James Earl Hamilton Marsden - Ancestors

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JAMES EARL HAMILTON MARSDEN

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ANCESTORS

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James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran’s ancestors in three generations James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran Father – James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton Early life James Hamilton was the son of James Hamilton of Cadzow, 5th Laird of Cadzow. He was born at Cadzow Castle, South Lanarkshire. He first appears on record on a charter of 1426, granting him the rights to the lands of Dalserf, which had been alienated by his father. Douglas connection Hamilton was intimately connected with the powerful House of Douglas: his mother was a daughter of the Douglas Lord of Dalkeith, and also through his marriage in 1439/1440 with Lady Euphemia Graham, the youthful widow of Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Douglas and daughter of Euphemia Stewart, Countess of Strathearn. Hamilton became stepfather to the young 6th Earl of Douglas, his brother David, both who would be murdered in November 1440 at the ‘Black Dinner’ at Edinburgh Castle in the presence of James II. Furthermore he was the stepfather of Margaret Douglas, known as the “Fair Maid of Galloway”, who was to marry her cousins William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas, and James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas.

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Paternal Grandfather – James Hamilton of Cadzow Sir James Hamilton of Cadzow, 5th Laird of Cadzow (b. bef. 1397 – d. c. 1440) was a Scottish nobleman and royal hostage. The son of Sir John Hamilton of Cadzow and his wife, Janet Douglas, James Hamilton is first attested to in 1397. In a writ of that year, his father Sir John Hamilton granted him the lands and privileges of Kinneil, in return for the superiority of all property that had been promised to him through his marriage after his attainment of majority. Hamilton next comes to notice in a Safe-conduct issued by Henry V of England to travel to Calthorpe Castle in Lincolnshire. In 1424, Hamilton was one of the Scottish Lords allowed passage to Durham to visit the captive James I of Scotland. In the same year, he was one of many Scots hostages given to the English as security for the payment of the ransom of the newly freed King of Scots. His estate was valued at 500 merks. Hamilton was confined first at Fotheringay Castle, then at Dover Castle. He appears to have been released by 1426. He was invested as a knight before 1430. Hamilton died not later than 1441, when his son is described as Lord of Cadzow. Paternity He was the son of Janet (or Jacoba) Douglas, daughter of Sir James Douglas, 1st Lord Dalkeith, but his paternity is uncertain. Douglas’s husband was Sir John Hamilton of Cadzow and it was long thought that he was James’s father. However DNA testingof Hamilton descendants in the Hamilton Surname DNA Project suggests that Sir John was not his biological father.The male-line descendants of James’ brother Walter and his uncle John are similar while the descendants of James are distinct, suggesting his biological father was not a Hamilton.

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Paternal Great-Grandfather: John Hamilton of Cadzow Sir John Hamilton of Cadzow, 4th Laird of Cadzow (b. bef. 1370 – d. c. 1402) was a Scottish nobleman and soldier. He succeeded his father, David Hamilton of Cadzow, no later than 1392, when he appears on a charter of Andrew Murray of Touchadam as Dominus de Cadzow. He was imprisoned, along with his brothers William and Andrew, in Norwich in 1396. Richard II of England ordered their release from the Mayor and bailies of that city on 29 June. It appears that their imprisonment was due to violations of the truce between the Kingdoms of England and Scotland. A John Hamilton, either his brother John Hamilton of Bardowie, or uncle John Hamilton of Fingalton, was released from the Tower of London on the same date. Hamilton and his uncle seem to have found themselves guests of the English again, when at a meeting of Border commissioners at Hawdenstank on 28 October 1398, the first point of business was the release of Hamilton of Cadzow, and Hamilton of Fingalton and others in their entourage. The Hamiltons had been caught at sea by English privateers, again in violation of the truce. The English were urged to release the ship and restore their goods to them, or alternatively pay suitable recompense. There is no record of Hamilton’s death, though it is possible that he was one of the prisoner fatalities at the Battle of Homildon Hill in 1402, where a Sir John Hamilton, elder, appears on a list of captives. Marriage and children John Hamilton married Janet or Jacoba Douglas, daughter of Sir James Douglas, 1st Lord Dalkeith, prior to 1388. It was thought that he had three sons by her: James Hamilton of Cadzow David Hamilton of Dalserf Walter Hamilton of Raploch However DNA testing of descendants of James and Walter in the Hamilton Surname DNA Project show that these two did not have the same father. The DNA project shows that the descendants of Walter and his uncle John Hamilton of Fingalton are related, which suggests that James’s biological father was not from the same family

