Acres The presence of the highways creates for an upside down, downtown real estate market where land costs are too high (due to the expectation of towers/density) while demand is too low. By opening this land to development, we can add: 17,097 new residential units, over 25,000 new residents, And over 10,000 jobs

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Economic Development Total Study Area: 245 Acres Projecting 95% absorption at 15-year build-out: Projected New investment: $4,060,663,220 (204x greater) Projected Tax Revenue (Per Year): $110,043,972 (31x Greater) One year of Tax Revenue from this plan builds a modern streetcar line from West End to Lower Greenville AND Union Station to Exposition. Calculating at CityPlace FAR & LoMac/Crescent Land Value: A few high-rises, but mostly mid-rise, vertical mix of uses

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Economic Development Total Study Area: 245 Acres Highway Demo: 1.395 miles Cost Approx. $55,000,000 (Re)Constructed Grid: Approx. 6.2 miles Cost Approx $11,270,000 Majority of which is covered in TIF 4 Existing TIF Districts Within Study Area For similar cost to Public outlay for Klyde Warren Park, City can leverage 3-4 new parks as centerpieces of new privately built neighborhoods… And easily borrow enough for D2 line against it.

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Of all the highways around dfw, 345 leverages the most immediately available land for high intensity uses. Creating connections and strengthening east-west corridors from downtown to east dallas (ross, live oak, gaston, elm/main/commerce) Repositions 5000 acres of land in East Dallas between Downtown and White Rock Lake which has highest delta between existing and potential value for increased investment The Best “bones” in the city Economic Development

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Advanced Metrics: IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Total Study Area: 245 Acres Existing Intersections: 35 Intersections per square Mile: 92 Professor Norman Garrick, Intersection Density Study

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Advanced Metrics: IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Total Study Area: 245 Acres Existing Intersections: 35 Intersections per square Mile: 92 Proposed Intersections: 92 Proposed Intersections per Square Mile: 242

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Advanced Metrics: “all roads lead to…” IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Space Syntax: Raised overall integration value of study area approximately 11.5% With spikes at specific convergence points of Over 345% ** We thought this was exorbitant until we began researching the case studies…

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Advanced Metrics: “all roads lead to…” IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Potential Land Value/integration Heat Map Improved integration values Experienced over a mile away from the study area Red: >150% increase Orange: >50% increase Yellow: >25% increase Green: >10% increase Blue: >5% increase

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Absorption

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Need to capture more of the regional growth Dfw growth vs Dallas growth (2000 – 2010) DFW Metro grew by 1.21 million 5.16m to 6.37m 23.4% growth City of Dallas grew by 9,236 1.188m to 1.197m 0.8% growth Added fewest total people since 1880 when population jumped from 3,000 to 10,000 And less than 0.7% of regional population growth between 2000-2010

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Not Enough housing is in infill locations Only 17.2% of new housing 00-09 (444,872) was infill in all of dfw, 82.8% is greenfield development Boston 31.3%, Chicago 41.1%, LA 62.6%, Miami 42.5%, Milwaukee 28.2%, NY/nj 60.8%, Portland 44.3%, San Diego 38.2%, San Francisco/Oakland 56.2%, San Jose 79.7%, Seattle/Tacoma 39.8% (Of these only Portland and Dallas are trending down in infill development over last 5 years)

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Downtown is missing its growth goals 2006 study projected 13,500 residents by 2010. Latest numbers show ~7,400 Only achieved 15% of projected growth.

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Capturing Pent-up Demand 1.5% of Metroplex lives in walkable neighborhood, 4.5% of the City 40% of the country demands it, and 77% of the 80 million Millennials (ages: ~18-35) wish to live in walkable urban neighborhoods.

