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Good afternoon Thanks My name is Today I will present Open Tidal farm In a nutshell

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Let me tell you a little bit about tidal turbine farms. Each farm can consist of up to 500 turbines. And each farm can produce anything between 10 to 500MW of power. This is enough to power a fairly large city. As you can see, these turbine looks like windmills. Now windmills are most efficient in areas with lots of wind – and likewise tidal turbines are most efficient in areas with high water velocities. The UK with its presence of many small islands has a funneling effect, resulting in one of the highest tide velocities in the world. Therefore, there is a large interest in tidal turbine farm development … Put the MW power into context Act like wind turbines => Rely on high speed tidal flow Typically placed where flow is funneled in ilands and we can take advantage of the high speed flow. Tidal Generation Limited (TGL), acquired by Alstom (before Rolls Royce) has demonstration of 500kW machine. Also builds 1MW turbine Marine Current Turbines Ltd: 10MW array of tidal stream turbines off the North West coast of Anglesey in 2015 Cost: £70 million

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OpenTidalFarm Layout optimisation for tidal turbine farms S. W. Funke, P. E. Farrell, M. D. Piggott, S. C. Kramer

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Why layout optimisation? 10 - 500 turbines. Complex layout constraints. Significant impact on the power production (20% - 80%). Estimated 27 MW Estimated 48 MW (75 % more)

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Current approaches Manual optimisation based on intuition. + Accurate flow models. - Extremely complex. Evolutionary based optimisation. + Automatically explores many layouts. + Supports layout constraints. Simplified flow models (often no device-flow interaction, idealistic wake model). Limited number of optimisation parameters.

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OpenTidalFarm Key idea Combine accurate flow model with extremely efficient optimisation algorithms. Advantages Full model accuracy throughout the optimisation. Very little user expertise required (automatic). Optimisation of 100s of turbines. How does it work?

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Optimisation loop Start with an initial turbine layout m0. For i = 0, 1, ... do: Predict the performance of layout mi by solving the shallow water equations. Calculate the sensitivity of the farm performance on the turbine positions by solving the adjoint shallow water equations. Improve positions mi+1 using this information. Finds optimal layout in < 200 model predictions (in contrast to 10.000 - 1.000.000 with evolutionary algorithms).

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Pentland Firth Map OpenTidalFarm applied to a 256 turbine farm in the Pentland Firth, Scotland. Model setup

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Layout optimisation

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Zoomed layout optimisation

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Flow model results Predicted flow speed Streamlines

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Current status and outlook Layout optimisation for 100s of turbines. Shallow water flow model. Positioning constraints. Shoreline and bathymetry. Turbine model based on power/thrust table. Financial model. Real-world tidal signal. Wake/Turbulence and 3D model.

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Pentland Firth with 128 turbines

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Time dependent flow model