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Paternal Great-grandmother: James Douglas, 1st Lord Dalkeith James Douglas, 1st Lord Dalkeith (born ca. 1356 and died before 22 May 1441) was a Scottish nobleman born in Dalkeith,Midlothian, Scotland to Sir James Douglas and Agnes Dunbar. He married Elizabeth (Princess) Stewart, daughter of King Robert III, about the year 1387. They had four children before she died: William, James, Henry, and Margaret. He later remarried Janet Borthwick. Paternal Grandmother: Janet Livingston of Callander Paternal Great-Grandfather:Sir Alexander Livingston of Callander Paternal Great-Grandmother: Mother – Mary Stewart, Countess of Arran Mary Stewart, Countess of Arran   Princess Mary, Countess of Arran (13 May 1453 – May 1488) was the eldest daughter of King James II of Scotland and Mary of Guelders. Her brother was KingJames III of Scotland. She married twice; firstly to Thomas Boyd, 1st Earl of Arran; secondly to James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton. It was through her children by her second husband that the Hamilton Earls of Arran and Stewart Lennoxes derived their claim to the Kingdom of Scotland.

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Maternal Grandfather – James II of Scotland James II of Scotland James II (16 October 1430 – 3 August 1460), who reigned as king of Scots from 1437 on, was the son of James I and Joan Beaufort. Nothing is known of his early life, but by his first birthday his only brother, Alexander, who was also older, had died, thus making James the heir apparent and Duke of Rothesay. Curiously enough, James held no other titles while Duke of Rothesay. On 21 February 1437, James I wasassassinated and the six-year-old Duke of Rothesay immediately succeeded him as James II. In 1449, nineteen-year-old James married fifteen-year-old Mary of Guelders, daughter of the Duke of Gelderland. She had numerous royal ancestors such as John II of France and John of Bohemia. She bore him seven children, six of whom survived into adulthood. Subsequently, the relations between Flanders and Scotland became better. James’s nickname, Fiery Face, referred to a conspicuous vermilion birthmarkon his face which appears to have been deemed by contemporaries an outward sign of a fiery temper. James was a politic, and singularly successful king. He was popular with the commoners, with whom, like most of the Stewarts, he socialized often, both in times of peace and war. His legislation has a markedly popular character. He does not appear to have inherited his father’s taste for literature, which was “inherited” by at least two of his sisters; but the foundation of the university of Glasgow during his reign, byBishop Turnbull, shows that he encouraged learning; and there are also traces of his endowments to St. Salvator’s, the new college of Archbishop Kennedy at St Andrews. He possessed much of his father’s restless energy. However, the manner of Douglas’s death leaves a stain on his reign.