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Development is minimum of 5+ years away won’t compete w/ on-going developments instead, this is the following phase The effort is focused rather than scattershot

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Case Studies

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Case Studies – Where else? San Francisco - Embarcadero Damaged in 89 loma prieto earthquake Took down 1.2 miles Carried 100,000 cars per day Boulevard now carries 50,000 vehicles per day Trolley carries 20,000 per day Land value up 300% 75% increase in transit commute trips in the impact zone since 1990 54% increase in housing units in impact zone compared with 31% increase in the control zones The number of jobs increased 23% compared to 5.5% in city

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Case Studies – Where else? San Francisco – Central Expressway / Octavia Boulevard Damaged in 89 loma prieto earthquake .8 miles Carried 80-90,000 per day Replaced with boulevard, promenade, and park Before: Freeway depressed home values by $116,000 After: 1,000 new residential units added, ½ affordable When it closed 75% of vehicles Re-routed 25% used different means: 11% used city streets, 14% other modes

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Case Studies – Where else? Portland – Harbor West Replaced a 3-mile long riverfront highway with park and trail system By 2002: Property values had tripled, increasing faster than anywhere in city by 7% Crime has been reduced significantly Dropping 65% since 1990 versus 16% reduction citywide Experienced a drop in vehicular demand in the study area by 9.6%

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Case Studies – Where else? Milwaukee – Park East Freeway Cost of repairing the freeway was going to run over $100 million Demolition only cost $25 million Carried 54,000 vehicles per day By 2010 census the area added 3,400 new residents Boulevard now carries 18,600 vehicles per day City Owned Land has seen $700,000,000 in investment…However County owned Land (majority) has been too encumbered by political regulations, limiting overall impact

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Case Studies – Where else? Seoul - Cheonggye 8.5 mile section of elevated freeway buried a stream Cost $281 million or $33M per mile Number of vehicles entering the area decreased by 43% Air Quality: 21% less tiny airborne particulate matter No2 dropped 20% BETX dropped 25% overall and 65% in some areas Reduced summer temps along corridor 8 degrees 125,000 visitors per weekend day. 50,000 per weekday Added 113,000 new jobs along corridor Long-term benefits expected to approach $25 billion

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Case Studies – Where else? New York – West Side Highway After 1973 collapse, repairs would cost $88 million Afterwards, 53% of vehicular traffic in the area disappeared. Majority of traffic was found to be heading from New Jersey to New Jersey

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Case Studies – Where else? Vancouver – Never had them City of Vancouver refused to allow freeways entering the city Maintained “tangential” non-disruptive relationship Downtown has no freeways, but twice the vehicular capacity of a highway. Handles 70,000 cars/hour The much derided decision was made in the 1960s. Most Livable Cities Ranking: Economist’s Intelligence Unit: 3rd Mercer: 5th Monocle (tilts toward arts/culture): 15th

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Case Studies – Where else? Other cities currently in process of planning intra-city freeway removal from their downtown: Baltimore, Buffalo, New Orleans, Oklahoma City, Seattle New York City again… San Francisco again… IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Dallas Freeways to scale with Paris’ innercity freeways

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Traffic Mitigation

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When first closing the Central Freeway in San Francisco, CalTrans traffic planners warned gridlock would be: “historic” “Serious” “Horrendous” They were all wrong and couldn’t figure out why. Where does the traffic go?

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Reasons conventional transportation modeling always favors widening/ more capacity: Inertia, policy (thoroughfare plans prioritize more money to bigger roads), but also flaws in formulae: The 4 blind spots in transportation projections and planning: Fundamental Purpose – move cars? Or connect goods, people, skills, ideas, labor, etc.? Transportation planners focus on speed rather than expedience, ie a two block walk to the store is much worse than a 2-mile drive. Induced Demand – Studies show that more capacity brings more drivers. There is a 1:1 relationship between capacity and Vehicle Miles Travelled. Meaning every doubling of highway capacity has led to population driving double the distance over time. Reduced Demand via density/walkability - model by square footage, but we’ve found 20% reduction in vehicle trips in walkable suburban locations (legacy), 40% in more walkable urban locations (uptown) Rise of the mobile web – Internet reduces regional trips (online shopping, telecommuting), but won’t reduce simpler, easier, cheaper, more pleasant, walkable trips Dallas has some of the most highway capacity per capita of any major city. If more capacity could solve problem, it would’ve already. Instead, exasperates it.

