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HUMAN MIGRATION. CAUSES Country of origin Emigrant Immigrant Destination Return

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WHY DO PEOPLE MIGRATE? There are a few causes for migration. Current migratory waves

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1. Economic: Improve standard of living Look for a job Escape poverty Mass media spread the state of standards of living in developed countries and this favours migration.

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2. Political: Wars and conflicts Persecution and harassment because of religion, political views or ethnicity. In this case, we are talking about refugees.

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3. Natural disasters: Floods Earthquakes Tsunamis Volcanic eruptions As a result of these natural disasters, many people lose their homes and they need to migrate.

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4. Migrant children: Minors mostly migrate to join their families. When parents or relatives migrate, they bring children with them. Teenagers and youngsters also migrate in search for new expectations and opportunities.

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TYPES OF MIGRATIONS Depending on the destination, we find: Domestic migrations: Within the home country International migrations: Crossing the border

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VOCABULARY IMMIGRANT: Someone who arrives in a new place in order to settle there. EMIGRANT: Someone who leaves a place in order to settle in a different one. The same person is both an emigrant and an immigrant; an emigrant in the place they leave and an immigrant in the host country.

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REMITTANCE: Money immigrants send to their home countries. MIGRATORY BALANCE: Difference between immigration and emigration in a specific time.

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MIGRATIONS In Spain, half the population live in a city, town or village different from the one they were born in. An important phenomenon is rural flight. It  is the migratory pattern of people from rural areas into urban areas.

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As most migrants are young, small villages lose part of their population, and only the elderly remain in rural areas.

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Besides changing their place of residence, migrants also need to adapt themselves to a different job. Most of them went on to take part in the secondary sector (industry) in a time when there was a high demand for unskilled labourers. This tendency came to an end in the 1970s.

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Commuting, that is, travel from the place of residence to the work or study place reaches millions of people on a daily basis, but these are not classed as migrations. However, they have an effect on traffic flow, infrastructures and means of transport.

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We find peak hours and off-peak hours as a consequence of commuting. The rush hour or peak hour is one of the periods of the day when most people are travelling to or from work or study place. This causes traffic jams. We call off-peak hours those when there is not as much traffic. Off-peak Off-peak Peak Peak

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From the 1970s, the big immigration destinations have lost their attractiveness, and they are even losing some population, as there is a tendency to move on to smaller cities. New technologies such as the internet have favoured this because people can work from their own home now (teleworkers).

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Migrations can be classified into temporary and definitive depending on how much they last.

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Temporary migrations A migrant leaves his / her residence place because of economic reasons, and then comes back. Migrants may leave in a certain season, when it is the time of harvesting, such as wine harvest, strawberry season or some other products which require many labourers at that time.

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In recent years, highly qualified executives and CEOs working for multinationals or politicians with a post in international organisms bring about relevant population displacements. These displacements may be weekly (only on weekdays), domestic or international.

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Definitive migrations The immigrant decides to stay in the host country. As they usually move on there with their families, they start anew and build up a new life there. In Spain, definitive migrations have led to a new redistributions of population. Wide areas of the plain have become depopulated because most of their previous inhabitants had moved on to economically dynamic areas. European Union Spain Passport

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Brain drain is not such a vast phenomenon, but it is also important. The countries who invest in research widely are enriched by the arrival of highly qualified people whereas their home countries will not retrieve the investment in their education.

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An increasing phenomenon In 2013, world migratory population went beyond 231 millions. Nowadays 2,3% of the world population live in a place other than their birthplace.

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A reflection of inequality Globalization has made world inequality more patent. The most developed countries have been accumulating wealth at a steady pace, and they still are, whereas developing countries are becoming poorer and poorer. Moreover, not only have they lost resources but they have also got into debt.

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Inequality is also self-evident within developing countries themselves. Some areas enjoy high standards of living whereas some others are blatantly struck by poverty. This favours migration. DEVELOPED COUNTRIES UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

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SOME CONCEPTS Globalization: The process that has led to an interconnection of countries in all aspects (economic, social, cultural and technological).

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Wetback: In the USA, immigrants who have crossed the frontier illegally are known as wetbacks. This term alluded originally to Mexican immigrants who had crossed River Bravo, but now it is used for all Hispanic immigrants who have entered the US illegally.

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Low-cost airlines: In return for cheap flight fares, they do not provide some services. They have been popular since de 1990s. Big airline companies have created low-cost subsidiaries that operate alongside them.

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New technology Awareness of inequality has become more blatant with the spread of the internet, mobile phones and social networks.

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Consumerism society is well-known by the inhabitants of developing countries. Thus, they feel the need to improve their standards of living, even if it takes moving on to a different country. Besides, technology also allows them to keep in touch with their home countries.

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Decreasing fares in air transport together with time-saving have contributed to the increase of human migration.

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Immigration and unemployment In developing countries, we may find high unemployment rates but also a high demand in jobs that is not met. Therefore, mostly immigrants land those jobs. In other words, there might be a big rate of unemployed university graduates and, at the same time, many job demands in housekeeping or restaurant and hotel trade. People queuing at an unemployment office

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Spain: From emigration to immigration Spain has evolved from being a country of emigrants to almost matching the US when it comes to percentages of immigration. Spain’s reaches up to 13,8% and the USA’s is about 14,3% according to the United Nations in 2013.

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From 1990 until 2010, immigration rates have increased relentlessly. From that year onwards, a decrease has taken place, as well as in other Mediterranean countries, as a result of the economic crisis.

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FORCED DISPLACEMENT “Mum, when I grow up, I’m going to buy you an armistice”.

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60 million displaced people around the world In 2014, according to UNHCR 60 million people were forcibly displaced, because of wars, persecutions, generalized violence or violation of human rights.

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Not everyone who is forced to leave their home crosses the border, many of them move about their own country. Sometimes, after living in refugee camps, they can come back home if the conditions that forced them to leave no longer exist.

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Refugee: An immigrant who has been forced to leave his / her home country due to persecutions, because their life is in danger. Some organisms try to protect them and search a new home for them.

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United Nations agency for refugees

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The stateless There is an estimate of 10 million people of stateless people. That is, people who do not have a recognized nationality, thus they do not have basic rights such as education or medical care. Nowhere people. The stateless of the world

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Each year 70000 children are born stateless. Some states do not recognize a nationality to children born from stateless parents, and this makes the situation perpetual. Abandoned children or those who have lost their families (mostly refugees) are examples of landless people, because their nationality cannot be verified. Every ten minutes, a stateless baby is born. Consequences: They can’t go to school. Adults cannot find a job or get married.

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Current issues Most immigrants from Africa and Asia choose the route of the Mediterranean sea to enter Europe. In 2014, 3,500 people died while they were travelling in small illegal dinghies.

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They bay of Bengal. Rohingya people are a Muslim minority in Myanmar, a country with a prevailing Buddhist majority. Myanmar authorities do not allow them to own lands. Besides, they refuse to recognize a nationality for them. As a result, these minorities have to leave the country in dilapidated crowded boats.

Summary: Human migration

Tags: migration social studies

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