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Maternal Great-Grandfather: James I of Scotland James I, King of Scots (July 1394 – 21 February 1437), was the youngest of three sons of King Robert III and Annabella Drummond and was probably born in late July 1394 in Dunfermline. By the time he was eight years of age both of his elder brothers were dead—Robert had died in infancy, but David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, died under suspicious circumstances in Falkland Castle while being detained by his uncle,Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany. Although parliament exonerated Albany, fears for James’s safety grew during the winter of 1405–6 and plans were made to send him to France. In February 1406, James, in the company of nobles loyal to King Robert III, clashed with those of the Earl of Douglas, forcing the prince to take temporary refuge on the Bass Rock in the Forth estuary. He remained there until mid-March, when he boarded a vessel bound for France, but English pirates captured the ship on 22 March and delivered James to Henry IV of England. A few days later, on 4 April Robert III died, and the 12 year-old uncrowned King of Scots began his 18-year detention. James was given a good education at the English court, where he developed respect for English methods of governance and for Henry V to the extent that he served in the English army against the French during 1420–1. The Duke of Albany’s son, Murdoch, held a prisoner in England following his capture in 1402, was traded for Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, in 1416. By the time James was ransomed in 1424, Murdoch had succeeded his father to the dukedom and the governorship of Scotland. In April 1424 James, accompanied by his wife Joan Beaufort, daughter of the Earl of Somerset, returned to Scotland. It was not altogether a popular re-entry to Scottish affairs, since James had fought on behalf of Henry V and at times against Scottish forces in France. Additionally, his £40,000 ransom meant increased taxes to cover the repayments and the detention of Scottish nobles as collateral. Despite this, James also held qualities that were admired. The contemporary Scotichronicon by Walter Bowerdescribed James as excelling at sport and appreciative of literature and music. Unlike his father and grandfather he did not take mistresses, but had many children by his consort, Queen Joan. The king had a strong desire to impose law and order on his subjects, but applied it selectively at times.

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Maternal Great-Grandmother: Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots Joan Beaufort (c. 1404 – 15 July 1445) was the Queen Consort of Scotland from 1424 to 1437 as the spouse of King James I of Scotland. During part of the minority of her sonJames II (from 1437 to 1439), she served as the Regent of Scotland Background and early life She was a daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, and Margaret Holland and half-niece of King Henry IV of England. Joan was named after her aunt, Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland. James of Scotland fell in love with her during his time as a prisoner in England (1406–1424). She is said to have been the inspiration for James’s famous long poem, The Kingis Quair, written in his captivity after he saw her from his window in the garden. The powerful Beauforts put pressure on Henry V to release him so they could get married. Queen Catherine also urged him to do so. Discussions were held, and it was decided that her dowry would be subtracted from his ransom.   Queen of Scotland On 2 February 1424 at Southwark Priory (now Southwark Cathedral), Joan married James I. They were feasted at Winchester Palace that year by her uncle Cardinal Henry Beaufort. She joined him on his return from captivity to Scotland that year. At his coronation atScone, when James received the allegiance of his Tenants-in-chief, he had them swear their allegiance to Joan as well, as if she was a co-monarch. As queen, she often pleaded with the king for those who might be executed. The royal couple had eight children, including the future James II, and Margaret of Scotland, spouse of Louis XI of France.

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Maternal Grandmother – Mary of Guelders Mary of Guelders (c. 1434 – 1 December 1463) was the Queen Consort of Scotland as the wife of King James II of Scotland. She served as Regent of Scotland from 1460 to 1463.   Background She was the daughter of Arnold, Duke of Guelders, and Catherine of Cleves, a great-aunt of Anne of Cleves. She was a great-niece of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.   Burgundian court Philip and his wife Isabella of Portugal at first planned to have Mary betrothed to Charles, Count of Maine, but her father could not pay the dowry. Mary stayed on at the Burgundian court, where Isabella frequently paid for her expenses. Mary attended Isabella’s daughter-in-law Catherine of France, while she herself was attended upon by ten people. The duke and duchess then started negotiations for a Scottish marriage. Philip promised to pay her dowry, while Isabella paid for her trousseau. William Crichton came to the Burgundian court to escort her back to Scotland Marriage and children She landed in Scotland in June 1449 and both nobles and the common people came to see her as she made her way to Holyrood Abbey. Mary married James II, King of Scots, at Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh on 3 July 1449. A sumptuous banquet was given, while the Scottish king gave her several presents. It had been agreed that any sons they might have would have no right to the duchy of Guelders. James and Mary had seven children together: An unnamed son. {Both born and died on 19 May 1450). James III of Scotland (1451–1488). Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany (c. 1454 – 1485). David Stewart, Earl of Moray (c. 1456 – 1457. He was created Earl of Moray on 12 February 1456. John Stewart, 1st Earl of Mar and Garioch (c. 1459 – 1479). Princess Margaret of Scotland. Married William Crichton, 3rd Lord Crichton of Auchingoul. She became the mother of Margaret Crichton and mother-in-law of George Leslie, 4th Earl of Rothes. Princess Mary of Scotland (May 1453-May 1488). Married first Thomas Boyd, 1st Earl of Arran and secondly James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton. She became the mother of James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran.