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A 5th blind spot? Peak car and Millennials 16-24 year olds getting their driver’s license has dropped 18% over last 30 years, while VMTs for all Millennials has dropped 23% What was considered “independence” to one generation might be the opposite to the next IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Majority of traffic is not coming to or leaving downtown Only 1/4th of the traffic, or ~40,000 cars are exiting or entering from downtown adjacent access points Another 11,000 are using Cesar Chavez beneath, but these are either local trips or among the exit/entrance ramp counts… 3/4th of the traffic are regional trips moving from highway to highway.

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Where does the traffic go? 160,000 vehicles/day Four Places: Regional, Local, Short-term, Long-term Regional traffic by-passing downtown anyways reroutes to Loop 12, 635, and 190 IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Much of this traffic, you don’t want near downtown, polluting the air and causing undo congestion. If it’s not going TO downtown, It should stay OUT of downtown Westside Highway Example ‘75

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Where does the traffic go? Four Places: Regional, Local, Short-term, Long-term Macro- to Micro-destination movement filters onto local streets. Don’t fear traffic, diffuse it & discipline it. The grid disperses the bad (congestion) and concentrates the good (walkable centers and business clusters)… IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Peak and Haskell are currently one-way couplets designed to carry upwards of 44,000 vehicles per day. Today, they carry on average 7-10,000. They are badly under capacity and could use the increased energy. Investors and Developers look at traffic counts, the movement and visibility of sites. Spin-off benefit of this plan is potential revitalization of peak/Haskell corridors Funnel that traffic into one highway, all you get is parking lots and drive-thrus The state of disrepair on Peak & Haskell. Near East Dallas Grid Is 252,000 cars per day Under its built capacity

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Where does the traffic go? Four Places: Regional, Local, Short-term, Long-term Increased capacity = INDUCED demand. 10% new capacity sees immediate 4% increase in total demand, all 10% additional capacity fills within 10 years, VMT increases as highway capacity increases, and for every intra-city freeway a city loses 18% of its population. Reduced highway capacity = REDUCED Demand. 25% vehicular traffic just goes away. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Los Angeles has been periodically shutting the 405 freeway every weekend for reconstruction. Due to the reaction and awareness of the event and similar freeway closures like it, studies find that the traffic doesn’t simply re-route, but on average 25% just disappears onto different forms of transportation, carpools, or telecommuting Highway capacity reductions in LA have seen demand drops up to 80 miles away

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Where does the traffic go? Four Places: Regional, Local, Short-term, Long-term By creating housing closer to downtown and nearby amenities, combined with local transit options and complete streets, we’ll have 25,000 people moving back to downtown with increased transportation options and proximity. In terms of commuting, that’s 50,000 less highway trips per day. Repositioning infrastructure, reorients the housing market. New housing means increased stability and more local businesses. AzDOT study found less congestion around higher intensity land uses. Fighting “congestion” thru increased highway capacity, is fighting the nature of the city, to bring people together for social and economic exchange. The result is anti-city, Detroit. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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Questions for You: Should velocity govern how we define Mobility and therefore all transportation policy and design?

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Questions for You: Should the convenience of the occasional long trip trump that of the daily short trip?

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Questions for You: Should our goal be to move cars or instead, to move the market towards a more efficient and desirable city?

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Safety The Most Basic Requirement for Cities is to provide Safety and Security Fatalities follow high speed traffic. US Congressional District 30 is the 2nd deadliest for traffic fatalities nationwide, with 289. Copenhagen has a goal of zero traffic fatalities in a year. Down from 5 in 2010. Chicago has implemented a similar goal for 2022. Pedestrian Fatalities per Year: NYC: 170 Dallas: 72 However, based on number of pedestrians, there is a 51.41x greater chance of a pedestrian being killed in Dallas. IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX

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IH 345 Redevelopment Plan Dallas, TX Is that the kind of city we want?

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