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Editing is the way we organise a narrative in a film. Films are not shot chronologically, they are shot out of order and require editing to piece the narrative back together. Like other micro features it can lend meaning to the narrative, as well as characters and setting. What is editing? Why do it?

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Continuity Montage Types of editing

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Ensures the narrative of the film is continuous and unbroken. This preserves the narrative of the film and gives the impression of the narrative moving forwards in real time. This might involve some flashbacks but for the most part the narrative will continue on in the way an audience expects. Continuity

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3 elements are important when it comes to continuity editing. Space Time Rhythm These 3 elements are vital to a film being understood by an audience, and can easily confuse them if done incorrectly. Continuity

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The organisation of the shots can give the audience an idea of space, both geographically and within a room. What type of shot would we normally start a scene with? Why? ELS or WS/LS – These allow our setting and location to be seen by our audience so they are aware of the characters location. Space

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We can also use an editing technique called eye line matching to create an idea of space in a room. This can help an audience understand where characters are in a room, in relation to other characters. We also use the 180˚ rule to achieve this. Both of these are explained in the video below: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=27KCpefUMxU Space

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The editor also controls the organisation of time in the film. This is used to compress time and allow a day/month/year worth of narrative be compressed into 2 hours. This can also create different types of narrative either being linear or non-linear. Can you think of any examples of a linear or non-linear narrative? Time

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This can create pace, expectation and meaning for an audience. Leaving a beat at the end of a shot can add cinematic quality and can give a sense of closure to a scene. A fast rhythm and lots of edits can create a fast paced scene. Can you think of an example? A slow rhythm and few edits can create a slow paced scene. Can you think of an example? Rhythm

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What is a montage? The original montage comes from Battleship Potemkin. What kind of effect does this editing style have on an audience? Montage

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Montage can also be used to show a passage of time. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pFrMLRQIT_k Can you think of any other examples of montage editing? Montage

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Match on Action Shot-Reverse-Shot Cut Away’s Cross Cutting/Parallel Cutting Graphic Matching (Eye Line Matching + 180˚ rule are also editing techniques) Editing Techniques

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This creates a visual bridge for an audience and can mask a cut. A match on action essentially seamlessly continues the action from the previous shot. You can see an example of this in the clip below: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKS2d6TyiWo Match on Action

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This is a very common editing practice and is usually used in dialogue sequences. This is usually combined with the 180˚ rule and eye line matching to give the audience a sense of space. Why else would we use a SRS in a scene? What effect does the SRS have in this scene? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0xiCIMIwLY Shot-Reverse-Shot

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This is useful for engaging the audience and speeding up action. This technique literally ‘cuts away’ from the action on screen to something else in the scene that is relevant. For example, if a character rises from a desk and leaves the room, rather than having the camera track their movement we can cut away to the reaction of the other people in the room. We can then cut back to watch the character leave. Cut Away’s

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This is another way to stretch the passage of time. Using this technique we can cut between one event and another and creating a sense of simultaneous action, and in some cases dramatic irony. List the editing techniques used in this scene. What effect does the cross cutting have? Cross Cutting/Parallel Cutting

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This is used to compliment the rhythm of a scene can be used to mask, or in some cases draw attention to a cut. This creates a graphic connection between two images. This can be used through straight cuts, for example showing a series of slamming doors, but it can also be created through a dissolve. How is it used in the following scene? What effect does this have on the audience? Graphic Matching

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Cut Fade Up/Fade In Fade Down/Fade Out Wipe Dissolve Editing Transitions

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This is a cut Cut

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We literally cut to the next shot. Cut

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This is a fade in. Fade In/Fade Up

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This is usually used at the beginning of a scene to slowly introduce the next shot. Fade In/Fade Up

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This is a fade out/fade down Fade Out/Fade Down

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This is used to end a scene or a film. Fade Out/Fade Down

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This is a wipe Wipe

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This can be used to wipe from one scene to the next. It looks a bit old fashioned now, but it was used a lot in Star Wars to indicate a change from world to world. Wipe

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This is a dissolve. Dissolve

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This can be used to create a double image. It can be used in conjunction with Graphic Matching to link 2 shots together and create further meaning for an audience. Dissolve

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