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Maternal Great-grandfather: Arnold, Duke of Guelders Arnold, Duke of Guelders   Arnold of Egmond (14 July 1410, Egmond-Binnen, North Holland – 23 February 1473,Grave) was Duke of Guelders, Count of Zutphen. He was son of John II of Egmond andMaria van Arkel. On 11 July 1423, Arnold of Egmond, who was still a boy in years, succeeded Duke Reinald IV. Arnold was the grandson of Reinald’s sister, Johanna. Although the Emperor Sigismund had invested the Duke of Berg with the duchy of Gelders, Arnold retained the confidence of the Estates by enlarging their privileges, and enjoyed the support of Duke Philip of Burgundy. Arnold was betrothed, and afterwards united in marriage toCatherine of Cleves née Valois, a niece of Philip of Burgundy. Subsequently, however, Duke Arnold fell out with his ally as to the succession to the see of Utrecht; whereupon Philip joined with the four chief towns of Guelders in the successful attempt of Arnold’s son Adolf to substitute his own for his father’s authority. When Charles the Bold became Duke of Burgundy in 1467, after rejecting a compromise, Adolph was thrown into prison. Arnold, against the will of the towns and the law of the land, pledged his duchy to Charles for 300,000 Rhenish florins (1471). Upon Arnold’s death two years later, Charles took possession of the duchy.

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Maternal Great-Grandmother: Catherine of Cleves (1417–1479) Catherine (25 May 1417 – 10 February 1479) was Duchess of Guelders. The Hours of Catherine of Cleves was commissioned for her. Family Catherine was the daughter of Adolph I, Duke of Cleves and Marie of Burgundy. She was a niece of Philip the Good.   Book of Hours The Hours of Catherine of Cleves was commissioned for her when she married Arnold, Duke of Guelders, on 26 January 1430. It shows her lineage, as well as herself in prayer. The hours had been lost for four hundred years before resurfacing in 1856. It is one of the most richly decorated books of its kind that is preserved.   Issue   Mary (c. 1431-1463), who became Queen of Scotland by marriage to James II William (born c. 1434), died young Margaret (c. 1436-1486, Simmern), married on 16 August 1454 to Frederick I, Count of Palatine-Simmern. Adolf (1438–1477) Catherine (1439 – 1496), Regent of Guelders in 1477–1481.

Summary: Hamilton was married firstly, c.1490, to Elizabeth Home, daughter of Alexander Home, 2nd Lord Home. The marriage was dissolved in 1506, when it was found that her first husband Thomas Hay, a son of John Hay, 1st Lord Hay of Yester, was still alive at the time of the wedding. In November 1516 Hamilton married Janet Bethune of Easter Wemyss, daughter of Sir David Bethune of Creich, and widow of Sir Robert Livingstone of Easter Wemyss, who had been killed in the Battle of Flodden Field. In November 1504 Hamilton had been granted a divorce from Elizabeth Home on the grounds that she had previously been married to Thomas Hay. Hay had apparently left the country and was thought to be dead when Hamilton married Home in or before 1490, but in fact he did not die until 1491 or later.

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